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Article
Publication date: 30 January 2007

Patrick Xavier and Dimitri Ypsilanti

The purpose of this paper is to identify concerns developing in regard to current approaches used to define, deliver and fund universal service obligations (USOs) for

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2348

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify concerns developing in regard to current approaches used to define, deliver and fund universal service obligations (USOs) for telecommunications due to developments in competition, new technology, e.g. wireless, convergence and next generation networks (NGN), including voice over internet protocol (VoIP). To stimulate thinking about the policies required to deliver USOs in an IP‐enabled NGN environment.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper examines the nature and scope of USOs, including the concept of “functional internet access” to address questions about whether in an NGN environment: present USOs are sustainable; USOs need to change; and whether USOs should include access to broadband? The paper also examines alternative/complementary sources of funding for USOs.

Findings

With falling revenue (due to increasing competition and declining prices) occurring alongside strong demand for funds to deploy NGN, telecommunications operators are less able to provide USOs sustained by cross‐subsidisation. Universal service funds, too, may be under pressure. Also there is likely to be an uneven migration to NGN since it is likely that NGN will be deployed first in more profitable, densely populated areas and then only later (if at all) in relatively less commercially viable rural/remote areas. The paper concludes that present USOs can be maintained in an NGN environment. It concludes that since USOs is an evolving concept, there should be regular systematic reviews of whether USOs should be extended to include broadband. The paper concludes that increased funding from general taxation revenue is warranted and would link decisions concerning the nature and scope of USOs more closely with financial responsibility for such decisions.

Originality/value

The paper stimulates rethinking about whether, and if so how, arrangements relating to USOs need to change? In adopting a longer term perspective of universal services, the paper may be a valuable complement to the reviews of USOs being conducted in various countries (since short term decisions should be consistent with longer term developments).

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Book part
Publication date: 29 January 2018

Murray J. Leaf

Several recent statistical analyses provide overwhelming evidence for substantial injustice in immigration court decisions. Writers also explored the data for evidence of…

Abstract

Several recent statistical analyses provide overwhelming evidence for substantial injustice in immigration court decisions. Writers also explored the data for evidence of bias. Several ended with recommendations for more legal training for judges and more professional appellate review. These recommendations assume that the problem is in the interpretation of the law and conduct of the trial. My own experience has been that there is actually a greater problem in the interpretation of facts, at several levels. Courts provide for translators, but merely verbal translation is not enough. Cultural translation is required. In this chapter I illustrate what cultural translation is with instances from five different asylum cases that I have been involved in as an expert witness. I conclude with recommendations to support better use of this kind of information.

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Special Issue: Cultural Expert Witnessing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-764-7

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Book part
Publication date: 26 October 2018

Bernie Garrett

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Empirical Nursing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-814-9

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2006

Alistair Davidson and Robert M. Randall

The aim of this paper is to discover the views of Michael Porter and Elizabeth Teisberg on redefining value in health care.

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1671

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to discover the views of Michael Porter and Elizabeth Teisberg on redefining value in health care.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is in the form of an interview with Michael Porter and Elizabeth Teisberg with reference to their book Redefining Health Care: Creating Value‐based Competition on Results.

Findings

The paper reveals the subjects of cost, quality and access have reached crisis proportions in health care services and thus a value‐based competition approach would alleviate this.

Originality/value

The interview provides useful information on the redefinition of value in health care

Details

Strategy & Leadership, vol. 34 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1087-8572

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1994

Stephen Gibb

Discusses the process of evaluating mentoring and suggests that, withmentoring for young people, this includes evaluating mentoring outcomes,the contribution of mentoring…

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5458

Abstract

Discusses the process of evaluating mentoring and suggests that, with mentoring for young people, this includes evaluating mentoring outcomes, the contribution of mentoring to the broader initiatives of which it is normally a part, and identifying the costs of mentoring schemes. Gives frameworks for considering these areas of evaluation in more detail. Points out that effective evaluation of all these areas depends on the use of a number of different methods, including interviews, surveys and case studies. In conclusion, highlights some move critical issues about determining the overall value of mentoring for young people.

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Education + Training, vol. 36 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Abstract

Details

Crises and Popular Dissent
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-362-5

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Book part
Publication date: 29 August 2012

Terrance M. Scott

School-wide positive behavior support (PBS) is a systems approach to prevention and intervention involving multiple levels of support. At the universal level (all…

Abstract

School-wide positive behavior support (PBS) is a systems approach to prevention and intervention involving multiple levels of support. At the universal level (all students), prevention of behavior problems involves four very basic steps that are repeated with smaller numbers of students and greater intensity as directed by data. The first step is the prediction of problems or failures. To the extent to which we can predict a problem by time, location, student, and other contexts, we have the information to prevent. Prediction leads directly into the second step, which involves the development of effective prevention practices. The key to effective prevention is to approach all problems from an instructional perspective by considering what needs to be taught and how the environment can be arranged to increase the probability of success. The third step involves creating consistency with prevention efforts. Instructional efforts that are inconsistent are not effective in teaching new behavior. The last step involves development of the simplest way of monitoring performance so that those students who are not responding (i.e., are falling through the screen) may be quickly identified. This chapter describes the key features of effective universal systems as they are specifically related to the prevention of behavior problems and provides an overview of how such systems are developed, implemented, and sustained.

