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Book part
Publication date: 30 November 2018

Nicholas A. Gage, HyunSuk Han, Ashley S. MacSuga-Gage, Debra Prykanowski and Alexandria Harvey

Classroom management is a prerequisite for effective instruction, yet research indicates that not all teachers implement evidence-based classroom management skills (CMS…

Abstract

Classroom management is a prerequisite for effective instruction, yet research indicates that not all teachers implement evidence-based classroom management skills (CMS) in their classroom. Therefore, efficient professional development models are necessary to increase teachers’ use of CMS, but those models are predicated on valid and reliable screening tools to identify teachers CMS performance. This study is a psychometric evaluation of a direct observation CMS screening tool for elementary school teachers that can be used as part of a targeted CMS professional development model. Based on a three-facet generalizability study, the primary source of variance across observations was differences among teachers and differences across observations. A decision study was conducted and indicates that a generalizable estimate from the CMS screening tool requires four 30-min observations. These results are compared with prior research and recommendations for future research are discussed.

Details

Emerging Research and Issues in Behavioral Disabilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-085-7

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2009

Sharyn Rundle‐Thiele

The purpose of this paper is to understand better the number of people consuming alcohol, the types of beverages chosen and the amount of alcohol consumed.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand better the number of people consuming alcohol, the types of beverages chosen and the amount of alcohol consumed.

Design/methodology/approach

Actual alcohol consumption collected using the covert observation method is compared with claimed alcohol consumption collected through surveys to understand the extent of the gap between claimed and actual behaviour.

Findings

A notable gap between claimed and actual drinking levels was evident. A total of 70 percent more males were observed drinking alcohol at risky or high‐risk levels while 49 percent more females were observed drinking at risky or high risk levels when compared to claimed behaviour data. Further, a higher proportion of people were observed drinking alcohol than claims lead one to believe.

Research limitations/implications

This research used human covert observation, thus limiting episode length. Further, this study was restricted to six venues in one month of one year. Future research opportunities abound including the use of electronic devices, variation in the observation methodology employed, and extending covert observation to different venue types, locations, and times of year.

Practical implications

The covert observation method can be used to critique the impact of the socially responsible programs and practices. Public policy makers may need to be mindful that alcohol may be consumed by more people in larger amounts than is currently reported in studies employing survey methodologies.

Originality/value

The paper demonstrates how the covert observation method can be used to record what consumers actually do. The covert observation method can be used to extend the understanding of alcohol consumption by enabling researchers to observe behaviour in naturalistic settings.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

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Book part
Publication date: 26 November 2014

Constant D. Beugré

In this chapter, I proposed the use of structured behavioral analysis (SBA) as a methodological approach to address critical questions in organizational behavior research…

Abstract

Purpose

In this chapter, I proposed the use of structured behavioral analysis (SBA) as a methodological approach to address critical questions in organizational behavior research in sub-Saharan Africa.

Methodology/approach

The chapter is a conceptual paper that reviews the extant literature on research tools aimed at coding and analyzing behavior, with a particular focus on employee behavior in African organizations.

Findings

SBA requires the researcher to act as both an organizational scholar and an anthropologist. As an organizational scholar, the researcher will identify predetermined behaviors that he/she intends to study. Thus, the observation and analysis will be geared toward such behaviors. As an anthropologist, the organizational researcher will observe behaviors that are displayed by employees and managers and use them as the basis for explanation and theory building.

Research limitations/implications (if applicable)

SBA can be used to study behaviors that often occur in African organizations, such as nepotism, corruption, the role of tribal status, and the impact of family generosity, the forced solidarity tax, and obligations on employee behavior.

Practical implications (if applicable)

Findings from SBA could help design interventions to address the detrimental effects of negative behaviors while reinforcing positive behaviors in African organizations.

Originality/value of chapter

As a research methodology, SBA is relatively new in the African context although some versions of the method are used in industrial/organizational psychology and ergonomics.

