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1 – 10 of over 23000
Article
Publication date: 1 June 2004

Boyka Stoykova, Robin Dowie, Richard P.F. Gregory, Kathleen V. Rowsell and Stephen Lane

An “event” tree technique was used alongside conventional methods for structuring and reporting an audit of ambulance services in Lancashire, UK, for patients with…

Abstract

An “event” tree technique was used alongside conventional methods for structuring and reporting an audit of ambulance services in Lancashire, UK, for patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and cases of cardiac arrest. The audit covered 4,100 patients attended by ambulance crews. Cross tabulations showed that audit targets were not achieved for recording heart rhythms in non‐arrest cases, administering aspirin and intravenous cannulation. The event tree, linked electronically with the audit database, demonstrated explicitly that only one‐third of non‐arrest patients received all three procedures. With cardiac arrests, the event tree showed that survival rates to hospital were similar for patients in ventricular fibrillation who were defibrillated regardless of whether or not they received anti‐arrhythmic drugs. Interpretation of their performance levels is facilitated by the event‐tree technique that allows relationships between clinical procedures and outcomes of ambulance journeys to be displayed.

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Clinical Governance: An International Journal, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7274

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1983

W.F. Hill

The abnormally long, dry summers of 1975 and 1976 which resulted in a considerable amount of damage to low rise buildings founded in shrinkable clay subsoils, were largely…

Abstract

The abnormally long, dry summers of 1975 and 1976 which resulted in a considerable amount of damage to low rise buildings founded in shrinkable clay subsoils, were largely responsible for highlighting the increased risks of building low rise buildings, such as one‐ and two‐storey housing, on shrinkable clay sites, particularly where trees were present or were planned.

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Structural Survey, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1984

Michael Kinch

When evaluating the worthiness of field guides to trees, there are several criteria which might be considered; perhaps the first should be geographic coverage. If one is…

Abstract

When evaluating the worthiness of field guides to trees, there are several criteria which might be considered; perhaps the first should be geographic coverage. If one is attempting to identify a tree in Iowa, one should not be using a guide covering only trees of the Pacific Slope. Although this may seem obvious, problems can occur in guide selection due to geographically misleading titles. Some guides may imply a geographic coverage which is in fact quite different from the actual coverage.

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Reference Services Review, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1989

T.F. Bott and S.W. Eisenhawer

This article describes a programme planning tool for complex research and development projects called the Process Tree Management Tool (PTMT). The PTMT was developed for…

Abstract

This article describes a programme planning tool for complex research and development projects called the Process Tree Management Tool (PTMT). The PTMT was developed for use in programme management for a particular large, diverse, advanced weapon system. The PTMT includes a set of logic diagrams and specially developed software for manipulating the information represented by the logic diagrams. Two logic diagrams are included in the PTMT in its current form. One diagram, called a process tree, graphically represents the physical processes that occur when an engineered system functions successfully. Another, called a programme tree, includes gates representing elements of a successful research, development, and fabrication programme. These trees are used in conjunction to store programmatic and scientific information useful for a manager of a large, technical research and development programme. The objective of this article is to explain the methodology involved in development of the process tree and its associated programme tree and to describe a computer software tool based on the HYPERTALK language that make the logic diagrams vastly more useful to the manager. The methodology is illustrated by a relatively simple and understandable example.

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International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

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Book part
Publication date: 9 May 2012

Tom Downen

As described in the z-Tree (Zurich Toolbox for Readymade Economic Experiments) tutorial (Fischbacher, 2002), use of the z-Tree software for designing and administering…

Abstract

As described in the z-Tree (Zurich Toolbox for Readymade Economic Experiments) tutorial (Fischbacher, 2002), use of the z-Tree software for designing and administering research experiments is quite straightforward. z-Tree is likely to be a viable alternative for accounting researchers interested in administering a computerized experimental game, and it could offer some advantages over web-based administration or use of complicated spreadsheet tools. With little or no programming experience and no familiarity with z-Tree, a researcher can likely program the example experiment described herein to be functional within a day and ready to administer within a week. Thus, one appeal of z-Tree is the ease of programming and execution and possibly reduced investment of time by the researcher. This tutorial describes use of the z-Tree software to program a noninteractive accounting research experiment; as such, it should serve as a supplemental and more specific tutorial, with many illustrations, for accounting researchers considering using the z-Tree program.

