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Article
Publication date: 28 December 2020

Zsófia Tóth, Peter Naudé, Stephan C. Henneberg and Carlos Adrian Diaz Ruiz

This paper aims to conceptualize corporate reference management as a strategic signaling activity in business networks. While research has extensively outlined how firms…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to conceptualize corporate reference management as a strategic signaling activity in business networks. While research has extensively outlined how firms develop and maintain social capital through business-to-business (B2B) relationships, less is known about how they signal their participation in business networks to develop this social capital. Therefore, this paper conceptualizes B2B references, in particular corporate online references (COR), as a tool through which firms “borrow” attractiveness from their business network. Through the lens of structural social capital theory, COR is shown to capture advantages related to interconnectedness between firms.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reports on a two-step qualitative and quantitative research design. First, the authors undertook a qualitative study that reports on the COR practices of senior business managers. A quantitative study then uses social network analysis (SNA) to audit a digital business network comprising 1,098 firms in a metropolitan area of the UK, referencing to each other through their corporate websites using COR.

Findings

The analyses find that COR practices contribute to building structural social capital in networks through strategic signaling. Firms do so by managing B2B references to craft strategic signals, using five steps: requesting, granting, curating, coding and decoding references. While the existing literature on business marketing portrays reference management as a routine and operational management practice, this investigation conceptualizes reference management, in particular COR, as a strategic activity.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to use SNA to represent B2B references in the form of COR as a network, which overlaps with (but is not entirely identical to) the business network. Further, the study re-conceptualizes reference management as a strategic signaling activity that leverages the firm’s participation in business networks to build structural social capital by borrowing attractiveness of prestigious business partners that leverages existing structural social capital. Finally, the paper coins and conceptualizes COR as an exemplar of referencing management and offers propositions for further research.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Abstract

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Expatriate Leaders of International Development Projects
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-631-0

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Book part
Publication date: 30 December 2004

Mina Westman, Stevan E. Hobfoll, Shoshi Chen, Oranit B. Davidson and Shavit Laski

We examined how Conservation of Resources (COR) theory has been applied to work and stress in organizational settings. COR theory has drawn increasing interest in the…

Abstract

We examined how Conservation of Resources (COR) theory has been applied to work and stress in organizational settings. COR theory has drawn increasing interest in the organizational literature. It is both a stress and motivational theory that outlines how individuals and organizations are likely to be impacted by stressful circumstances, what those stressful circumstances are likely to be, and how individuals and organizations act in order to garner and protect their resources. To date, individual studies and meta-analyses have found COR theory to be a major explanatory model for understanding the stress process at work. Applications of COR theory to burnout, respite, and preventive intervention were detailed. Studies have shown that resource loss is a critical component of the stress process in organizations and that limiting resource loss is a key to successful prevention and post-stress intervention. Applications for future work, moving COR theory to the study of the acquisition, maintenance, fostering, and protection of key resources was discussed.

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Exploring Interpersonal Dynamics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-153-8

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Article
Publication date: 6 May 2020

Ting-Ting Chen, Shih-Ju Wang and Heng-Chiang Huang

The international marketing field has witnessed many studies related to “country of origin” (COO) effects or the “made in” concept over the past few decades. Yet COO…

Abstract

Purpose

The international marketing field has witnessed many studies related to “country of origin” (COO) effects or the “made in” concept over the past few decades. Yet COO research is deeply rooted in the so-called “production-related” approach, which mainly accounts for production- or technology-based factors. Barely considered is the “consumption-related” perspective, which reflects consumers' proclivity to base their buying decisions on foreigners' product choice. In this paper, we propose the “country of reference” (COR) concept, in which consumers deliberately imitate the product choices of consumers from another country, to whom the former (i.e. the imitators) attribute superior or more prestigious personas.

Design/methodology/approach

Unlike the made in concept, which emphasizes favored product qualities from superior manufacturing countries, we believe product preferences may arise from cross-border benchmarking or “cross-country referencing.” Pivoting on the optimal distinctiveness theory, this paper suggests a COR framework that incorporates the system justification theory and the self-discrepancy concept, along with decision heuristics and mental simulation effects. The proposed framework aims to explain consumers' inclination to “buy what certain foreigners buy.”

Findings

We suggest critical propositions related to the COR concept, discuss its marketing implications, and pinpoint further research issues.

Originality/value

COR may become a coping strategy through which low-status consumers perceiving themselves as less privileged than their high-status counterparts can narrow this gap by means of decision mimicking.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 37 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2000

Yaw A. Debrah and Ian G. Smith

Presents over sixty abstracts summarising the 1999 Employment Research Unit annual conference held at the University of Cardiff. Explores the multiple impacts of…

Abstract

Presents over sixty abstracts summarising the 1999 Employment Research Unit annual conference held at the University of Cardiff. Explores the multiple impacts of globalization on work and employment in contemporary organizations. Covers the human resource management implications of organizational responses to globalization. Examines the theoretical, methodological, empirical and comparative issues pertaining to competitiveness and the management of human resources, the impact of organisational strategies and international production on the workplace, the organization of labour markets, human resource development, cultural change in organisations, trade union responses, and trans‐national corporations. Cites many case studies showing how globalization has brought a lot of opportunities together with much change both to the employee and the employer. Considers the threats to existing cultures, structures and systems.

