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Article
Publication date: 12 May 2021

Amira Abou Samra

This paper aims to explore the interplay between methods and methodologies in the field of international relations (IR) over the 100 years of its lifetime reflecting on…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the interplay between methods and methodologies in the field of international relations (IR) over the 100 years of its lifetime reflecting on the relationship between the rise of new research methods and the rise of new methodologies.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper looks in retrospect into the field’s great debates using a historiography approach. It maps chronologically the interplay of methods and methodology throughout the stages of the development of the study of IR.

Findings

This paper argues that inspite of narratives of triumph being common in the field, the coexistence of competing research methods and methodologies is the defining feature of the field. All theories, all methods and all methodologies have undergone a process of criticism, self-criticism and change. New methodologies have not necessarily accompanied the rise of new research methods in the field.

Originality/value

Drawing a map of the field’s methodologies and methods reveals necessarily its dynamism and its plurality. An honest map of the field is one that highlights not only theoretical differences but also ontological, epistemological and methodological differences embedded in the field’s debates.

Details

Review of Economics and Political Science, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2356-9980

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Article
Publication date: 4 June 2021

Luis Lisandro Lopez Taborda, Heriberto Maury and Jovanny Pacheco

There are many investigations in design methodologies, but there are also divergences and convergences as there are so many points of view. This study aims to evaluate to…

Abstract

Purpose

There are many investigations in design methodologies, but there are also divergences and convergences as there are so many points of view. This study aims to evaluate to corroborate and deepen other researchers’ findings, dissipate divergences and provide directing to future work on the subject from a methodological and convergent perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

This study analyzes the previous reviews (about 15 reviews) and based on the consensus and the classifications provided by these authors, a significant sample of research is analyzed in the design for additive manufacturing (DFAM) theme (approximately 80 articles until June of 2017 and approximately 280–300 articles until February of 2019) through descriptive statistics, to corroborate and deepen the findings of other researchers.

Findings

Throughout this work, this paper found statistics indicating that the main areas studied are: multiple objective optimizations, execution of the design, general DFAM and DFAM for functional performance. Among the main conclusions: there is a lack of innovation in the products developed with the methodologies, there is a lack of exhaustivity in the methodologies, there are few efforts to include environmental aspects in the methodologies, many of the methods include economic and cost evaluation, but are not very explicit and broad (sustainability evaluation), it is necessary to consider a greater variety of functions, among other conclusions

Originality/value

The novelty in this study is the methodology. It is very objective, comprehensive and quantitative. The starting point is not the case studies nor the qualitative criteria, but the figures and quantities of methodologies. The main contribution of this review article is to guide future work on the subject from a methodological and convergent perspective and this article provides a broad database with articles containing information on many issues to make decisions: design methodology; optimization; processes, selection of parts and materials; cost and product management; mechanical, electrical and thermal properties; health and environmental impact, etc.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 27 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2021

Boby John

The purpose of this paper is to develop a control chart pattern recognition methodology for monitoring the weekly customer complaints of outsourced information…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a control chart pattern recognition methodology for monitoring the weekly customer complaints of outsourced information technology-enabled service (ITeS) processes.

Design/methodology/approach

A two-step methodology is used to classify the processes as having natural or unnatural variation based on past 20 weeks' customer complaints. The step one is to simulate data on various control chart patterns namely natural variation, upward shift, upward trend, etc. Then a deep learning neural network model consisting of two dense layers is developed to classify the patterns as of natural or unnatural variation.

Findings

The validation of the methodology on telecom vertical processes has correctly detected unnatural variations in two terminated processes. The implementation of the methodology on banking and financial vertical processes has detected unnatural variation in one of the processes. This helped the company management to take remedial actions, renegotiate the deal and get it renewed for another period.

Practical implications

This study provides valuable information on controlling information technology-enabled processes using pattern recognition methodology. The methodology gives a lot of flexibility to managers to monitor multiple processes collectively and avoids the manual plotting and interpretation of control charts.

Originality/value

The application of control chart pattern recognition methodology for monitoring service industry processes are rare. This is an application of the methodology for controlling information technology-enabled processes. This study also demonstrates the usefulness of deep learning techniques for process control.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

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Article
Publication date: 29 March 2021

Evangelos Psomas

A rich agenda for future research in the field of Lean Manufacturing (LM) is available in the academic literature. The purpose of this paper is to determine the LM future…

Abstract

Purpose

A rich agenda for future research in the field of Lean Manufacturing (LM) is available in the academic literature. The purpose of this paper is to determine the LM future research methodologies suggested in the literature and to classify them into themes. Classifying these themes into broad categories is also an aim of the present study.

