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Book part
Publication date: 1 March 2021

Daniel Kuehn

In 1969, Warren Nutter left the University of Virginia Department of Economics to serve as the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs in the…

Abstract

In 1969, Warren Nutter left the University of Virginia Department of Economics to serve as the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs in the Nixon administration. During his time in the Defense Department, Nutter was deeply involved in laying the groundwork for a military coup against the democratically elected president of Chile, Salvador Allende. Although Nutter left the Pentagon several months before the successful 1973 coup, his role in Chile was far more direct than the better-known cases of Friedrich Hayek, Milton Friedman, James Buchanan, and Arnold Harberger. This chapter describes Nutter’s role in Chile policymaking in the Nixon administration. It shows how Nutter’s criticisms of Henry Kissinger are grounded in his economics, and compares and contrasts Nutter with other economists who have been connected to Pinochet’s dictatorship.

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Research in the History of Economic Thought and Methodology: Including a Selection of Papers Presented at the 2019 ALAHPE Conference
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-140-2

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Article
Publication date: 27 March 2009

Darlene Himick

The purpose of this paper is to shed light on accounting's role in bringing about a pension reform project in Chile under the authoritarian regime of Augusto Pinochet. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to shed light on accounting's role in bringing about a pension reform project in Chile under the authoritarian regime of Augusto Pinochet. The paper aims to reveal the specific role that the pension reform played in the regime's broader ideological goals, thus highlighting the need to reflect upon its origins when considering the reform as a template for pension change in other parts of the world.

Design/methodology/approach

The study brings together archival research showing accounting in its relation to broader structural and institutional structures, to present an alternative history of the development and implementation of the pension reform.

Findings

The pension reform was not merely a rationally chosen economic reform project. It was part of a vast modernization and institutionalization programme to change Chilean society and the mindset of its citizens. Accounting played a significant role in both the administration and functioning of the project, and in enabling the broader modernizations to take hold.

Practical implications

The Chilean pension model is held up as a fully‐exportable template to other jurisdictions. The study reveals how reflection is required to determine its suitability and potential for success in other situations, given the very specific role it was intended to play in its original setting.

Originality/value

This paper represents an under‐researched geographic setting, and also questions this much‐lauded pension model's appropriateness for other settings.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Book part
Publication date: 23 September 2019

Fátima Esther Martínez Mejía and Nelson Andrés Ortiz Villalobos

On September 11th, 1973, started the darkest stage in the recent history of Chile. The military and the police, at the command of General Augusto Pinochet, executed the…

Abstract

On September 11th, 1973, started the darkest stage in the recent history of Chile. The military and the police, at the command of General Augusto Pinochet, executed the most atrocious acts against the human dignity that the country had witnessed. The martial and technocratic leaders of the dictatorship ripped apart and redesigned the institutions of the country at their will, through to the elimination of the opposition and the systematic violation of human rights, which reached any person or group. Just a few days after the coup d’état that brought Pinochet to power, the Cardinal and Archbishop of Santiago, Raúl Silva Henríquez, and a group of churches declared themselves against the devastating violence that was gripping the country. Immediately, the religious spaces took up the lead in the defense of the most vulnerable, the persecuted, marginalized, and poor. The major effort focused on the Vicariate of Solidarity, an organization of the Catholic Church in Chile that was tasked with the promotion and defense of human rights, which offered legal and social assistance to the victims and their families. The Vicariate quickly positioned itself as a leader in search of justice against the backdrop of repression, censorship, lack of representative institutions, and prohibition of popular movements. The purpose of the present chapter is to analyze the work of the Vicariate of Solidarity and its leading role in the fight against human rights violations, strengthening social reorganization, reconciliation, and the return to democracy in Chile.

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Peace, Reconciliation and Social Justice Leadership in the 21st Century
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-193-8

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Book part
Publication date: 10 December 2003

Lisa Hajjar

Utopia, a term first coined by Sir Thomas More in the sixteenth century, referred to a place of unattainable social perfection. But the appeal of a concept that embraces…

Abstract

Utopia, a term first coined by Sir Thomas More in the sixteenth century, referred to a place of unattainable social perfection. But the appeal of a concept that embraces rather than mocks the imagination has broadened its meanings and uses. In the early twentieth century, Anatole France wrote, “Out of generous dreams come beneficial realities. Utopia is the principle of all progress, and the essay into a better future.” In contemporary vernacular, utopia has come to refer not only to imagining perfection but cures for imperfection. By this definition, any struggle for rights could be conceived as utopian to the extent that it represents a desire to make the world a better place for the would-be beneficiaries. The utopianism of rights envisions conditions in which human dignity can be ensured and vulnerability minimized.

Details

Studies in Law, Politics and Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-252-8

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2005

Betty Santangelo and Margaret A. Jacobs

Discusses the most significant criminal prosecutions and regulatory actions in response to recent anti‐money laundering compliance lapses and the resulting concern in the…

Abstract

Purpose

Discusses the most significant criminal prosecutions and regulatory actions in response to recent anti‐money laundering compliance lapses and the resulting concern in the financial community.

Design/methodology/approach

Reviews earlier criminal enforcement actions; the recent prosecution of Riggs Bank; non‐criminal regulatory enforcement actions toward Banco de Chile, Korea Exchange Bank, Arab Bank, and Gulf Corporation; additional consent orders and supervisory agreements requiring enhancement of PATRIOT Act and Bank Secrecy Act compliance systems at more than 20 banks; broker‐dealer actions; and other actions.