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Classroom Behavior, Contexts, and Interventions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-972-1

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Book part
Publication date: 2 December 2019

Frank Fitzpatrick

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Understanding Intercultural Interaction: An Analysis of Key Concepts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-397-0

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2003

Georgios I. Zekos

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination…

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53587

Abstract

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination of some legal aspects concerning MNEs, cyberspace and e‐commerce as the means of expression of the digital economy. The whole effort of the author is focused on the examination of various aspects of MNEs and their impact upon globalisation and vice versa and how and if we are moving towards a global digital economy.

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Managerial Law, vol. 45 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2015

Hanna Christiansen, Oliver Hirsch, Anika König, Ricarda Steinmayr and Bernd Roehrle

Early onset of behavioral disorders is predictive of long term adverse outcomes. There are some indicated and selective early prevention programs for attention…

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2165

Abstract

Purpose

Early onset of behavioral disorders is predictive of long term adverse outcomes. There are some indicated and selective early prevention programs for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), one of the most common behavioral disorders in childhood and adolescence. The purpose of this paper is to present a universal preschool program for preventing the development of ADHD related symptoms for children aged three to six.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 413 preschool children (experimental group (EG)=193; control group (CG)=220), and their teachers participated in the study. Children in the EG were randomized to two conditions: universal intervention (behavior modification (BM)=99) vs additional ADHD specific elements (BM+attention training; BM+AT=94) to evaluate effects of a universal intervention vs additional ADHD specific elements. The universal intervention trained general behavior modification (BM) techniques to enhance start behavior (i.e. following color based rules, positive participation in activities, enhancement of skills related to attentional function), and to extinguish stop behavior (i.e. hyperactive behavior such as uncontrolled running around, disturbing others, quarreling, etc.). These techniques were based on published intervention programs (Phelan and Schonour, 2004). The AT consisted of thirteen teacher led 45 minute based sessions in a small group format with an introductory play activity, 15 minutes picture based AT tasks (task analysis, action planning, action, reappraisal), a social interaction game, and a game to enhance perception of visual, auditory, olfactory, haptic, and gustatory senses. To determine effects, the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the Behavior Rating for Preschoolers (VBV) were used. A high risk group with high scores on those measures was analyzed separately.

Findings

Children in all three groups did not differ significantly at baseline in all relevant variables (ADHD symptoms measured with the SDQ and VBV, socio-economic status (SES), gender, age: MANCOVA: F 10,796=1.732, p=0.07) and none of the children had a diagnosis of ADHD. After training participation, children in the EG showed significantly less ADHD related problem behavior compared to children in the CG (F 8,1,506=2.717, p=0.006); this was especially so for the high risk group (F 4,754=2.60, p=0.035). Multi-level analyses revealed significant influences of age, gender, and SES on post-training symptom ratings (SDQ: t-statistic=3.03, p=0.003; VBV 3-6: t-statistic=4.151, p < 0.001).

Research limitations/implications

This is a quasi-experimental study, since due to time restriction half the preschools did not want to participate in the experimental study. Thus, participating children were not randomly assigned to the experimental and control conditions, though children were randomly assigned to two different treatments within the intervention group (EG1/EG2). Due to the design of the study and to ensure high participation rates, only preschool teachers rated children’s behavior, though the predictive value of teacher ADHD symptoms exceeds parental ones. Finally, inclusion of parent training elements would most probably enhance effects.

Practical implications

General BM techniques are easily taught and seem to positively influence children’s ADHD related symptoms while not harming children without such symptoms. Since studies showed that after a bogus instruction teacher expected children to exhibit ADHD symptoms and rated them as more disturbed (Rosenthal effect), a universal approach is less stigmatizing and possibly more effective, especially when interventions start early in life before symptoms result in full diagnoses.

Social implications

This study established positive universal effects, and moderate to large effects for the subgroup of high risk children with ADHD related symptoms. General behavior management in preschools might thus be a possible strategy for preventive interventions of ADHD related symptoms.

Originality/value

The is one of the first studies on a preventive ADHD preschool program. General BM techniques of this study were easily taught and implemented, and showed positive effects. Since selective and indicated interventions depend on high program fidelity, are harder to implement, and related to higher costs, general BM techniques as introduced in this study, might be an option for universal prevention strategies for ADHD related symptoms in preschool settings.

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