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Article
Publication date: 27 April 2010

Beth G. Chung‐Herrera, Gabriel R. Gonzalez and K. Douglas Hoffman

This paper aims to explore whether demographic differences between diverse customers and service providers impact service failure and recovery perceptions.

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2907

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore whether demographic differences between diverse customers and service providers impact service failure and recovery perceptions.

Design/methodology/approach

The critical incidents technique was used to gather data on service failures and recovery. Chi‐square test of independence and analysis of variance was used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

Results from the main study provide little support to the notion that different service failure types or service recovery efforts are being applied when demographic differences exist. However, a post‐hoc analysis focusing on respondents who felt that their demographic differences had impacted their encounter revealed that ethnic differences impacted service failure and recovery perceptions the most.

Research limitations/implications

One limitation is the use of quota sampling that may limit the generalizability of the results. However, due to the exploratory nature of the study and the need for representative cases, this technique was viewed as an effective sampling technique for the purposes of the study.

Practical implications

The post‐hoc results suggest that future diversity training should include employee‐customer diversity, especially in the case of age and ethnicity. Further, that managing perceptions is important so that customers do not feel that they are treated any differently based on a visible demographic variable.

Originality/value

In general, the exploration of customer‐employee demographic differences in the services marketing literature is still somewhat nascent. This paper is unique in that it specifically examines several demographic differences between customers and employees in terms of service failure and recovery perceptions.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2015

Richard Nicholls and Marwa Gad Mohsen

This study aims to explore the relevance of customer age differences (CADs) in the context of customer-to-customer interaction (CCI) within various service domains. It…

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1359

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the relevance of customer age differences (CADs) in the context of customer-to-customer interaction (CCI) within various service domains. It provides a thematic framework for understanding CAD-related CCI and critically identifies new directions for research into CAD-related CCI.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a narrative literature review approach, different perspectives in the literature on age differences and CCI are analysed towards highlighting and emphasising valuable new themes.

Findings

Three coherent domains: the desire for social contact; fellow customer behaviour; and social identity issues are identified to interconnect a fragmented diversity of literature. Many themes for future research directions in the study of CAD-related CCI are identified.

Research limitations/implications

Whilst a wide selection of literature sources are critically reviewed, the fragmented nature of the literature on age differences and CCI prevents the review covering all publications.

Practical implications

The paper provides service marketing managers and scholars with strategic CCI insights into better serving a diverse age range of customers. These insights will undoubtedly stimulate timely investigation of new avenues to enhance service customer compatibility and satisfaction in increasingly age-diverse societies.

Originality/value

This paper provides the first overview of a wide range of strategic considerations aimed at explaining the impact of CADs on CCI in service environments. Essentially, the paper elaborates opportunities and challenges in CAD-related CCI as critical themes for further investigations.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Misty M. Bennett, Terry A. Beehr and Lana V. Ivanitskaya

The purpose of this paper is to examine work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict, taking into account generational cohort and life cycle stage differences.

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4781

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict, taking into account generational cohort and life cycle stage differences.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey participants (428 employed individuals with families) represented different generations and life cycles. Key variables were work/family characteristics and centrality, work-family and family-work conflict, and age.

Findings

Generational differences in both directions were found. Gen X-ers reported the most work-family conflict, followed by Millennials and then Baby Boomers. Baby Boomers exhibited family-work conflict the most, followed by Gen X-ers, and then Millennials, a surprising finding given generational stereotypes. Some of these differences remained after controlling for children in the household (based on life cycle stage theory) and age. Millennials were highest in work centrality, whereas Baby Boomers were highest in family centrality. Employees with children ages 13-18 reported the most work-family conflict, and employees with children under the age of six reported the most family-work conflict.

Research limitations/implications

This study found that generation and children in the household make a difference in work-family conflict, but it did not support some of the common generational stereotypes. Future studies should use a time-lag technique to study generational differences. To reduce work-family conflict, it is important to consider its directionality, which varies across generations and life cycle stages.

Practical implications

This informs organizations on how to tailor interventions to help employees balance work/life demands.