Findings

Concludes that both law enforcement and regulators have embraced stricter anti‐money‐laundering enforcement standards despite some criticism from the financial industry, and that recent criminal enforcement actions bear careful analysis by the financial community; predicts that regulators and law enforcement officials will broaden their scope from banking institutions to include broker‐dealers and other non‐bank institutions as well; and recommends that all financial institutions devote greater resources to establish effective anti‐money‐laundering policies and procedures, particularly in the areas of due diligence for high‐risk customers and suspicious activity reporting (SAR).

Originality/value

A detailed review of recent anti‐money‐laundering violations and enforcement actions along with practical recommendations for financial institutions by two expert compliance lawyers with a specialty in anti‐money‐laundering.

Details

Journal of Investment Compliance, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1528-5812

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Book part
Publication date: 4 May 2020

Chris Kendall

This chapter examines the delicate balance achieved by apex courts in new democracies when dealing with impunity for rights violations during times of transitional…

Abstract

This chapter examines the delicate balance achieved by apex courts in new democracies when dealing with impunity for rights violations during times of transitional justice. While international law has clearly rejected amnesties for past rights violations, domestic politics sometimes incorporate amnesties as part of larger peace settlements. This puts courts in the difficult situation of balancing the competing demands of law and politics. Courts have achieved equipoise in this situation by adopting substantive interpretations and procedural approaches that use international law’s rights-based language but without implementing international law’s restrictions on amnesties. In many cases, courts do this without acknowledging the necessarily pragmatic nature of their decisions. In fact, oftentimes courts find ways of avoiding having to make any substantive decision, effectively removing themselves from a dispute that could call into question their adherence to international legal norms that transcend politics. In doing so, they empower political actors to continue down the road toward negotiated peace settlements, while at the same time protecting the courts’ legitimacy as institutions uniquely situated to protect international human rights norms – including those they have effectively deemphasized in the process.

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Book part
Publication date: 21 March 2017

Abstract

Details

Grassroots Leadership and the Arts for Social Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-687-1

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Article
Publication date: 20 July 2010

Jeffrey Simser

The purpose of this paper is to present a discussion of the corrosive effects of corruption and techniques, both criminal and civil to recover the proceeds of corruption.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a discussion of the corrosive effects of corruption and techniques, both criminal and civil to recover the proceeds of corruption.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper examines the Canadian and international perspective on the issue.

Findings

Civil asset recovery is a viable technique although there are a number of barriers that need to be addressed.

Research limitations/implications

Further research on the effectiveness of recovery measures needs to be conducted.

Practical implications

The paper examines the practical implications of the asset recovery techniques to address corruption.

Originality/value

Perspectives on asset recovery are brought to bear from an anti‐money laundering and forfeiture practitioner.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Book part
Publication date: 16 July 2019

Ricardo Leiva and David Kimber

The overall objective of this chapter is measuring the effect of key economic indicators and trends on the media reputation of an emergent country. The case analyzed is…

Abstract

The overall objective of this chapter is measuring the effect of key economic indicators and trends on the media reputation of an emergent country. The case analyzed is that of Chile, since 1990–2015. To deal with our objective, we measured the media reputation of Chile following validated criteria by Deephouse (2000).

A regression analysis was conducted to test our hypothesis that the coefficient of media favorableness (CoMF) of a country depends on the favorable or unfavorable trend of key economic indicators of the country. The dependent variable of our model was the Chilean CoMF. Independent variables were the monthly GDP variation, the monthly unemployment rate, the monthly average of the stock exchange index, the monthly average fuel price, and the monthly average copper price (a very important commodity to Chile).

Our results demonstrate that key economic indicators have a significant positive bearing on the media reputation of an emergent country as Chile, that is, when an emergent country is doing well economically, the press with a global scope tends to improve the reputation of that country, showing a more favorable image about it. In consequence, our hypothesis is supported. In the case of an emergent and small Western country as Chile, the price of commodities appears as the most important predictive indicator of its favorable or unfavorable country reputation. Other implications are discussed in the study.

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Global Aspects of Reputation and Strategic Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-314-0

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Book part
Publication date: 29 November 2012

Harvey Arbeláez and Rie Tanaka

Governance and opacity issues have increased since the early 1990s and several governance indicators are introduced by international organizations and NGOs. The governance…

Abstract

Governance and opacity issues have increased since the early 1990s and several governance indicators are introduced by international organizations and NGOs. The governance indicators have been used in various sectors, directly affecting a nation's political reputation. This study analyzes the context of governance and opacity in Argentina and Chile and assesses the relationship between the cultural pattern and the functioning of institutions. A first approximation to the analysis of Argentina and Chile seems to lead to the conclusion of the existence of homogeneity between them as a result of a similar background. However, differences in geography and history generate different societal norms, and functioning of institutions within them. Chile's geographical isolation and limited natural resources leads the country toward economic growth and political stability. By contrast, in Argentina, populist regimes undermine the foundations of its economy while its middle class struggles and loses public trust. The various factors interactively affect quality of public policies and governance and, consequently, are conducive to differences in the perceived and real levels of opacity between both countries. Is corruption a culture-specific issue? If yes, then, is governance a consequence of culture too? Therefore, it is important to interpret a context behind governance in order to establish appropriate anticorruption reform in practice. This chapter seeks to address some of these issues by means of a case study comparison between Argentina and Chile and contribute to the understanding of the context in which negotiations may occur when FDI and M&A deals take place.

Details

Transparency and Governance in a Global World
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-764-2

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