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Article
Publication date: 21 May 2020

Bendegul Okumus

This paper aims to critically review current research on food tourism and discuss future research directions in this field of inquiry.

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to critically review current research on food tourism and discuss future research directions in this field of inquiry.

Design/methodology/approach

This study reviewed and synthesized current food tourism research.

Findings

The findings suggest that food tourism has made considerable progress over the past two decades in both academia and its own industry. Key research themes in food tourism include offering unique food experiences, authenticity through food experiences, using food in destination marketing and focusing on food tourism and sustainability together.

Research limitations/implications

This study identifies and discusses key themes on past, current and future food tourism research. Previous studies have focused on analyzing the nature and extent of linkages between the food and tourism sectors. Future studies should focus on designing and co-creating of unique local food tourism experiences, development of new culinary events, culinary medicine, establishment of stronger stakeholder engagements in food tourism development and the role of social media in promoting food tourism experiences.

Practical implications

The study offers practical implications for industry practitioners and policymakers.

Originality/value

This paper provides a clear perspective on future developments of food tourism research. In particular, future research studies should follow more a multidisciplinary approach and use both qualitative and quantitative research methods.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 76 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2021

Delly Mahachi Chatibura

The purpose of this study is to review the critical success factors (CSFs) of street food destinations, given the limited attention awarded to such research in the food

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to review the critical success factors (CSFs) of street food destinations, given the limited attention awarded to such research in the food and beverage sector.

Design/methodology/approach

An interpretivist approach was used to merge CSFs from street vending and culinary tourism perspectives, to develop a draft framework for analysing CSFs for street food destinations. In total, 64 cities that appeared in the first 20 webpage results of a Google search, using 4 keywords, formed the population. A purposive sample of seven destinations (Bangkok, Marrakesh, Mexico City, Istanbul, Hong Kong, Portland and Singapore City) was used. A content analysis method was used to review webpages, journal articles and government reports of the destinations, based on the modified list of CSFs.

Findings

The availability of diverse street food resources and cultures, coupled with rich historic city cores that sustain street food vending, in some destinations, are very important CSFs. The presence and extent of regulatory enforcement were also key in others. Empirical research is, however, required to corroborate the draft framework to create a body of knowledge for further research in the field.

Originality/value

The study examines how leading street food destinations have instituted the CSFs required for street food provision.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

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Book part
Publication date: 5 December 2018

Lisa-Mari Coughlan and Melville Saayman

Tourism is a key source of income to South Africa. Food and beverages is a key part of tourism and the literature reveals that tourists spend up to a quarter of their…

Abstract

Tourism is a key source of income to South Africa. Food and beverages is a key part of tourism and the literature reveals that tourists spend up to a quarter of their budget on cuisine. South Africa has, however, been rated as the least-prepared culinary travel destination and the travel destination with the greatest potential for growth. Therefore, a segmentation taxonomy based on culinary preferences of international tourists to South Africa is put forth which can be used to prepare South Africa as a culinary travel destination. The 627 international tourists surveyed were divided into five segments with the use of factor analyses, t-tests, Spearman rank correlations and analysis of variance. The segments were named conservationists, experience seekers, devotees, explorers and socialisers (CEDES taxonomy). Multiple results and implications are discussed in the paper.

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Book part
Publication date: 26 August 2020

Aleksandra Nikolić, Guna Salputra, Mirza Uzunović and Alen Mujčinović

In the last 3 decades, the rapid growth of tourism activities is evident. Globally, tourism is becoming of prime importance for the development of local economies. A…

