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There is considerable variation in the extent of globalization across industries. The authors attempt to identify the structural conditions of the industry that lead to…
There is considerable variation in the extent of globalization across industries. The authors attempt to identify the structural conditions of the industry that lead to these variations.
Based on a sample of 33 manufacturing industries over the nine-year period from 2007 to 2016, the authors test for antecedents of industry globalization.
The authors find that industry globalization is positively affected by medium levels of barriers to entry, industry competition, industry assistance, low and mediums levels of capital intensity, industry concentration and industry regulation and negatively affected by low levels of technological change and industry assistance. In addition, the life cycle stage of the industry has an impact on the level of globalization with the growth stage having the highest level of globalization.
First, the major limitation of the paper is that the authors rely entirely on trade data to measure the level of industry globalization. The authors did not have a choice because foreign direct investment (FDI) data are available only at the country level. Second, given that globalization can occur at the country, industry and firm levels, the focus on industry-level structural characteristics alone may be seen as a limitation.
The results of the study can provide guidance to practicing managers to apply industry analysis for predicting the potential for and direction of globalization of their industries. This will enable them to formulate appropriate strategies to cope with global competition.
The study has important public policy implications. National governments have many levers at their command that can be used to influence the structural characteristics of industries, such as industry regulation, industry assistance and industry concentration. They can selectively use these levers to either facilitate or impede globalization.
Much of the empirical focus of prior research on globalization has been on countries, rather than industries, as the unit of analysis. There is clearly variation in the extent of globalization across industries with some industries highly integrated while others remain primarily local or regional. Based on a novel approach to measure the extent of globalization at the industry level, the authors identify its antecedents. The value of the paper lies in the fact that the analysis of 33 manufacturing industries over a ten-year period shows that the structural characteristics of the industries drive their extent of globalization.
Globalisation has influenced many countries, over the last few decades with financial globalisation and liberalisation bringing regulatory reforms in the banking sector…
Globalisation has influenced many countries, over the last few decades with financial globalisation and liberalisation bringing regulatory reforms in the banking sector. Thus, this study aims to fill a gap in the literature by examining the influence of globalisation on Islamic and conventional bank productivity in Southeast Asia.
The sample comprised 155 banks (23 Islamic and 132 conventional) from 4 countries from 2008 to 2017. Panel data techniques will be used, together with data envelopment analysis (DEA)-based Malmquist productivity index (MPI), to investigate the impact of chosen main determinants on bank productivity. A panel regression analysis will be performed after generating the productivity index from the DEA-based MPI frontier.
According to the findings, Islamic banks are statistically significantly more productive than conventional banks, and the findings of the t-test are corroborated by the findings of nonparametric tests. Furthermore, the findings of the panel regression model reveal that bank specific factors and macroeconomic variables are significant determinants to bank productivity. Surprisingly, the findings also show that the influence of social globalisation elements tends to be negatively related to conventional bank productivity.
This study adds to the existing literature by bridging the globalisation gap in the productivity of the dual banking industry, particularly in the specific context of Southeast Asia, given that the area is representative of Islamic and finance globally.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of globalization convergence (GC) and its components (social, economic, political, technological and ecological) on…
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of globalization convergence (GC) and its components (social, economic, political, technological and ecological) on food production (FP).
The methodological approach adopted is based on a quantitative approach, using a static panel data analysis with relevant data from five European countries within five time intervals (2013–2017).
The results indicated that three components of globalization (social, technological and ecological) could significantly contribute to the food industry, while two other components of globalization (economic and political) are negatively correlated with FP.
This study contributes to the theoretical recognition of the role of globalization in influencing FP in multidisciplinary interactions. Meanwhile, this study's main limitation lies in the statistical method of panel data analysis, since temporal and spatial changes have not been investigated.
Despite the literature on globalization's effect on FP, each globalization component's effect has not been investigated appropriately within cross-countries studies. Hence, the present study addresses a gap in the extant literature by examining the globalization effects on the food industry to promote globalized food security, opportunities and solutions in the study areas.
Either buying or making is predicted by the existing literature for firms to reduce dependence. However, firms in the rapid globalization are found to adopt a pattern of…
Either buying or making is predicted by the existing literature for firms to reduce dependence. However, firms in the rapid globalization are found to adopt a pattern of buying and making. Specially, they critically rely on foreign firms for needed materials and goods, and invest in innovation against the uncertainty of potential supply disruptions simultaneously. Therefore, this paper seeks to investigate how the depth and width of supplier globalization shape firm innovation together. Moreover, the moderating effects of institutional distance and market competition are also examined in the paper.
Grounded on the resource dependence theory, this paper develops a theoretical framework and tests the proposed hypotheses by Poisson model using secondary data from 502 Chinese listed firms with foreign suppliers.
The depth of supplier globalization has a positive impact on firm innovation, while the width of supplier globalization weakens firm innovation. The depth and width of supplier globalization further interact negatively to influence firm innovation. Moreover, this relationship is enhanced when firms establish relationships with foreign firms with greater institutional distance and is weakened when firms face fiercer product competition.
The authors contribute to the literature by evidencing that the existence of foreign suppliers results in firms' enhancement of innovation to secure their operations and showing that diversifying the country origins of foreign suppliers is an effective means to reduce firms' uncertainty about supply disruption. We also advance the understanding regarding the contextual factors in which firms are more likely or less likely to manage the uncertainty about supplier globalization.