Details

Advancing Research Methodology in the African Context: Techniques, Methods, and Designs
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-489-4

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Article
Publication date: 5 January 2015

Radhika Bongoni, Ruud Verkerk, Matthijs Dekker and Bea Steenbekkers

Domestic preparation practices influence the sensory properties and nutritional composition of food products. Information on the variability in actual domestic preparation…

Abstract

Purpose

Domestic preparation practices influence the sensory properties and nutritional composition of food products. Information on the variability in actual domestic preparation practices is needed to assess the influence of applied conditions on the sensory and nutritional quality of food. The collection of such information requires a reliable, valid and practical research method. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Direct in-home observations, observations in a model-kitchen using cameras, and a self-reporting questionnaire were evaluated for reliability and validity, to study domestic food preparation practices by consumers. Broccoli preparation practices by Dutch consumers were checked by these three methods in this research paper.

Findings

All three research methods were found to be test-retest, inter-observer, parallel-form reliable; and face, content and concurrent valid. However, the self-reporting questionnaire is the most practical research method that can be administered on a large number of respondents in a short time to capture the wide variations in preparation practices.

Originality/value

Consumers can be assisted on domestic food preparation practices that reach their sensory preferences (e.g. texture, colour) as well as have health benefits on consumption.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 117 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Book part
Publication date: 15 September 2014

Mary B. Curtis and John M. Williams

Prior research suggests both formal and informal norms influence employee behavior. While increased training is a typical recommendation to strengthen formal norms by…

Abstract

Prior research suggests both formal and informal norms influence employee behavior. While increased training is a typical recommendation to strengthen formal norms by increasing adherence to organizational codes of conduct, and therefore improve ethical behavior, there is little empirical evidence that code training actually strengthens formal norms or improves ethics-related behavior. Conversely, prior observations of unethical behavior serve as strong indicators of informal norms. These observations may be unknown to management and therefore difficult to moderate using other means, including with training on a code.

We test the impact of prior observations of unethical behavior and training for a code of conduct on intentions to report unethical behavior in the future, as well as possible mediators of these relationships. We find some support that training on the code increases intention to report and strong support for the notion that prior observations of unethical behavior decrease intentions to report. Responsibility to report and norms against whistle-blowing both mediate the prior observation-to-reporting intentions relationship, but not the training-to-reporting intentions relationship. An interesting by-product of training seems to be that, by increasing awareness of unethical behavior, and therefore the salience of prior observation, training may have indirectly influenced intentions in the opposite direction intended.

Details

Research on Professional Responsibility and Ethics in Accounting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-163-3

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Article
Publication date: 9 April 2019

Faisal L. Kadri

The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of soft science measurement of motivation under strict hard science criteria from observations of individual…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of soft science measurement of motivation under strict hard science criteria from observations of individual animals and to suggest the conditions under which an observation can be classified as a measurement.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology starts from reconciling second-order cybernetics/radical constructivism (SOC/RC) understanding of the central role of the observer with physical measurements, which accepts the existence of a mind-independent reality. As a result of the reconciliation, parallels were identified between the SOC/RC experiences of as_is and as_if, on the one hand, and the measurement concepts of accuracy and resolution, on the other hand. The scales of physical measurement are defined by criteria of varying strictness, and the scales that meet the strict criterion of concatenation are generally considered hard science and lead to well-defined accuracy and precision. The similarity between SOC/RC and physical measurement suggests that if accuracy and precision can be computed from observations, then the observations can be classified as measurements in a strict hard science fashion; otherwise, the observations are just observations.

Findings

A nonlinear dynamic model of motivation is reintroduced as an example for reference in measurements of motivation. If there was an agreement on its use among observers (Ethologists), which in reality is not the case, then empirical data may be collected, and the averages and spreads of parameter estimations will define a reference for an animal species. Later, observers with their own data will calibrate with the reference model, so that new observers will have calculated values of accuracy and precision for their data.

Research limitations/implications

Unlike hard science whose scales of measurement are practically unambiguous, measuring the purpose of behaviour of an animal has inherent ambiguity according to the reintroduced model. The ambiguity cannot be resolved from instantaneous readings. The necessary existence of ambiguity renders the criticism of hard science invalid, that of expecting to measure motivation with a static scale as if it were temperature.

Practical implications

Human observers can be treated as measuring devices of motivation from observing behaviour. Each observer can have characteristic accuracy/precision, or validity/reliability, calculated from empirical data.

Social implications

This is an inductive, rather than deductive, study of individual animal behaviour; the author believes it is extensible to individual human behaviour and personality studies. However, group behaviour studies are beyond its scope.