Abstract

In the last 3 decades, the rapid growth of tourism activities is evident. Globally, tourism is becoming of prime importance for the development of local economies. A similar trend is observed in the Balkan region and in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The total contribution of tourism in GDP of Bosnia and Herzegovina growth is evident, from 2.0% in 2011 to 2.6% in 2017, with bright forecasts from United Nations World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO) which predicted the 3.4% share of tourism in national GDP by 2028. With aim to indicate the development potential of the touristic sector, gastro tourism sector was ‘screened’ through questionnaires with tourists (n = 245) and with destination management offices (n = 7). This approach should provide insights into stakeholder's capability to understand and react to new challenges that brings gastro tourism; insights into the current gastro offer; and insight into profile, motives and overall tourist's satisfaction. Main findings of the study show that the stakeholders' activities and understandings are not enough to provide a unique identity to the sector. On the other hand, tourists' profile and expectations rise with level and type of information they gather, and this study shows that tourists' expectations are more influenced by the age, education and gender of the tourists', while their satisfaction depends on the working status and monthly income. Future research, which is also the main implication of this study, should follow three main avenues: (1) how to build efficient governance mechanism to ensure development of strong stakeholder network able to create, execute and reinvent shared vision and strategic plan; (2) building knowledge and understanding of local culinary system and practice as step ahead in process of territory interpretation and transformation into the valuable intangible touristic resources; and (3) gastro tourist needs, wishes and ways to engage tourist.

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Book part
Publication date: 27 September 2021

Robert Bowen

This chapter investigates how food microenterprises leverage cultural representations to develop the tourism offering of a place. Food tourism is considered to provide…

Abstract

This chapter investigates how food microenterprises leverage cultural representations to develop the tourism offering of a place. Food tourism is considered to provide visitors with cultural experiences of place. In a homogenized world, authentic food characteristics enable tourists to have unique food experiences according to the place. This case study considers the way in which food microenterprises in Wales and Brittany leverage characteristics of place to develop food tourism experiences. Following a mixed methods design, findings show differences in the food tourism offering of Wales and Brittany, and differing levels of awareness of each food destination. Findings also point to the need for clear food tourism strategies, to enable places to fully exploit their unique resources in the food tourism offering.

Details

Tourism Microentrepreneurship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-463-2

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Article
Publication date: 29 January 2021

Greg Richards

This paper aims to analyse the development of research on gastronomic tourism experiences and chart its relationship to foundational management and marketing literature as…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyse the development of research on gastronomic tourism experiences and chart its relationship to foundational management and marketing literature as well as the tourism and hospitality field.

Design/methodology/approach

The author develops a literature review of papers in specialist journals and the SCOPUS database to identify major research themes and the evolution of experience and gastronomic experience research.

Findings

Gastronomy is an increasingly important element of tourism experiences. Gastronomic experience research in tourism mirrors the evolution in management and marketing theory from rational information processing approaches to emotional and hedonistic approaches and analysis of relationality and co-creation. The paper sketches a development from Experience 1.0 (producer-orientated) to Experience 2.0 (co-creation) to Experience 3.0 (foodscapes) in gastronomic experiences in tourism research.

Research limitations/implications

Increasing complexity of gastronomic experiences requires a more holistic analytic approach, including more attention for relational and co-creational processes. Linking together different experience elements and experience phases requires more holistic and contextual research approaches.

Practical implications

Hospitality organizations should recognize the differentiated and complex nature of gastronomic experiences, the different touchpoints within the customer journey and their relationship to experience outcomes. The development of hybrid gastronomic experiences offers both opportunities and challenges for the future.

Originality/value

This quantitative and qualitative literature analysis underlines the need for a more holistic approach to gastronomic experiences, covering different experiential phases and contexts of production and consumption.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 29 August 2020

Rotem Mashkov and Noam Shoval

In an age when a tourist’s gaze is more involved in the daily lives of locals, it is evident that traditional food markets are being rediscovered as a space for…

Abstract

Purpose

In an age when a tourist’s gaze is more involved in the daily lives of locals, it is evident that traditional food markets are being rediscovered as a space for recreation. Yet, the pressure of tourism development may result in retail gentrification to the point of losing the sense of local identity. Focusing on the “boutiquing” process at Mahane Yehuda Market in Jerusalem, this paper aims to measure the physical change in the marketplace, to understand merchants’ attitudes towards tourism development, and to differentiate merchants based on their responses to these changes.

