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Book part
Publication date: 30 November 2018

Phillipa K. Chong

The role of everyday citizens in the production of knowledge has become central to the study of media sociology. This interest is fueled by the growth of information…

Abstract

The role of everyday citizens in the production of knowledge has become central to the study of media sociology. This interest is fueled by the growth of information communication technologies that have made it easier for amateurs to produce and disseminate content. The world of book reviewing – an exemplar of a field transformed by digitalization – concerns about the rise of amateurs manifests in the grievance that, “Nowadays, everyone’s a critic.” This chapter empirically investigates this idea by asking: Who is qualified to be a reviewer? The chapter draws on in-depth interviews with review editors, critics, and bloggers who have successfully crossed over to publish in some of the most important outlets in the English-publishing field. Analysis reveals that openness is central to ideas of what qualifies someone to be a book reviewer and how reviewers subsequently get work. Openness, however, is an example of noncertifiable skills, which are ascertained primarily through informal methods such as turning toward one’s personal and professional networks for recommendations from peers or relying on personal face-to-face encounters. A practical consequence of this selection criterion is that only reviewers who are known to book review editors in this specific way (i.e., their tastes and esthetic openness) are eligible candidates for professional review assignments. In this way, the commitment to openness as a professional value among book reviewers actually operates as a mechanism of closing their occupational boundaries.

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The M in CITAMS@30
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-669-3

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Book part
Publication date: 17 December 2005

Denise D. Bielby, Molly Moloney and Bob Q. Ngo

Television critics play a central role in the interpretation of cultural forms, objects, and productions. In contrast to critics in elite art worlds, the role and status…

Abstract

Television critics play a central role in the interpretation of cultural forms, objects, and productions. In contrast to critics in elite art worlds, the role and status of television critics are less institutionalized and less well understood. One indicator of the degree and status of the institutionalization of critics’ roles is the codification of evaluative criteria and critical practices. Our research examines whether critics in television draw upon a recognizable set of evaluation criteria, and if so, whether that repertoire of aesthetic concepts increasingly parallels criteria employed by critics in elite art worlds. Using multidimensional scaling to delineate television criticism over the last two decades, a period of considerable transformation in the industry, we find that television criticism attends to a core set of conventional criteria. These include appraisal of formal aesthetic elements, signaling increased attention to television as an art form, while retaining consideration of factors such as entertainment value that are of interest to audiences and business constituencies alike.

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Transformation in Cultural Industries
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-365-5

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Article
Publication date: 2 April 2021

Richmond Juvenile Ehwi, Lewis Abedi Asante and Emmanuel Kofi Gavu

In Ghana, the practice of landlords demanding that renters pay rent advance (RA) of between six months and five years is well noted. Surprisingly, renters appear divided…

Abstract

Purpose

In Ghana, the practice of landlords demanding that renters pay rent advance (RA) of between six months and five years is well noted. Surprisingly, renters appear divided into the benefits and drawbacks of the rent advance payment. Ahead of the 2020 general elections, the two leading political parties in Ghana promised to establish a rent assistance scheme to help renters working in the formal and informal sectors and earning regular incomes to pay their RA. This paper aims to scrutinize the differences in the demographic, employment and housing characteristics between the critics and non-critics of the RA payment in Ghana and the factors that predict the likelihood of being a critic of the RA system.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is exploratory and draws empirical data from surveys administered to 327 graduate renters from 13 regions in Ghana. It uses non-parametric and parametric tests, namely, Chi-square goodness-of-fit and T-test to explore these differences between both critics and non-critics of the RA.

Findings

There are statistically significant differences between critics and non-critics in terms of the association between their educational attainment on the one hand and their marital status, employment status and employment sector on the other hand. The research also reveals that monthly expenditures, number of bedrooms and RA period significantly predict the likelihood of being a critic of the RA payment or otherwise.

Practical implications

The study provides evidence which policymakers can draw upon to inform housing policy.

Originality/value

The study is the first to study the housing characteristics of graduate renters and to quantitatively distinguish between critics and non-critics of RA payment in Ghana.

Details

International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8270

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2020

Tianjie Deng

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the sales impact of different types of online word-of-mouth based on their source (user vs critic) and form (structured vs…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the sales impact of different types of online word-of-mouth based on their source (user vs critic) and form (structured vs unstructured).