Originality/value

This study is the first to simultaneously examine both generation and life cycle stage (children in the household) in regard to work-family conflict.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Book part
Publication date: 6 September 2021

Youjeong Huh and Michael T. Ford

In this chapter, how the occupational stress process changes over the life course and how this may intersect with observed generational differences are examined. This is…

Abstract

In this chapter, how the occupational stress process changes over the life course and how this may intersect with observed generational differences are examined. This is done by jointly reviewing studies on occupational well-being that adopted the theoretical lens of generational or lifespan developmental perspectives; the two perspectives are closely related and have the potential to better inform one another because both consider chronological age to be a pivotal factor driving individual differences in work values, attitudes and well-being. However, these perspectives have yet to be simultaneously considered in a review of occupational well-being research, leaving scholars wondering whether they overlap, and if so, in which area. It is hoped that juxtaposition of the two disparate bodies of literature can better inform the convergence and divergence of findings on worker well-being scattered across the two literatures. In this chapter, (a) generational differences in job satisfaction, (b) how work characteristics may differentially affect job satisfaction in workers across generations, (c) how work contexts may differentially impact job satisfaction across generations, (d) generational differences in work-family interface, and lastly, (e) recent developments in the field are discussed. Although extant research on the first topic, generational differences in job satisfaction, has shown some consistent evidence, research findings in the subsequent topics remain relatively inconsistent. Based on our review, it is concluded that additional research is needed to expand our understanding of the role of generation and chronological age in workers’ occupational well-being.

Details

Examining and Exploring the Shifting Nature of Occupational Stress and Well-Being
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-422-0

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Book part
Publication date: 1 August 2017

Justin Marcus and Michael P. Leiter

This chapter aims to provide nuance into the issue of generational cohort differences at work by focusing on the role of contextual moderator variables. Theory and…

Abstract

This chapter aims to provide nuance into the issue of generational cohort differences at work by focusing on the role of contextual moderator variables. Theory and hypotheses derived from the research on generational differences, psychological contracts, and work values are contrasted to a countervailing set of hypotheses derived from theory and research on the confluence of age and Person-Environment (P-E) fit. Complex patterns of interactive effects are posited for both alternatives. The results favored a generational hypothesis regarding the positively valenced construct of job satisfaction but an age-based hypothesis for the negatively valenced construct of turnover intentions. Results are tested using a subset from a large and nationally representative sample of adults from the US workforce (n = 476). Results offer mixed support for both age and generational cohorts, qualified by the specific type of outcome at hand.

Details

Age Diversity in the Workplace
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-073-0

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Akram Al-jazzazi and Parves Sultan

The purpose of this paper is to assess differences in banking service quality (BSQ) perceptions across demographic subgroups of Islamic and conventional Jordanian banking…

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1144

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess differences in banking service quality (BSQ) perceptions across demographic subgroups of Islamic and conventional Jordanian banking consumers.

Design/methodology/approach

Data are collected using surveys. The survey contains items for three different measures of overall BSQ perceptions. The researchers mailed surveys to a random sample of 2,000 banking customers in Jordan. Responses to questionnaire items measuring respondents’ BSQ perceptions were analysed using one-way analysis of variance with Tukey’s honest significant difference post hoc tests to assess subgroup differences in six demographic variables: gender, age, occupation, income, education, and religion.

Findings

BSQ perceptions are significantly different in four of the six demographic variables. Age and education do not impact on BSQ perceptions.

Research limitations/implications

The findings indicate demographic effects on Jordanian banking consumers’ perceived BSQ. Study limitations include demographic subgroup underrepresentation and survey structure. Future research should obtain a more representative sample for better generalisability.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that Jordanian banks should structure their services to best accommodate their customers’ demographics. In addition, banks can use the findings to guide the development of demographic-driven marketing to target and attract customers efficiently.

Originality/value

This study is the first to investigate demographic differences in the perceived service quality of Jordan’s Islamic and conventional banking customers. The findings can contribute to future research on BSQ, and guide Jordan’s banking management towards more effective marketing and service provision.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

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Article
Publication date: 25 January 2011

Johan Bruwer, Anthony Saliba and Bernadette Miller

Exploratory research was conducted in a well‐known Australian wine region to determine the differences in the behaviour dynamics and sensory preferences of consumer…

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18773

Abstract

Purpose

Exploratory research was conducted in a well‐known Australian wine region to determine the differences in the behaviour dynamics and sensory preferences of consumer groups. The overall aim is to gain some insights into the product style preferences of consumers and what this means in practical terms to wine product marketing.

Design/methodology/approach

Information was obtained from a random sample of 150 visitors to ten wineries in the Yarra Valley wine region in Australia. Data were collected by means of self‐administration surveys using a highly structured questionnaire at each of the winery tasting room venues.

Findings

Specific differences exist in the wine consumption behaviour and sensory preferences of males and females and between generational cohorts, specifically Millennial and older consumers. Females drink less wine than males, spend less thereon but tend to “compensate” for this by buying higher priced wine per bottle, which could represent a risk‐reduction strategy. Females are noticeably higher than their male counterparts in white wine consumption, showing a preference for a sweeter wine style at a young age, and reported a strong preference for medium body style wines over light and full‐bodied wines. From a sensory preference viewpoint, fruit tastes and aromas are by far the most important, especially among females, as are vegetative characters, wood/oak, and mouth‐feel characters. More males, on the other hand, preferred the aged characters of wine.

