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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2004

Boyka Stoykova, Robin Dowie, Richard P.F. Gregory, Kathleen V. Rowsell and Stephen Lane

An “event” tree technique was used alongside conventional methods for structuring and reporting an audit of ambulance services in Lancashire, UK, for patients with…

Abstract

An “event” tree technique was used alongside conventional methods for structuring and reporting an audit of ambulance services in Lancashire, UK, for patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and cases of cardiac arrest. The audit covered 4,100 patients attended by ambulance crews. Cross tabulations showed that audit targets were not achieved for recording heart rhythms in non‐arrest cases, administering aspirin and intravenous cannulation. The event tree, linked electronically with the audit database, demonstrated explicitly that only one‐third of non‐arrest patients received all three procedures. With cardiac arrests, the event tree showed that survival rates to hospital were similar for patients in ventricular fibrillation who were defibrillated regardless of whether or not they received anti‐arrhythmic drugs. Interpretation of their performance levels is facilitated by the event‐tree technique that allows relationships between clinical procedures and outcomes of ambulance journeys to be displayed.

Details

Clinical Governance: An International Journal, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7274

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1983

W.F. Hill

The abnormally long, dry summers of 1975 and 1976 which resulted in a considerable amount of damage to low rise buildings founded in shrinkable clay subsoils, were largely…

Abstract

The abnormally long, dry summers of 1975 and 1976 which resulted in a considerable amount of damage to low rise buildings founded in shrinkable clay subsoils, were largely responsible for highlighting the increased risks of building low rise buildings, such as one‐ and two‐storey housing, on shrinkable clay sites, particularly where trees were present or were planned.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1984

Michael Kinch

When evaluating the worthiness of field guides to trees, there are several criteria which might be considered; perhaps the first should be geographic coverage. If one is…

Abstract

When evaluating the worthiness of field guides to trees, there are several criteria which might be considered; perhaps the first should be geographic coverage. If one is attempting to identify a tree in Iowa, one should not be using a guide covering only trees of the Pacific Slope. Although this may seem obvious, problems can occur in guide selection due to geographically misleading titles. Some guides may imply a geographic coverage which is in fact quite different from the actual coverage.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1989

T.F. Bott and S.W. Eisenhawer

This article describes a programme planning tool for complex research and development projects called the Process Tree Management Tool (PTMT). The PTMT was developed for…

Abstract

This article describes a programme planning tool for complex research and development projects called the Process Tree Management Tool (PTMT). The PTMT was developed for use in programme management for a particular large, diverse, advanced weapon system. The PTMT includes a set of logic diagrams and specially developed software for manipulating the information represented by the logic diagrams. Two logic diagrams are included in the PTMT in its current form. One diagram, called a process tree, graphically represents the physical processes that occur when an engineered system functions successfully. Another, called a programme tree, includes gates representing elements of a successful research, development, and fabrication programme. These trees are used in conjunction to store programmatic and scientific information useful for a manager of a large, technical research and development programme. The objective of this article is to explain the methodology involved in development of the process tree and its associated programme tree and to describe a computer software tool based on the HYPERTALK language that make the logic diagrams vastly more useful to the manager. The methodology is illustrated by a relatively simple and understandable example.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2021

Ruiliang Feng, Jingchao Jiang, Zhichao Sun, Atul Thakur and Xiangzhi Wei

The purpose of this paper is to report the design of a lightweight tree-shaped support structure for fused deposition modeling (FDM) three-dimensional (3D) printed models…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report the design of a lightweight tree-shaped support structure for fused deposition modeling (FDM) three-dimensional (3D) printed models when the printing path is considered as a constraint.

Design/methodology/approach

A hybrid of genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) is proposed to address the topology optimization of the tree-shaped support structures, where GA optimizes the topologies of the trees and PSO optimizes the geometry of a fixed tree-topology. Creatively, this study transforms each tree into an approximate binary tree such that GA can be applied to evolve its topology efficiently. Unlike FEM-based methods, the growth of tree branches is based on a large set of FDM 3D printing experiments.