Details

Advances in Accounting Behavioral Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-758-1

Book part
Publication date: 15 August 2006

Steven Cosares and Fred J. Rispoli

We address the problem of selecting a topological design for a network having a single traffic source and uncertain demand at the remaining nodes. Solving the associated…

Abstract

We address the problem of selecting a topological design for a network having a single traffic source and uncertain demand at the remaining nodes. Solving the associated fixed charge network flow (FCF) problem requires finding a network design that limits both the fixed costs of establishing links and the variable costs of sending flow to the destinations. In this paper, we discuss how to obtain a sequence of optimal solutions that arise as the demand intensity varies from low levels to high. One of the network design alternatives associated with these solutions will be chosen based upon the dominant selection criteria of the decision maker. We consider both probabilistic and non-probabilistic criteria and compare the network designs associated with each. We show that the entire sequence of optimal solutions can be identified with little more effort than solving a single FCF problem instance. We also provide solution approaches that are relatively efficient and suggest good design alternatives based upon approximations to the optimal sequence.

Details

Applications of Management Science: In Productivity, Finance, and Operations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-999-9

Book part
Publication date: 15 March 2021

Jochen Hartmann

Across disciplines, researchers and practitioners employ decision tree ensembles such as random forests and XGBoost with great success. What explains their popularity…

Abstract

Across disciplines, researchers and practitioners employ decision tree ensembles such as random forests and XGBoost with great success. What explains their popularity? This chapter showcases how marketing scholars and decision-makers can harness the power of decision tree ensembles for academic and practical applications. The author discusses the origin of decision tree ensembles, explains their theoretical underpinnings, and illustrates them empirically using a real-world telemarketing case, with the objective of predicting customer conversions. Readers unfamiliar with decision tree ensembles will learn to appreciate them for their versatility, competitive accuracy, ease of application, and computational efficiency and will gain a comprehensive understanding why decision tree ensembles contribute to every data scientist's methodological toolbox.

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The Machine Age of Customer Insight
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-697-6

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Using Subject Headings for Online Retrieval: Theory, Practice and Potential
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-12221-570-4

Book part
Publication date: 31 December 2010

Rekha Nianthi

Throughout the world, at one period or another in its history, it has been the practice to cultivate tree species and agricultural crops in intimate combination in most of…

Abstract

Throughout the world, at one period or another in its history, it has been the practice to cultivate tree species and agricultural crops in intimate combination in most of the countries. The history of cultivating trees and crops in home gardens, social tree planting, protecting and managing forests, appreciating wildlife, and sustaining the beauties of nature in Sri Lanka go back to more than about 25 centuries. In chronicles, there are some references on social tree planting practices, and home gardens planted with flowering and fruit-bearing trees in Sri Lanka. Because of the traditions, influencing factors of the existing environment, and nature of agroforestry, the numerous examples of agroforestry practices are found in all agro climatic and ecological zones of Sri Lanka. Today, the traditional knowledge of agroforestry is being developed and expanded with the objective of improving living standards, especially the rural communities in Sri Lanka.

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Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction: An Asian Perspective
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-485-7

Book part
Publication date: 31 January 2015

Davy Janssens and Geert Wets

Several activity-based transportation models are now becoming operational and are entering the stage of application for the modelling of travel demand. In our application…

Abstract

Several activity-based transportation models are now becoming operational and are entering the stage of application for the modelling of travel demand. In our application, we will use decision rules to support the decision-making of the model instead of principles of utility maximization, which means our work can be interpreted as an application of the concept of bounded rationality in the transportation domain. In this chapter we explored a novel idea of combining decision trees and Bayesian networks to improve decision-making in order to maintain the potential advantages of both techniques. The results of this study suggest that integrated Bayesian networks and decision trees can be used for modelling the different choice facets of a travel demand model with better predictive power than CHAID decision trees. Another conclusion is that there are initial indications that the new way of integrating decision trees and Bayesian networks has produced a decision tree that is structurally more stable.

Details

Bounded Rational Choice Behaviour: Applications in Transport
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-071-1

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