Experiencing Persian Heritage: Volume 10

Cover of Experiencing Persian Heritage

Perspectives and Challenges

Subject:

Table of contents

(24 chapters)

Prelims

Pages i-ix
Content available

Part I Contextual Setting

Abstract

Tourism in Iran and Iranian tourism policies are more a consequence of the country’s political economy than from explicit planning. The emphasis on adhering to domestic social norms, and the obligation on inbound tourism to obey these rules, have had no other result than a reduction of its markets. Iran’s present share of tourism is as low as 1/800th of the glocalized tourism industry. This chapter discusses the main factors influencing tourism development in Iran, particularly the political economy and oil.

Part II Taxonomies and Typologies of Cultural and Heritage Tourism

Abstract

Iranian history, with roots in the oldest civilizations in western Asia, has provided significant heritage, both tangible and intangible, allowing the country to be considered as a major cultural tourism destination for both nationals and foreigners. The focus on Iranian history and heritage aims to confirm the country’s potential for attracting international tourists, while a negative image prevails abroad of a radical theocratic regime with a hostile internal political environment, alongside the instable geopolitical situation of the region. However, the changing political situation, now more secure and safe, allows an attempt to remove these prejudices, which may be achieved through the promotion of heritage and cultural tourism.

Abstract

This study systematically outlines a multifaceted approach to Persian culture using the anthropological acronym of KERP (kinship, economics, religion, and politics). Possible touch points between the tourist and both modern life in Iran and the historical world of Persian culture are identified. It is proposed that these touch points would be revealed through the knowledge emotions of surprise, confusion, and interest. The chapter examines the detailed accounts of experienced Iranian guides who reported on their tourists’ knowledge emotions about the visited culture. A comprehensive catalogue of the key incidents evoking these knowledge emotions is developed. The chapter further proposes a spectrum of cultural accessibility for Western tourists using this catalogue of emotional responses.

Abstract

Cultural heritage carries two sets of tangible and intangible assets. The relationship between tourism and intangible cultural heritage is a young but growing discourse. However, tourism planning and strategy development for intangible cultural heritage have so far remained undervalued. This gap looks much bigger within the Persian context. The aim of this chapter is to explore how the roles of Persian intangible cultural heritage in tourism are perceived, and whether the intended roles can be promoted as practicable tourism strategies. Data analysis suggests intangible cultural heritage as a tool that contributes positively to developing tourism strategies through promoting destination attraction and marketing opportunities and sustainability in tourism.

Part III Visitors’ Perceptions of Heritage Setting and Cultural Attractions

Abstract

Building on key ideas about the value of savoring in understanding the importance of vacation memories, a sample of Iranians were asked to write a long paragraph (one page) which described a particularly important, happy, and enjoyable vacation occasion. The answers were coded using five categories developed from savoring studies. By benchmarking the scores with data from well-matched samples from other countries (specifically a European sample from Austria, and Chinese and Japanese respondents), the Iranian tourists were shown to be especially appreciative of vacations being grateful, marveling, luxuriating, and having a strong sense of the status value of their time. For Iranians, vacations provide powerful, evocative highlights for their lives.

Abstract

Cultural tourism comprises several heterogeneous activities. According to tourists’ interest in culture and their level of involvement with the local population during the trip, segments of cultural tourism can be identified. Regarding their characteristics and the place of the visit, this chapter explores how cultural tourism can contribute to a country like Iran. Based on the literature, the discussion begins by describing tourists’ profile while highlighting some features related to their traveling behavior. In line with past studies on host–guest relations and the current stage of development of the country as an international destination, potential impacts of opening the country to international cultural tourists are analyzed.

Abstract

Sculpted by the elements and inhabited by an established corpus of local families, Kandovan Village is a rare example of functioning cultural heritage largely overlooked by international tourists. Within this context, this chapter demonstrates how heritage sites can use their inherent sociocultural characteristics to stimulate tourism. Leveraging this encourages site managers to draw upon less tangible elements, such as the sincerity of local inhabitants and the potential for their site to serve as a platform for social interaction, in order to engage tourists, stimulate memorable experiences, and encourage repeated visits and recommendations to others. In doing so, this chapter highlights the importance of prior knowledge, word of mouth, and co-creation in crafting cultural heritage tourism experiences.

Abstract

Adolescents undoubtedly represent the future generation of adults who will be responsible for the preservation and management of heritage at local and national levels. It is essential to understand how to motivate and satisfy adolescents when visiting museums in their communities and beyond. A self-administered survey was conducted in 2016 with 360 adolescents who visited the Abgineh Museum of Tehran, Iran. Using descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were used to interpret the findings, offering new insights into the subject. The study results suggest that travel and tourism companions influence adolescents’ motivations and satisfaction to visit museums.