Design/methodology/approach

Two main research methods were used: comparative mapping of the business mix and in-depth interviews with merchants. The first method was used to characterize the physical change in the market, and the second method was used to examine merchants’ attitudes and responses to tourism development.

Findings

There has been a significant physical change in the business mix of the market, with displacing mainly of traditional uses. A strong link between the merchants’ responses to tourism development and their stall ownership status has found.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations of the study lie in its nature as a qualitative study of a case study; there is difficulty in generalizing and drawing universal conclusions.

Originality/value

Add to existing knowledge regarding merchants’ responses in traditional food markets to tourism development in the context of retail gentrification.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

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Article
Publication date: 27 May 2020

Alberto Amore and Hiran Roy

Gateway cities such as Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata are central in the tourist experience to India, yet the official government authorities and destination marketing…

Abstract

Purpose

Gateway cities such as Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata are central in the tourist experience to India, yet the official government authorities and destination marketing organizations tend to underestimate the potential of these destinations to prospective and returning international tourists. In particular, there is little empirical research on urban tourism, food tourism and city marketing in the aforementioned cities. This paper aims to explore the scope for the promotion of Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata as food urban destinations.

Design/methodology/approach

For the purposes of this study, a case study methodology using content analysis was developed to ascertain the nexus between food and tourism in the three observed cities. Materials were gathered for the year 2019, with a focus on brochures, tourist guides, websites and social media accounts for Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata. A two-coding approach through NVivo was designed to analyse and report the findings.

Findings

The findings of the study suggest that the cities of Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata fall short in positioning themselves as food urban destinations. Moreover, the study reports a dissonance between the imagery of Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata portrayed to international tourists through induced images and the food-related experiences available in the cities. This divide reflects a pattern in destination marketing in India observed in previous research.

Research limitations/implications

The exploratory nature of this study calls for more research in the trends and future directions of food tourism and urban marketing in Indian cities. Moreover, this study calls for further research on the perceptions of urban food experience in Indian cities among international and domestic tourists.

Practical implications

A series of practical implications can be drawn. First, urban and national destination marketing organizations need to join efforts in developing urban marketing campaigns that place food as a key element of the urban experience. Second, cities worldwide are rebranding themselves as food destinations and Indian cities should reconsider local and regional culinary traditions as mean to reposition themselves to food travellers’ similar niche segments.

Social implications

The quest for authenticity is central in the expectations of incoming tourists. Moreover, the richness and variety of local and regional food in the cities analysed in this study can enhance urban visitor experience, with obvious economic and socio-cultural benefits for the local businesses and residents.

Originality/value

This study is the first of its kind to provide preliminary evidence on the nexus between food and tourism in Indian cities. Building from the literature, it developed a conceptual framework for the analysis of food tourism and urban branding and shed light on a currently overlooked aspect of incoming tourism to India.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2020

Janet Chang, Bendegul Okumus, Chih-Hung Wang and Chien-Yin Chiu

This study aims to investigate how the “cooking holiday” concept can be used by tourism authorities and practitioners and, to that end, proposes a hierarchical framework…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate how the “cooking holiday” concept can be used by tourism authorities and practitioners and, to that end, proposes a hierarchical framework for improving culinary tourism.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopted the Delphi method to filter and verify the criteria, thereby constructing a hierarchical framework of cooking holidays in Taiwan. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was also applied to calculate the relative weight of each attribute and criterion, thus identifying their degrees of importance.

Findings

Four attributes (“local food,” “food trail,” “cooking experience” and “environment and atmosphere”) and 22 criteria were identified to comprise a cooking holiday experience framework. Research findings reveal “cooking experience” as the most crucial of the four attributes identified. Of the more numerous criteria, “ingredients with integrity,” “local features” and “diverse curriculum” were identified as the three most important.

Research limitations/implications

The hierarchical framework of cooking holiday experiences can be used by tourism authorities and practitioners to enhance experiential quality for tourists and promote culinary tourism in Taiwan. According to the research findings, cooking class participants can concentrate on the “cooking experience” while emphasizing “ingredients with integrity,” “local features” and “diverse curricula” in the context of cooking holidays.