Research limitations/implications

It is possible to target wine consumers in accordance with their gender and lifecycle stage as far as the sensory and certain behavioural aspects of the product are concerned. However, this should not be oversimplified and drive product marketing strategies in the wrong direction.

Originality/value

This study is of value to academic researchers, wine industry practitioners and other wine distribution channel members alike, as it provides insights into consumer behaviour differences and one of the core tangible aspects of a wine product, namely the sensory preferences of consumers.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 27 January 2012

Peggie Rothe, Anna‐Liisa Lindholm, Ari Hyvönen and Suvi Nenonen

The paper aims to identify the differences and similarities in work environment preferences of office users of different age.

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4164

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to identify the differences and similarities in work environment preferences of office users of different age.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper analyses results of a preference survey answered by more than 1,100 office employees in Finland. The survey included questions concerning user preferences in terms of location, buildings, workspaces, and services. The analysis starts with a principal component analysis (PCA). The respondents are divided into five clusters based on their year of birth, and their responses are compared based on regression analysis. The identified differences are confirmed by discriminant analysis.

Findings

The study shows that there are differences in the work environment preferences of users of different age. Significant differences were found concerning personal services, commuting, collaboration, restaurant services, and adjustability of indoor climate. The study also identifies areas in which preferences between younger and older employees did not differ remarkably, such as privacy and the virtual environment.

Research limitations/implications

While the study indicates that there are preference differences in the workforce as it currently exists, it does not explain whether the identified differences are connected to generations, or if they are simply a result of age and experience.

Practical implications

The paper includes findings that are valuable for all parties that are involved in designing and managing work environments.

Originality/value

The results give new insights on what office users of different age prefer in their work environments. The paper proposes that some general notions regarding generational differences in the workplace lack academic evidence, and presents results that suggest that the differences are not as significant as generally thought.

Details

Facilities, vol. 30 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2018

Maureen Snow Andrade and Jonathan H. Westover

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to determine if job satisfaction increases with age, and if this is consistent across countries; and second, if individuals…

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2683

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to determine if job satisfaction increases with age, and if this is consistent across countries; and second, if individuals belonging to the same age cohort, who experience similar life conditions and events and have been posited to share common attitudes and behaviors, differ in terms of job satisfaction, and if this difference is comparable across countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The study provides a comparative analysis of the impact of age and generational differences on job satisfaction globally, based on non-panel longitudinal data from the most recent wave of the International Social Survey Program (Work Orientations IV, 2015).

Findings

Age has a positive statistically significant impact on job satisfaction (e.g. the older you get, the more satisfied you are with your job). However, the same analysis with each specific age cohort indicates that age is only statistically significant with the baby boomers. Statistically significant cross-generational differences exist in the levels of job satisfaction across generations and cross-generational differences in the determinants of job satisfaction. Most differences are seen between the silent generation and the other three age cohorts.

Originality/value

Previous comparative studies have found that job satisfaction across generations, even within the same or similar countries, shows little variation. Research measuring the relationship between age and job satisfaction indicates three key contradictory findings – satisfaction increases with age, decreases with age, or no relationship exists. The current large-scale, global study updates and extends previous research by exploring similarities and differences in job satisfaction and work quality characteristics by age cohort, with a global sample.

Details

Evidence-based HRM: a Global Forum for Empirical Scholarship, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-3983

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Article
Publication date: 15 November 2018

Marie A. Yeh, Robert D. Jewell and Cesar Zamudio

This study aims to investigate age and gender differences in young consumers’ attribute preferences that underlie their choice decisions. This research proposes and finds…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate age and gender differences in young consumers’ attribute preferences that underlie their choice decisions. This research proposes and finds that attribute preferences are moderated by age but not gender. Understanding how children at different ages evaluate a product’s attributes is essential to new children’s product development.

Design/methodology/approach

Hierarchical Bayesian choice-based conjoint analysis was used to assess attribute importance via a series of choice tasks among children and adults. Adults completed the study by survey, whereas children were interviewed and led through the choice tasks.

Findings

This research finds that the preference structure for a product’s attributes differs systematically based on the age of children. Younger children chose based on perceptually salient attributes of a product, whereas older children chose based on cognitively salient attributes. When children’s attribute preferences are compared to adults, older children value attributes more similarly to adults than younger children. While gender differences were proposed and found, further analysis indicated that these differences were driven by adults in the sample and that no gender differences existed in the children’s age categories.

Originality/value

This study is the first to study children’s preference structure in complex choices with different ages preferring different attributes. By using conjoint analysis, this research is able to understand children’s underlying decision process, as utility scores are obtained providing a level of precision for understanding the underlying process of children’s choices that other studies have not used.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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