Details

Management Research News, vol. 23 no. 2/3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1999

George K. Chacko

Gives an in depth view of the strategies pursued by the world’s leading chief executive officers in an attempt to provide guidance to new chief executives of today…

Abstract

Gives an in depth view of the strategies pursued by the world’s leading chief executive officers in an attempt to provide guidance to new chief executives of today. Considers the marketing strategies employed, together with the organizational structures used and looks at the universal concepts that can be applied to any product. Uses anecdotal evidence to formulate a number of theories which can be used to compare your company with the best in the world. Presents initial survival strategies and then looks at ways companies can broaden their boundaries through manipulation and choice. Covers a huge variety of case studies and examples together with a substantial question and answer section.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 11 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1998

Judith A. Sage, M. Susan Stiner and Lloyd G. Sage

Lists the tax implications for multinationals of US double taxation on income earned abroad or in the USA, from sources of income, including inventory profits, transfer…

Abstract

Lists the tax implications for multinationals of US double taxation on income earned abroad or in the USA, from sources of income, including inventory profits, transfer pricing, personal property sales and intangible property and the rules about control led foreign corporations and foreign personal holding companies. Explains issues about income recipients’ status and foreign dividends, and how to avoid double taxation.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 24 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2009

Lan Yi, Wenhui You, Chuan Li and Xuemou Wu

The purpose of this paper is to state the pansystems ecology, management and related principles and methods of knowledge rediscovery. Related contents include: generalized…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to state the pansystems ecology, management and related principles and methods of knowledge rediscovery. Related contents include: generalized life, vitality, resource, circulation, environs, periodicity, phenology, eco‐niche in pansystems space, evolution, intelligence development, philosophy of science, epistemology, psychology, pedagogy and teaching.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is an application of pansystems principles to approach an ecology‐styled world outlook and methodology, related topics include: pansystems rediscovery to ecology and the world; generalized relativity, resource, environs, ecology, circulation, life; pansystems models on evolution, eco‐niche, pyramid law, recap law, phenology, management and knowledge rediscovery.

Findings

All of the logoi concerned with are reduced to the actualization of pansystems variational principle and related OR‐concretion. The pansystems ecology presents a new outlook to world, society, management, methodology, pedagogy and knowledge rediscovery.

Originality/value

Provides the framework and concretion principles of pansystems research on generalized resource, circulation, environs, ecology and related applications. They lead to some new comprehension of evolution, psychology, epistemology, society, management.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 38 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2005

Vernon P. Dorweiler and Mehenna Yakhou

The U. S. economy is based on free enterprise. “Free” indicates that the national economy is based largely on necessary restrictions, both in business transactions and in…

Abstract

The U. S. economy is based on free enterprise. “Free” indicates that the national economy is based largely on necessary restrictions, both in business transactions and in capital transactions. The hall‐mark of free enterprise is the kind of competition that considers both the size and geographic scope of the participants. Restraint on competition is determined by law, by regulation, and by judicial decision. Arange of these determinations has been established in the modern U. S., to set expected conduct of business. The purpose of this paper is to examine the conduct of corporations that is beyond legal business affairs, and those that falls into unlawful areas. “Unlawful” here defines violations of law and regulation. Clearly the federal and state governments have enacted an integrated scope of law controlling conduct in both business practices and employment protection. This analysis focuses on the external violations of law and regulation.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 47 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2005

Georgios I. Zekos

Globalisation is generally defined as the “denationalisation of clusters of political, economic, and social activities” that destabilize the ability of the sovereign State…

Abstract

Globalisation is generally defined as the “denationalisation of clusters of political, economic, and social activities” that destabilize the ability of the sovereign State to control activities on its territory, due to the rising need to find solutions for universal problems, like the pollution of the environment, on an international level. Globalisation is a complex, forceful legal and social process that take place within an integrated whole with out regard to geographical boundaries. Globalisation thus differs from international activities, which arise between and among States, and it differs from multinational activities that occur in more than one nation‐State. This does not mean that countries are not involved in the sociolegal dynamics that those transboundary process trigger. In a sense, the movements triggered by global processes promote greater economic interdependence among countries. Globalisation can be traced back to the depression preceding World War II and globalisation at that time included spreading of the capitalist economic system as a means of getting access to extended markets. The first step was to create sufficient export surplus to maintain full employment in the capitalist world and secondly establishing a globalized economy where the planet would be united in peace and wealth. The idea of interdependence among quite separate and distinct countries is a very important part of talks on globalisation and a significant side of today’s global political economy.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 47 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

Keywords

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