Design/methodology/approach

For the purpose of the present study, a systematic literature review (SLR) of peer reviewed journal articles in LM was conducted. A total of 214 articles published in 46 journals during 2010–2020 were collected from four major management science publishers, namely, Emerald Online, Elsevier/Science Direct, Springer Link and Taylor and Francis. To organize the qualitative data into meaningful themes and these themes into broad categories, the quality tool “affinity diagram” was applied.

Findings

The review of LM articles that are increasing over time reveals the “vital few” academic journals, which have published most of the sample articles. The plethora of the suggested future research methodologies are analytically presented and classified into meaningful themes, namely, the size of the research sample and its composition, several types of study (other than surveys), longitudinal studies, applying advanced statistical analysis and (mathematical) modeling techniques, objective, real and quantitative data, surveys, mixed/multiple research studies, reliability and validity analysis, using computer-aided technology for data collection and processing and research collaborations. These themes in turn are classified into broad categories, namely, study, data and statistical analysis and modeling.

Research limitations/implications

This SLR is not comprehensive because the number of the databases searched is restricted to four. Moreover, the literature review is limited to peer reviewed journal articles regarding Lean only in the manufacturing sector, while the subject reviewed is limited to the future research methodologies. The subjectivity of classifying the large number of the future research methodologies into themes and these themes into broad categories is also a limitation of the present SLR. Based on these limitations, future literature review studies can be carried out.

Practical implications

Researchers can be analytically informed about the future research methodologies suggested in the literature and their respective key themes and broad categories, to design original research studies of high academic and practical value.

Originality/value

This study goes beyond previous SLRs on LM by presenting analytically the plethora of the future research methodologies suggested in the literature as well as by identifying natural patterns or groupings of these methodologies.

Details

International Journal of Lean Six Sigma, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-4166

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Article
Publication date: 30 March 2021

Katarzyna Piwowar-Sulej

Organizational culture has an impact on various activities in organizations, including project management (PM). The aim of the study is to answer the following research…

Abstract

Purpose

Organizational culture has an impact on various activities in organizations, including project management (PM). The aim of the study is to answer the following research questions: RQ1: what significance is attributed to organizational culture compared to the objective project characteristics when choosing the dominant PM methodology in organizations? RQ2: which type of organizational culture is preferred for successful implementation of different PM methodologies? RQ3: what kind (if any) of relationship exists between the dominant type of organizational culture in organizations and the dominant PM methodology?

Design/methodology/approach

The author surveyed 100 project managers working in the financial industry in Poland with the use of personal structured interviews. The competing values framework (CVF) concept authored by Cameron and Quinn was used.

Findings

Project managers find organizational culture more important than objective project characteristics when choosing the dominant PM methodology in an organization. Although statistical analysis revealed a significant relationship between the preferred type of organizational culture and PM methodology, there is no significant relationship between the existing type of organizational culture and the PM methodology which prevails in the company.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should investigate other industries and other typologies of organizational culture.

Practical implications

The paper provides recommendations for management practice on how to shape organizational culture in the context of successful PM with the application of different PM methodologies.

Originality/value

This study fills a gap in the theory of PM by identifying and empirically verifying the theoretical linkage between the type of organizational culture and PM methodology.

Details

International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8378

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Article
Publication date: 8 March 2021

Neethu P.S., Suguna R. and Palanivel Rajan S.

This paper aims to propose a novel methodology for classifying the gestures using support vector machine (SVM) classification method. Initially, the Red Green Blue color…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose a novel methodology for classifying the gestures using support vector machine (SVM) classification method. Initially, the Red Green Blue color hand gesture image is converted into YCbCr image in preprocessing stage and then palm with finger region is segmented by threshold process. Then, distance transformation method is applied on the palm with finger segmented image. Further, the center point (centroid) of palm region is detected and the fingertips are detected using SVM classification algorithm based on the detected centroids of the detected palm region.