My framework is based upon a grounded analysis (Glaser & Strauss, 1967) of a review of the existing social science and education literature regarding globalization and…
My framework is based upon a grounded analysis (Glaser & Strauss, 1967) of a review of the existing social science and education literature regarding globalization and peace from approximately 1960 to the present. My review consisted of identifying emergent themes in the literature and from these identifying conceptual categories and the relationships among them that could explain some of the ways in which globalization, peace, and educational processes are linked. I approached the literature as a “cache of documents” (Glaser & Strauss, 1967), that is, as bodies of literature reflecting certain sensibilities regarding globalization and peace. My framework is based upon an analysis of how these sensibilities have influenced the reproduction of inequalities through the education sector as a socialization and policy context.
Public employment in India is often viewed as a source of job security. Hence, public employment seems to propel human security in India away from poverty and social…
Public employment in India is often viewed as a source of job security. Hence, public employment seems to propel human security in India away from poverty and social exclusion. In the recent work, a significant attention has been accorded to understand how globalisation has impacted on job security and thereby human security in many developing countries. The literature revolves around two opposing effects of globalisation on the human security in a country: firstly, the efficiency hypothesis posits that globalisation tends to reduce the size of the government of a country to enable the country to attain comparative advantage for gainfully trading in the global economy. A reduction in the capacity of the government is argued to lead to a decline in public employment and, hence, a decline in human security with rising globalisation. Secondly, the compensation hypothesis argues that the size of government, and hence public employment, will increase with globalisation mainly to suitably manage a domestic economy in a complex global setting with an increased role of government for creating social stability and social security. Depending on the relative strengths of the mutually opposing forces of globalisation on public employment, the impact of globalisation on the human security of a country is ambiguous. A gap in the existing literature is a lack of documentation of the Indian experience. In this work, the authors seek to empirically test if globalisation has increased, or decreased, job security in India.
The potential benefits of globalization – seen as progressive worldwide economic integration – have been touted by many economists, government officials and journalists…
The potential benefits of globalization – seen as progressive worldwide economic integration – have been touted by many economists, government officials and journalists, but the obstacles to its acceptance are seldom assessed against its putative advantages. Some opposing observers, protest groups and a few governments have warned about the inequities and burdens of globalization. However, few have focused on the multiple obstacles to, or on the necessary policies and attitudes for, successful moves to globalization. International Business researchers need to encompass the multiple aspects in the political, social and cultural realms that are affected by, and involved in, the process of globalization and require acceptable treatment. A fundamental reconciliation is required between socio-economic systems based on relationships and those based primarily on market signals in order to reduce conflicts and achieve the necessary community of interests.
In this chapter, we argue from a theoretical perspective that globalisation has impacted differentiation within higher education systems. The three propositions about…
In this chapter, we argue from a theoretical perspective that globalisation has impacted differentiation within higher education systems. The three propositions about mechanisms affecting diversity distinguished by van Vught (environmental conditions, competition for resources and academic norms) remain the same, but the initial conditions have changed. Governmental policy, in particular, affects the degree of openness of higher education systems (positively or negatively), either through (de-)regulation or by affecting higher education institutions’ strategies for internationalisation. Thus, we add as a fourth proposition that increasing institutional autonomy increases system diversity in the context of globalisation.
Purpose – Since the 1960s, the affluent democracies have experienced substantial changes in earnings inequality at the same time as heightening economic globalization…
Purpose – Since the 1960s, the affluent democracies have experienced substantial changes in earnings inequality at the same time as heightening economic globalization. This paper investigates the relationship between these two processes.
Methodology/Approach – I use fixed-effects models, and comprehensive measures of globalization and earnings inequality to scrutinize the relationship between the two in 18 affluent democracies. Although past studies concentrate on worker displacement, I examine how globalization affected earnings inequality before and after controlling for manufacturing employment and unemployment as indicators of displacement.
Findings – Initial evidence suggests net migration and investment openness have moderate positive effects, but trade openness has larger, more significant positive effects. In full models, only trade openness remains robustly significant. For a standard deviation increase in trade openness, earnings inequality should increase by between 1/5th and 2/5th of a standard deviation.
Originality/Value of paper – Beyond displacement, this study encourages investigation of power relations (e.g., class capacities of employers vs. workers) and institutional change (e.g., practices of firms) as mechanisms by which globalization contributes to inequality.
Purpose – While previous studies have highlighted opportunities, this chapter sheds light on the negative effects of globalization that mature European multinational…
Purpose – While previous studies have highlighted opportunities, this chapter sheds light on the negative effects of globalization that mature European multinational enterprises (MNEs) encounter.
Design/methodology/approach – We develop an extended network perspective to argue that globalization has resulted in several network-related threats for mature European MNEs.
Findings – European MNEs encounter three types of negative effects. First, globalization has caused local problems to increasingly spill over to other parts of MNE networks. Second, globalization has bred or strengthened countervailing powers, such as emerging-market MNEs, supranational governmental bodies, and international non-governmental organizations, which have eroded the power of mature European MNEs by entering their networks. Third, while globalization has caused the economic networks of MNEs to expand, it has made critical production factors scarcer since the availability of labour, land and natural resources has not increased accordingly. We conclude that globalization acts as a double-edged sword, which has not only offered opportunities for mature European MNEs but has also led them to experience important new and intensified threats.
Social implications – Earlier studies have shown that globalization can have positive effects for MNEs and negative effects for the sovereignty of nation states, domestic employment and the natural environment. The findings of the present study imply that globalization can also backfire on mature MNEs, thereby undermining their competitive position or even jeopardizing their continuity.
Originality/value – The negative effects of globalization for MNEs have remained understudied. Our contribution is to systematically analyze the neglected yet important ‘dark side of globalization’ that mature European MNEs encounter.