Originality/value

This study offers valuable insights and suggests directions for future research on culinary tourism. This study also offers a framework for developing cooking holidays.

目的

本文旨在探究可以如何运用「烹饪假期」之概念, 藉由阶层架构之提出, 藉以提升美食观光。

方法

本文运用德尔菲法筛选与确认台湾烹饪假期阶层架构之指标与建构。并以层级分析法(AHP)估算每一属性与指针之相对权重, 藉以确认相对重要程度。

发现

烹饪假期体验架构系由四个属性(「在地饮食」、「产制体验」、「烹饪体验」与「环境氛围」)与二十二个指标构成。研究发现显示「烹饪体验」在于四个属性之中最为重要。多项指标之中, 「安心食材」「在地特色」与「多元课程」系为最为重要之三个指标。

应用

烹饪假期体验之阶层架构可为观光主管机关与业者运用, 藉以提升游客之体验质量与推广台湾之美食观光。依据研究发现, 烹饪教室参与者可以专注「烹饪体验」, 并且强调「安心食材」、「在地特色」与「多元课程」之要素, 藉以发展烹饪假期。

原创性

本文提供具有价值之洞见, 可供美食观光未来研究之参考。本文同时提供一个可以用以发展烹饪假期之架构。

Propósito

Este estudio tiene como objetivo investigar cómo se puede utilizar el concepto de “vacaciones de cocina” al proponer un marco jerárquico para mejorar el turismo culinario.

Método

Este estudio adoptó el método Delphi para filtrar y verificar los criterios y construir el marco jerárquico de las vacaciones de cocina en Taiwán. El proceso analítico jerárquico (AHP) también se aplica para calcular el peso relativo de cada atributo y el criterio para identificar su grado de importancia.

Hallazgos

Se identificaron cuatro atributos (“comida local”, “ruta culinaria”, “experiencia culinaria” y “entorno y ambiente”) y 22 criterios para comprender un marco de experiencia de vacaciones culinarias. Los resultados de la investigación revelan que la “experiencia culinaria” es el atributo más relevante de los cuatro identificados. De los criterios más numerosos, “ingredientes con integridad”, “características locales” y “currículum diverso” fueron identificados como los tres más importantes.

Implicaciones

El marco jerárquico de la experiencia de las vacaciones de cocina se puede utilizar para que las autoridades y los profesionales del turismo mejoren la calidad de la experiencia de los turistas y promuevan el turismo culinario en Taiwán. Según los resultados de la investigación, los participantes de las clases de cocina pueden concentrarse en la “experiencia de cocina” y enfatizar los elementos de “ingredientes con integridad”, “características locales” y r“currículum diverso” para las vacaciones de cocina.

Originalidad

este estudio ofrece información valiosa, proporciona una referencia para futuras investigaciones sobre turismo culinario. Este estudio también ofrece un marco teórico, que se puede utilizar para desarrollar vacaciones de cocina.

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Article
Publication date: 18 April 2009

Joan C. Henderson

The purpose of this paper is to review the contribution of food to tourism with particular reference to the importance of food tourism and the factors which are critical…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the contribution of food to tourism with particular reference to the importance of food tourism and the factors which are critical to its success, highlighting topics for future research.

Design/methodology/approach

Findings are based on analysis of academic and practitioner materials in the public domain collected from a range of print and electronic sources.

Findings

Food is the subject of various types of tourism product and is a common theme in marketing, by businesses and destination authorities. Tourism in which food plays a primary or supporting role is already popular and has good prospects, but there are also challenges for the food and tourism industries to overcome, which vary with location.

Practical implications

Opportunities are suggested as well as some of the problems to be resolved by suppliers and marketers if the potential of food tourism is to be fully exploited.

Originality/value

The paper is a reassessment of the significance of food tourism as a product and market and a reminder of possible pitfalls regarding its successful sales and marketing.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 111 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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