Findings

The hybrid of GA and PSO is effective in reducing the volume of the tree supports. It is shown that the results of the proposed method lead to up to 46.71% material savings in comparison with the state-of-the-art approaches.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed approach requires a large number of printing experiments to determine the function of the yield length of a branch in terms of a set of critical parameters. For brevity, one can print a small set of tree branches (e.g. 30) on a single platform and evaluate the function, which can be used all the time after that. The steps of GA for topology optimization and those of PSO for geometry optimization are presented in detail.

Originality/value

The proposed approach is useful for the designers and manufacturers to save materials and printing time in fabricating complex models using the FDM technique. It can be adapted to the design of support structures for other additive manufacturing techniques such as Stereolithography and selective laser melting.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 26 July 2021

Humphrey Boogaerdt and Alistair Brown

The purpose of this study is to consider how a local government authority may present a tree asset register of street trees for the decision-making of the authority's stakeholders.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to consider how a local government authority may present a tree asset register of street trees for the decision-making of the authority's stakeholders.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the tenets of population density theory, urban form theory and social stratification theory, the approach of the study is to develop a tree asset register in a local government authority's setting that could be modelled using many different attributes to derive important information for decision-making purposes.

Findings

Tree asset registers represent a critical tool in managing street trees across local government authorities.

Research limitations/implications

Although the efficacy of an asset tree register may be curtailed by lack of internal audit or yearly updates, the practical consequence of an asset tree register is that local administrators may use the register to gather summarised, organised and parsimonious measures of a wide range of environmental, historical, cultural, aesthetic and scientific values of street trees.

Practical implications

Tree asset registers affords ratepayers, developers, tree managers and valuers a technology to plan, coordinate and manage street trees to support ecosystem services.

Social implications

Asset tree registers offer planners a means to bring about sustainable change management.

Originality/value

The originality of the study rests in introducing tree registers as a means to meet diverse strategies for street tree management by interested stakeholders.

Details

Property Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2021

Manogna R.L. and Aswini Kumar Mishra

Determining the relevant information using financial measures is of great interest for various stakeholders to analyze the performance of the firm. This paper aims at…

Abstract

Purpose

Determining the relevant information using financial measures is of great interest for various stakeholders to analyze the performance of the firm. This paper aims at identifying these financial measures (ratios) which critically affect the firm performance. The authors specifically focus on discovering the most prominent ratios using a two-step process. First, the authors use an exploratory factor analysis to identify the underlying dimensions of these ratios, followed by predictive modeling techniques to identify the potential relationship between measures and performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses data of 25 financial variables for a sample of 1923 Indian manufacturing firms which exist continuously between 2011 and 2018. For prediction models, four popular decision tree algorithms [Chi-squared automatic interaction detector (CHAID), classification and regression trees (C&RT), C5.0 and quick, unbiased, efficient statistical tree (QUEST)] were investigated, and the information fusion-based sensitivity analyses were performed to identify the relative importance of these input measures.

Findings

Results show that C5.0 and CHAID algorithms produced the best predictive results. The fusion sensitivity results find that net profit margin and total assets turnover rate are the most critical factors determining the firm performance in an Indian manufacturing context. These findings may enable managers in their decision-making process and also have vital implications for investors in assessing the performance of the firm.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the current paper is the first to address the application of decision tree algorithms to predict the performance of manufacturing firms in an emerging economy such as India, with the latest data. This practical perspective helps the organizations in managing the critical parameters for the firm’s growth.