Design/methodology/approach

Gesture is a physical indication of the body to convey information. Though any bodily movement can be considered a gesture, generally it originates from the movement of hand or face or combination of both. Combined gestures are quiet complex and difficult for a machine to classify. This paper proposes a novel methodology for classifying the gestures using SVM classification method. Initially, the color hand gesture image is converted into YCbCr image in preprocessing stage and then palm with finger region is segmented by threshold process. Then, distance transformation method is applied on the palm with finger segmented image. Further, the center point of the palm region is detected and the fingertips are detected using SVM classification algorithm. The proposed hand gesture image classification system is applied and tested on “Jochen Triesch,” “Sebastien Marcel” and “11Khands” data set hand gesture images to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed system. The performance of the proposed system is analyzed with respect to sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and recognition rate. The simulation results of the proposed method on these different data sets are compared with the conventional methods.

Findings

This paper proposes a novel methodology for classifying the gestures using SVM classification method. Distance transform method is used to detect the center point of the segmented palm region. The proposed hand gesture detection methodology achieves 96.5% of sensitivity, 97.1% of specificity, 96.9% of accuracy and 99.3% of recognition rate on “Jochen Triesch” data set. The proposed hand gesture detection methodology achieves 94.6% of sensitivity, 95.4% of specificity, 95.3% of accuracy and 97.8% of recognition rate on “Sebastien Marcel” data set. The proposed hand gesture detection methodology achieves 97% of sensitivity, 98% of specificity, 98.1% of accuracy and 98.8% of recognition rate on “11Khands” data set. The proposed hand gesture detection methodology consumes 0.52 s as recognition time on “Jochen Triesch” data set images, 0.71 s as recognition time on “Sebastien Marcel” data set images and 0.22 s as recognition time on “11Khands” data set images. It is very clear that the proposed hand gesture detection methodology consumes less recognition rate on “11Khands” data set when compared with other data set images. Hence, this data set is very suitable for real-time hand gesture applications with multi background environments.

Originality/value

The modern world requires more numbers of automated systems for improving our daily routine activities in an efficient manner. This present day technology emerges touch screen methodology for operating or functioning many devices or machines with or without wire connections. This also makes impact on automated vehicles where the vehicles can be operated without any interfacing with the driver. This is possible through hand gesture recognition system. This hand gesture recognition system captures the real-time hand gestures, a physical movement of human hand, as a digital image and recognizes them with the pre stored set of hand gestures.

Details

Circuit World, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2005

Sola Adesola and Tim Baines

There appears to be an ever‐insatiable demand from markets for organisations to improve their products and services. To meet this, there is a need to provide business…

Abstract

Purpose

There appears to be an ever‐insatiable demand from markets for organisations to improve their products and services. To meet this, there is a need to provide business process improvement (BPI) methodologies that are holistic, structured and procedural. Therefore, this paper describes research that has formed and tested a generic and practical methodology termed model‐based and integrated process improvement (MIPI) to support the implementation of BPI; and to validate its effectiveness in organisations. This methodology has been created as an aid for practitioners within organisations.

Design/methodology/approach

The research objectives were achieved by: reviewing and analysing current methodologies, and selecting a few frameworks against key performance indicators. Using a refined Delphi approach and semi‐structured interview with the “experts” in the field. Intervention, case study and process research approach to evaluating a methodology.

Findings

The BPI methodology was successfully formed and applied by the researcher and directly by the companies involved against the criteria of feasibility, usability and usefulness.

Research limitations/implications

The paper has demonstrated a new knowledge on how to systematically assess a BPI methodology in practice.

Practical implications

Model‐based and integrated process improvement methodology (MIPI) methodology offers the practitioner (experienced and novice) a set of step‐by‐step aids necessary to make informed, consistent and efficient changes to business processes.

Originality/value

The novelty of this research work is the creation of a holistic workbook‐based methodology with relevant tools and techniques. It extends the capabilities of existing methodologies.

Details

Business Process Management Journal, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-7154

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Article
Publication date: 20 July 2021

Valerie Nesset, Elisabeth C. Davis, Owen Stewart-Robertson and J. Brice Bible

This paper examines how bonded design (BD), a participatory design methodology, was influenced by the transition to working in a virtual environment necessitated by the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper examines how bonded design (BD), a participatory design methodology, was influenced by the transition to working in a virtual environment necessitated by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.

Design/methodology/approach

Abiding by the participatory design tenets of creativity, learning-by-doing and mutual learning, the BD methodology was created for the specific purpose of fostering meaningful communication and interaction between two disparate groups. Previous iterations of BD are discussed, including its naissance with intergenerational teams, its adaptation to provide a framework for a university-wide initiative, the Faculty Information Technology (IT) Liaison Program that brought together faculty members and IT professional staff, and its current use in helping public librarians to develop with older adults, targeted library programming and services.