Originality/value

The author believes that the suggestion of ambiguity of scales of animal motivation is original, and the suggested link between SOC/RC and a mainstream hard science is new.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 48 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2005

Kenneth David Strang

Aims to examine effective and ineffective leader behaviors from direct participant observations in several cases of a large multiyear cross‐industry international research…

Abstract

Purpose

Aims to examine effective and ineffective leader behaviors from direct participant observations in several cases of a large multiyear cross‐industry international research project to prove the hypothesis that effective team performance management requires strong transformational leadership.

Design/methodology/approach

Transformational and charismatic leadership theories are briefly discussed from management science to explain how their principles can apply to and be analyzed in the project domain and other fields. Several popular and proven group leader behavior measurement constructs are discussed to show how they can be applied for assessing group leader behavior in any field. Two flexible taxonomies are built for assisting in quantitatively and qualitatively explaining stakeholder perceptions of group leader behaviors and team performance. Four theoretically sampled case studies are analyzed. The taxonomies are analyzed quantitatively and the results are qualitatively evaluated.

Findings

The structured research illuminated that both effective and absent transformational leadership behaviors were practiced (idealized influence, inspirational motivation, individualized consideration, intellectual stimulation), which can go unnoticed and un‐reflected in the everyday pandemonium of busy project schedules, competing values, and organizational crises, yet in retrospect, these results show that passive or absent leadership is noticed by the team members and sponsors; moreover it negatively impacts on both project effectiveness and stakeholder satisfaction!

Research limitations/implications

Leaders, team members, stakeholders, and managers benefit from understanding transformational leadership, since it supports better human relations and organizational change. These cases show that effective team performance can result in minimal application of transformational leadership behaviors as long as they are not absent when required, and positive (not negative such as micro‐management).

Originality/value

This research suggests that leader behavior is complex since it is situational, supported by multiple and concurrent leadership and trait theories, as well as partly driven by dominant personality.

Details

Team Performance Management: An International Journal, vol. 11 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7592

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Book part
Publication date: 30 November 2018

Abstract

Details

Emerging Research and Issues in Behavioral Disabilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-085-7

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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2015

Regina Ahn and Michelle R. Nelson

The purpose of this paper is to examine the behaviors and social interactions among preschool children and their teachers during food consumption at a daycare facility…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the behaviors and social interactions among preschool children and their teachers during food consumption at a daycare facility. Using social cognitive theory, the goal is to identify how role modeling, rules, behaviors and communication shape these young consumers’ health-related food consumption and habits.

Design/methodology/approach

This study was conducted in a US daycare facility among preschool children (aged four years) over a three-month period. Qualitative ethnographic methods included participant and non-participant observation of meals and snack-time.

Findings

Findings from the observations revealed that teachers’ food socialization styles and social interactions with peers cultivate children’s food consumption. In addition, commensality rules set by the childcare institution also help children learn other valuable behaviors (e.g. table manners and cleaning up).

Research limitations/implications

The study was conducted in one location with one age group so the results may not be generalized to all children. As more young children spend time in preschools and daycare centers, the understanding of how these settings and the caregivers and peers influence them becomes more important. Preschool teachers can influence their young students’ food consumption through their actions and words. Training teachers and cultivating educational programs about ways to encourage healthy eating habits could be implemented.

Originality/value

The paper offers observations of actual behaviors among young children in a naturalistic setting.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2006

Dean Porr and Dail Fields

To determine the effect that implicit leadership theories have on the relevance of 360‐degree review techniques used to assess managerial behavior.

Abstract

Purpose

To determine the effect that implicit leadership theories have on the relevance of 360‐degree review techniques used to assess managerial behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

The relationships of subordinate, superior and self ratings of manager leader behaviors with three performance indicators were examined in 60 retail stores located in the USA.

Findings

Nearly, all of the subordinate ratings of manager behaviors were significantly related to performance of internal processes, while nearly all ratings of the same manager provided by superiors were related to performance in store merchandizing.

Research limitations/implications

The performance indicators were derived from company records, independent of influence from the rater groups.

Practical implications

Multi‐source ratings of managerial behaviors may be based on overall work unit performance rather than observation and should be assessed and interpreted cautiously in providing feedback for management development.

Originality/value

The ratings of managerial behaviors may reflect implicit leadership models activated by observation of store performance rather than rater observations of the manager's behaviors.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 21 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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