Design/methodology/approach

The paper proposed a model by adopting the heuristic-systematic perspective of information processing and tested it using online movie reviews collected from Rotten Tomatoes. A unique dataset was constructed, which matched critic reviews and user reviews with metadata such as box-office sales and advertisement spending for 90 movies. Sentiment information from the textual contents of both user and critic reviews were text-mined and extracted. Data analyses were used to compare the box-office responsiveness of four types of reviews: user numeric ratings, user text reviews, critic numeric ratings and critic text reviews.

Findings

Critic reviews and user reviews influence sales through different forms: while user reviews impact sales through their aggregate numeric ratings, critic reviews exert their impact through textual narratives.

Practical implications

This study provides managerial implications to businesses on how to allocate their resources on different social media-related marketing strategies to maximize the economic value of online user-generated information.

Originality/value

The major contribution of this study is to extend the current understanding of the sales impact of online reviews to their textual aspect, as well as investigate how these textual narratives play different roles when offered by critics and users.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 44 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

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Article
Publication date: 23 March 2020

Robin M. Back, Bendegul Okumus and Asli D.A. Tasci

The purpose of the current study is to profile Orlando and Florida culinary fans and compare them to culinary critics on several factors, including sociodemographics…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the current study is to profile Orlando and Florida culinary fans and compare them to culinary critics on several factors, including sociodemographics, psychographics, and travel behavior characteristics, and to identify potential factors that explain visitors' tendency to promote or criticize the cuisine of a destination. The study also seeks to identify the image attributes that explain the likelihood to visit for culinary fans and critics.

Design/methodology/approach

Online survey responses from 4,082 participants were analyzed using Qualtrics for survey design and Amazon's Mechanical Turk for data collection.

Findings

Demographic differences between culinary fans and critics were identified and significant relationships between perceptions of a destination's cuisine and various elements of the visitor experience were found.

Research limitations/implications

The current study extends the literature on the characteristics of culinary tourists by showing a significant relationship between perceptions of a destination's cuisine and various elements of the visitor experience, such as destination image, satisfaction, number of past trips, and revisit intentions. Future studies should look at a greater number of distinct and geographically diverse destinations to test the generalizability of the current study's findings.

Practical implications

The results of this study provide implication for destination marketers in general and for those of Orlando and Florida in particular, especially in using cuisine as a potential core offering rather than a peripheral tourism product.

Originality/value

This study is believed to be the first to compare culinary fans and culinary critics, thereby extending the literature and demonstrating several differences between the two groups.

Details

International Hospitality Review, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-8142

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Book part
Publication date: 9 November 2020

Paola Cillo, Joseph C. Nunes, Emanuela Prandelli and Irene Scopelliti

Mastering aesthetics is a precious source of competitive advantage in creative industries. In fashion, innovation is reflected by how and how much styles change. Elite…

Abstract

Mastering aesthetics is a precious source of competitive advantage in creative industries. In fashion, innovation is reflected by how and how much styles change. Elite designers claim to be the only endogenous force shaping fashion innovation season by season. Yet, each season, fashion critics vet the new collections these designers introduce, assessing what is original as opposed to reworked and uninspired, in this way playing a fundamental role as gatekeepers in setting taste within the industry. In this research, we document how stylistic innovation, vis-à-vis the styles premier design houses introduced each season, is impacted, among the others, by the specific exogenous force of critics' assessments of designers' past work. Our data, which include 61 measures detailing the styles introduced by 38 prestigious Italian and French design houses over a nine-year period, suggest designers move further away from styles reviewed less favourably while adhering more closely to styles reviewed more positively. Additionally, the styles a designer introduces are shown to depend on critical assessments of competing designers' styles, revealing how design houses attend to each other's work. This work documents the strong correlation between style dynamics and critics' feedback. It also has important implications for any company trying to find a balance between independence and conformity in setting its own unique positioning into the market.

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Aesthetics and Style in Strategy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-236-9

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Book part
Publication date: 12 November 2018

Vaughn Schmutz, Sarah H. Pollock and Jordan S. Bendickson

Previous research suggests that women receive less critical attention and acclaim in popular music. The authors expect that gender differences in the amount and content of…

Abstract

Previous research suggests that women receive less critical attention and acclaim in popular music. The authors expect that gender differences in the amount and content of media discourse about popular musicians occur because music critics draw on the cultural frame of gender as a primary tool for critical evaluation. In order to explore the role of gender as a frame through which aesthetic content is evaluated, the authors conduct detailed content analyses of 53 critical reviews of two versions of the popular album 1989 – the original released by Taylor Swift in 2014 and a cover version released by Ryan Adams less than a year later. Despite Swift’s greater popularity and prominence, the authors find that reviews of her version of the album are more likely to focus on her gender and sexuality; less likely to describe her as emotionally authentic; and more likely to use popular aesthetic criteria in evaluating her music. By contrast, Ryan Adams was more likely to be seen by critics as emotionally authentic and to be described using high art aesthetic criteria and intellectualizing discourse. The authors address the implications of the findings for persistent gender gaps in many artistic fields.