Findings

Analysis of the findings from the assessment of the BD methodology in different physical contexts demonstrates that the flexibility in the makeup and order of design techniques (discussion, evaluation, brainstorming, prototyping, consensus-building) makes BD potentially adaptable to online spaces. Recommendations for implementing the BD methodology online are outlined. It is argued that BD’s adaptability makes it an ideal method for creating meaningful and productive collaborations within both physical and virtual environments.

Originality/value

The proposed iteration of the BD methodology responds to a need for innovative practices to foster collaborative work in a virtual environment. BD is a unique, inclusive and cost-effective methodology to encourage meaningful interaction and communication between disparate groups in physical or online contexts.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 February 2021

Manuel F. Suárez-Barraza, José Angel Miguel-Dávila and Manuel Francisco Morales-Contreras

The purpose of this paper is to explore, study, analyze and implement Kaizen–Kata methodology in a service food organization (first-level restaurant), facing challenges in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore, study, analyze and implement Kaizen–Kata methodology in a service food organization (first-level restaurant), facing challenges in different operational processes that affect and influence the case company performance and customer satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

The service organization implemented Kaizen–Kata methodology to improve one operational problem process. A case-study approach was used in this research to understand the effects of the Kaizen–Kata methodology in solving problems in their operational service process. Different Kaizen–Kata techniques and tools (histograms, Pareto chart and Ishikawa diagram) using the Plan, Do, Check, Act improvement cycle framework were used.

Findings

Successful implementation of the proposed methodology reduced the main impact of the problem’s effects (customer’s complaints, process reworking, extra-cost, delays, among others). The effects of the problem were reduced on average by 70%. Some Kaizen–Kata routines were identified in a service process environment.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation of the research is that this work is a just one-case study. A main generalization is not possible, because it involves a company within a company.

Practical implications

Some other service companies can use the Kaizen–Kata methodology to solve any kind of operational problem within their processes. Service managers can learn about the methodology to apply and improve their operational performance and handle customer’s complaints.

Originality/value

A continuous improvement manufacturing methodology was imported to apply in an operational service process. The Kaizen–Kata methodology contributed significantly to reduce delays, handle customer’s complaints, process reworking and deal with extra costs, among other operational problems’ effects. In addition to that, in the literature, most of the Kaizen applications are in manufacturing companies. To the best of authors’ knowledge, this was the first study of applied Kaizen–Kata in a service organization (a fast-food restaurant).

Details

International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-669X

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 29 January 2021

Mirek Tobiáš Hošman

Although officially ended in July 2020, China’s dispute about its non-market economy (NME) status at the World Trade Organization (WTO) is far from being resolved. The NME…

Abstract

Purpose

Although officially ended in July 2020, China’s dispute about its non-market economy (NME) status at the World Trade Organization (WTO) is far from being resolved. The NME status enables China’s counterparts to disregard Chinese prices in antidumping proceedings and instead use the so-called surrogate country methodology. This paper aims to structure and analyze the complex debate, which emerged with the disputes China has filed against the European Union and the USA at the WTO, and therefore provide a point of reference for future analysis of and debates about China’s NME status.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis is based on the existing academic literature on the topic and on the legal WTO-related documents (e.g. multilateral agreements, China’s Accession Protocol, legal findings of the WTO dispute panels).

Findings

Four different interpretations of the respective legal documents about China’s NME status are discussed and strong and weak aspects of these interpretations are pointed out. Also, several misunderstandings and mistakes appearing in the debate are clarified.

Practical implications

As the question of China’s position at the WTO and its NME status has not been resolved yet and some authors believe that China will pursue its case again once the WTO Appellate Body revives its functionality, the analysis of the debate can serve as a point of reference for the academic debate and the future research on this topic. Moreover, it offers an introduction to China’s NME position at the WTO for the newcomers to this topic.

Originality/value

Although China’s NME status has been much discussed, there is no literature review that would structure the debate and point out some of the (dis)advantages of the respective arguments and interpretations. Rather than adding to the large corpus of literature about the NME status, this study takes this corpus as the object of its analysis.

Details

Journal of International Trade Law and Policy, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-0024

Keywords

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