Details

Measuring Business Excellence, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-3047

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Book part
Publication date: 9 May 2012

Tom Downen

As described in the z-Tree (Zurich Toolbox for Readymade Economic Experiments) tutorial (Fischbacher, 2002), use of the z-Tree software for designing and administering…

Abstract

As described in the z-Tree (Zurich Toolbox for Readymade Economic Experiments) tutorial (Fischbacher, 2002), use of the z-Tree software for designing and administering research experiments is quite straightforward. z-Tree is likely to be a viable alternative for accounting researchers interested in administering a computerized experimental game, and it could offer some advantages over web-based administration or use of complicated spreadsheet tools. With little or no programming experience and no familiarity with z-Tree, a researcher can likely program the example experiment described herein to be functional within a day and ready to administer within a week. Thus, one appeal of z-Tree is the ease of programming and execution and possibly reduced investment of time by the researcher. This tutorial describes use of the z-Tree software to program a noninteractive accounting research experiment; as such, it should serve as a supplemental and more specific tutorial, with many illustrations, for accounting researchers considering using the z-Tree program.

Details

Advances in Accounting Behavioral Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-758-1

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Article
Publication date: 23 March 2021

Mostafa El Habib Daho, Nesma Settouti, Mohammed El Amine Bechar, Amina Boublenza and Mohammed Amine Chikh

Ensemble methods have been widely used in the field of pattern recognition due to the difficulty of finding a single classifier that performs well on a wide variety of…

Abstract

Purpose

Ensemble methods have been widely used in the field of pattern recognition due to the difficulty of finding a single classifier that performs well on a wide variety of problems. Despite the effectiveness of these techniques, studies have shown that ensemble methods generate a large number of hypotheses and that contain redundant classifiers in most cases. Several works proposed in the state of the art attempt to reduce all hypotheses without affecting performance.

Design/methodology/approach

In this work, the authors are proposing a pruning method that takes into consideration the correlation between classifiers/classes and each classifier with the rest of the set. The authors have used the random forest algorithm as trees-based ensemble classifiers and the pruning was made by a technique inspired by the CFS (correlation feature selection) algorithm.

Findings

The proposed method CES (correlation-based Ensemble Selection) was evaluated on ten datasets from the UCI machine learning repository, and the performances were compared to six ensemble pruning techniques. The results showed that our proposed pruning method selects a small ensemble in a smaller amount of time while improving classification rates compared to the state-of-the-art methods.

Originality/value

CES is a new ordering-based method that uses the CFS algorithm. CES selects, in a short time, a small sub-ensemble that outperforms results obtained from the whole forest and the other state-of-the-art techniques used in this study.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

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Article
Publication date: 8 April 2021

Andrew Speak, Mark Usher, Hilary Solly and Stefan Zerbe

The non-material benefits which people derive from ecosystems, cultural ecosystem services (CES), can be difficult to measure and quantify. This study aims to demonstrate…

Abstract

Purpose

The non-material benefits which people derive from ecosystems, cultural ecosystem services (CES), can be difficult to measure and quantify. This study aims to demonstrate the usefulness of social media analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

The widespread use of social media applications has provided a novel methodology for obtaining crowd-sourced data, which can reveal patterns in how social media users interact with urban greenspace and participate in place-making activities. This study explores how urban trees are represented in images tagged with the city of Bolzano, Italy, and uploaded over the course of a year to the image-sharing application Instagram.

Findings

A third of all the images contained some elements of green nature, with 3.1% of the images portraying urban trees as the main subject and 11% with urban trees as background features. Seasonal preferences for winter and summer scenes emerged. Accompanying text, in the form of hashtags and image descriptions, was mostly positive and showed how enthusiastically people describe urban nature. An assessment of the images in terms of CES revealed that beyond aesthetic factors and the inspiration to take photographs of nature, a wide range of CES are represented, reflecting the recognition of the benefits of urban trees by Instagrammers. The collection of images provided a unique snapshot of the city of Bolzano.

Practical implications

This reinforces the importance of urban trees within planning policy for providing sense of place, recreation and stress relief for residents and tourists.

Originality/value

The study builds on recent advances in social media research, focussing on the important field of urban CES.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

Keywords

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