Part IV Emerging Means of Promotion and Management

Abstract

Hospitality has been an evident characteristic of Iranian society since ancient times. This chapter discusses the meaning of hospitality from the perspective of the cultural and traditional beliefs present in Iranian literature, religious beliefs, and food customs and deliveries. Reviewing the history of hospitality in Iran yields considerable evidence that this tradition dates to ancient times. This chapter shows that Iranian hospitality has been overlooked in research and suggests that exploring diverse aspects of it can aid tourism practitioners identify areas with potential and improve quality of service in its delivery.

Abstract

Iran, home to 22 World Heritage Sites in 2017, is blessed with an abundance of breathtaking scenery and a multitude of historic environments for tourists to enjoy. This exploratory chapter investigates tourists’ perceptions about the nature of heritage tourism in Iran, using the five most important cultural attractions as a starting point. A total of 25 photos and 60 reviews constitute the sample. The data were content-analyzed using a deductive and inductive procedure. The results show the relevance of sensory perceptions as a way of creating a bond with cultural heritage that should be considered in the future when defining a brand for Iran as a destination.

Abstract

The objective of this chapter is to establish the positioning on Booking.com of hotels located in the cities of Tehran, Kashan, Abyaneh, Isfahan, Yazd, Persepolis, and Shiraz, the main tourism destinations in the Islamic Republic of Iran. The methodology is quantitative, consisting of the development of a “Spyder” that allows content to be identified and timely information to be extracted from the web. The data obtained allow to establish the average rating by the evaluation categories stated by the platform, while contributing to determining the strengths and weaknesses that the establishments present. These relevant data can thus contribute to the improvement of the services and the destination in general.

Abstract

Recent political and socioeconomic events are providing Iran with the opportunity to become a high-profile destination. The question arises as to which strategic objectives can lead Iran to this end. Qualitative and quantitative improvements of hotel supply and the modernization of air transport should be the key objectives within this process. But the preservation of tangible and intangible cultural heritage, as well as the maintenance of authenticity, must remain the core principle. This chapter focuses on the role of cultural heritage management policies and what their tourism development implies for the host population, which will be the beneficiary of sustainable and responsible tourism development.

Part V Image of Iran and Competitive Positioning

Abstract

Tourism is one of the largest industries in world and is also emerging in Iran. While the country’s brand is still developing, it is important to investigate how current efforts are working towards ensuring tourists’ satisfaction and positive behavior in terms of intentions to recommend and revisit Iran. This chapter explores how destination brand image, value, awareness, and personality affects satisfaction from the perspective of tourists visiting Iran. The study explores if tourists’ satisfaction impacts their revisit and recommendation intentions in favor of Iran as a future holiday destination. The study results show that branding is a significant determinant of satisfaction and loyalty.

Abstract

This chapter examines the relationship between destination image and loyalty, and empirically determines the constructs that may influence tourist satisfaction with heritage tourism, which ultimately influences destination loyalty. Using data collected in the cultural heritage sites of Shiraz, Iran, it employs structural equation modeling for analysis. Evidence from the study results indicates that heritage tourists’ perception of destination image has a positive effect on their satisfaction and revisit intentions. This analysis provides insights into the behavioral intentions which may serve as an appropriate basis to boost tourist visits and revisits to a heritage destination.

Abstract

This chapter analyzes the concept of resident apathy toward heritage tourism and defines influences which underpin resident attitudes toward the development of tourism. It discusses the existing literature on community participation in tourism, paying attention to residents’ behavior toward its development. Adopting an interdisciplinary approach, the chapter provides information on analyzing residents’ apathy and identifying the dimensions which shape it. The discussion favors operations which promote internal marketing and branding increase interest in tourism development, and foster conceptual frameworks to advance the subject.

Abstract

This chapter evaluates the effects of second-home phenomena in several cities which, due to their unique spatial characteristics, are the target destination for the people who wish to escape routine life. The study setting, the Caspian Sea coastal zone, is endowed with natural comparative advantages due to its lush and green landscape, as well as sun, sea, and sand tourism, and has been experiencing high growth of second homes and village tourism during recent decades. Social exchange and stakeholder theories within the context of sustainable development compose the frame on which this study is based. The findings are discussed and followed with implications and hints for future research.

Abstract

Worldwide growth in both the Muslim middle class and younger generation has resulted in Islamic tourism becoming a significant global market segment, and a key growth sector for the economies of Islamic countries. The 121 million Muslim tourists of 2016 were expected to be 156 million in 2020, whereas the total spendings of US $220 billion of Muslim tourists will reach in 2026, $300 billion. This chapter focuses on Iran as one of the important Muslim-friendly destinations. With Islamic principles already in place, Iran is aiming to become a world hub for Islamic or halal tourism, while meeting new challenges and pursuing creative alternatives.

Index

Pages 393-406
Content available
Cover of Experiencing Persian Heritage
DOI
10.1108/S2042-1443201910
Publication date
2019-09-06
Book series
Bridging Tourism Theory and Practice
Editors
Series copyright holder
Emerald Publishing Limited
ISBN
978-1-78754-813-8
eISBN
978-1-78754-812-1
Book series ISSN
2042-1443