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Gender and the Media: Women’s Places
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-329-4

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Article
Publication date: 20 April 2010

Jin‐Cheon Na, Tun Thura Thet and Christopher S.G. Khoo

This paper aims to investigate the characteristics and differences in sentiment expression in movie review documents from four online opinion genres – blog postings…

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1607

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the characteristics and differences in sentiment expression in movie review documents from four online opinion genres – blog postings, discussion board threads, user reviews, and critic reviews.

Design/methodology/approach

A collection of movie review documents was harvested from the four types of web sources, and a sample of 520 movie reviews were analysed to compare the content and textual characteristics across the four genres. The analysis focused on document and sentence length, part‐of‐speech distribution, vocabulary, aspects of movies discussed, star ratings used and multimedia content in the reviews. The study also identified frequently occurring positive and negative terms in the different genres, as well as the pattern of responses in discussion threads.

Findings

Critic reviews and blog postings are longer than user reviews and discussion threads, and contain longer sentences. Critic reviews and blogs contain more nouns and prepositions, whereas discussion board and user reviews have more verbs and adverbs. Critic reviews have the largest vocabulary and also the highest proportion of unique terms not found in the other genres. The most informative sentiment words in each genre are provided in the paper. With regard to content, critic reviews are more comprehensive in coverage, and discuss the movie director much more often than the other genres. User reviews discuss the scene aspects (including action and visual effects) more often than the other genres, while blogs tend to talk about the cast, and discuss the music and sound slightly more often.

Research limitations/implications

The study only analysed movie review documents. Similar content and text analysis studies can be carried out in other domains, such as commercial product reviews, celebrity reviews, company reviews and political opinions to compare the results.

Originality/value

The main contribution of the study is the sentiment content analysis results across genres, which show the similarities and differences in content and textual characteristics in the four online opinion genres. The insights will be useful in designing automatic sentiment summarisation methods for multiple online genres.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2005

Philippe Barbe and François Durrieu

As far as lasting of the great Bordeaux wines is concerned, each critic needs to identify his specificity if he is to maintain or increase market share. History shows…

Abstract

As far as lasting of the great Bordeaux wines is concerned, each critic needs to identify his specificity if he is to maintain or increase market share. History shows, however, that each new critic has had to position himself in relation to the market leader, namely the American wine critic Robert Parker. The question of whether or not the differences in evaluation are real or simply part of the critics’ grading strategy can thus be raised. To illustrate this we shall examine the results of Dubourdieu and Parker's evaluation.

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International Journal of Wine Marketing, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-7541

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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2016

Jennifer Wiggins Johnson, Stephen B. Preece and Chanho Song

Online communications have made critical reviews widely accessible, enabled a broader range of opinions to be heard, and led to increased critical dialogue among…

Abstract

Purpose

Online communications have made critical reviews widely accessible, enabled a broader range of opinions to be heard, and led to increased critical dialogue among audiences. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how arts organisations’ strategies for engaging with critique have evolved in the digital age.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses a content analysis of the online presence of 45 organisations. Based on the results, the organisations are classified into three different strategic approaches. The organisations’ publicly available financial data are analysed to explain differences in the choice of strategic approach, and specific cases are used to better understand their strategic execution.

Findings

Organisations are engaging in three primary strategic responses: ignoring outside critique, presenting only positive reviews and ignoring or “spinning” negative reviews, and presenting all critique regardless of source or valence. The financial analysis suggests that the choice of strategic response varies across organisations of different sizes and approaches to advertising. Case analyses suggest that the strategy of presenting all critique has the potential to deepen audience engagement and value.

Originality/value

Previous research on critical reviews has focused on traditional media and the importance of the professional critic. This paper is the first to examine strategies for coping with the complex, multiple-voiced nature of critique in the current online environment. The findings suggest questions for future research and provide initial guidelines for organisations in determining a strategic approach to responding to critique.

Details

Arts and the Market, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4945

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