Tourism Destination Management in a Post-Pandemic Context

Cover of Tourism Destination Management in a Post-Pandemic Context

Global Issues and Destination Management Solutions



Table of contents

(26 chapters)

Part 1 Destination Management Post Pandemic


Purpose: The COVID-19 pandemic has created shock and turbulence for the tourism industry in Baltic states such as Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. To recover from the situation, tourism service providers had to act accordingly to maintain and sustain the tourism sector during and after the pandemic. The objective of the study is to analyse strategies adopted by Baltic states during and post pandemic times to recover the tourism industry.

Design/Methodology/Approach: The qualitative research method is based on survey and expert opinion of stakeholders of tourism in Baltic states. Further authors used content analysis of country and industry statements, articles, video stories, lectures and meetings.

Findings: Conclusion shows that there are several similarities in the recovery tactics of tourism by the government and other stakeholders amid the COVID-19 pandemic which include opening of borders among three countries for travellers, ability to jointly seek a solution for transformation, a common understanding between various tourism service providers. Non-governmental organisations demonstrated their power in influencing political decisions to adopt recovery strategies of tourism.

Originality/Value: This study provides a greater understanding of the state of tourism in Baltic states during the pandemic in general and the role of stakeholders in the process of recovery of tourism. The study provides the basement for continuing deeper research of COVID-19 influence on tourism in the Baltic states.


Bali tourism faces a great threat from the pandemic issue. COVID-19 causes a sharp decline of domestic and international tourist arrivals since many countries issued travel bans. All tourism sites in Bali are closed for tourists during the pandemic as ordered by the governing law. The research investigates the solution planned and applied by the cultural tourism destination managements during and post pandemic and understands how cultural tourism in Bali adapts the new norm tourismscape from the locals' and tourists' perspectives. The research uses qualitative method wherein the data were collected in two Hindu temples in Bali namely Goa Lawah and Tirta Empul, where tourists regularly gaze at authentic cultural tourist attractions through field observations, face-to-face interviews with tourism sites managers and tourists who purposely selected to ensure they understand the case. The data were triangulated by comparing and contrasting the informant's viewpoints to understand the case. The research finds that tourism site managements have applied the international health procedures prepared by management through intensive workshops and trainings to develop their competencies dealing with tourists during and post pandemic. This research claims that collaborative managements involving temple management, pecalang, police and soldiers have been dynamically adapted in mitigating the risks of COVID-19 outbreaks within the temple sites during the pandemic which distinct from the mainstream managements.


Purpose: This chapter is exploring opportunities out of the coronavirus crisis and investigating how to turn the crisis into a stepping stone for enhancing heritage tourism in Egypt.

Design: A qualitative approach is adopted and thirteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with key stakeholders about cultural heritage activities before, during, and after COVID-19.

Findings: Main findings of the chapter are divided into management-related (cultural sites carrying capacity, interpretation of cultural heritage attractions, site accessibility, hygiene, and safety) and marketing-related (the limited number of exhibited destinations, using technology and promoting heritage tourism locally) challenges.

Research Limitations/Implications: This study is limited to the Egyptian context. Future research could investigate the challenges and opportunities for heritage tourism in more developed countries. Besides, the use of qualitative methods can be altered to surveys in future research to enrich the body of knowledge in this area.

Practical Implications: The study is suggesting practical steps to tourism authorities related to management and marketing aspects of heritage tourism.

Originality/Value: This study is based on original research that produces new knowledge by using the study approach in collecting data, reports and interprets the findings and discusses possible implications.


Purpose: The COVID-19 global outbreak has delineated a scenario characterized by lockdown measures, travel bans, unemployment, cancelled bookings and limited travel confidence and logistics, thus forcing many tourism destinations and related tourism businesses to cease operations either partially or totally. Empirical studies aiming to assess the impacts of COVID-19 on the tourism and hospitality industry, as well as deepen our understanding about the main response actions that tourism stakeholders consider to be relevant to cope with the crisis, are extremely relevant. This is even more true in the context of island tourism destinations, where little research has addressed these issues so far. This study was therefore carried out to contribute to filling this research gap by presenting and discussing findings of an empirical research conducted on the accommodation sector in the Island of Sardinia (Italy) with the aim to investigate the impacts that the COVID-19 outbreak has generated on their booking and employment recruitment. Further, it also aims to identify and examine the most important response actions accommodation providers are implementing to cope with the situation, and what type of interventions they think regional/national institutions should adopt to sustain them.

Design/Methodology/Approach: A convergent mixed-method approach (data validation variant) was applied on a sample of 300 complete questionnaires collected in the period 15-30 March 2020, which included 140 narratives to be used for content analysis.

Findings: Quantitative findings report high cancellation rates, a severe decline in reservations and a relevant downsizing in staff recruitment. Qualitative findings identify several macro-based (i.e., institutional) and micro-based (i.e., business) interventions. Macro-based interventions are related to financial, fiscal, health, welfare, transport, destination management and destination marketing aspects. Micro-based interventions are mostly related to innovation, sanitation and cleanliness and pricing/cancellation policies.

Originality/Value: The chapter adds to the still limited island-related research aiming to assess the impacts of COVID-19 on the tourism and hospitality industry and to deepen the scientific debate about the main response actions that accommodation providers consider to be relevant to cope with the crisis.

Part 2 Disaster Management Post Pandemic


Purpose: The present chapter includes discussing the effects of COVID-19 in the tourism industry. Although much has been written on COVID-19 in these days, literature emphasizes on the economic devastating consequences of lockdown on tourism industry. The chapter goes in an opposite direction revealing the fears, expectance, and hopes of tourism staff in Argentina.

Design-Methodology: Because of the methodological impossibilities to conduct face-to-face interviews, we have employed digital platform to conduct 50 interviews in tourism professionals geographically located in different Argentinean cities as well as coming from different subsectors in the tourism industry. The used method was snowball which means that each interviewee recommended another one once the interview ends. The sample was drawn in 20 females and 30 males from 25 to 55 years old.

Findings: The findings suggest three important assumptions. Interviewees expressed some partisan or ideological hostilities against China and Eastern countries. The Chinese tourists were seen with some mistrust for interviewed people as well as the reaction of Chinese government to stop the pandemic. In other cases, old inter-class rivalries were found when interviewees blamed the stranded (rich) tourists as the main carriers of the virus in Argentina-wide. Hostilities and chauvinist expression against neighboring countries such Bolivia or Chile were overtly uttered. These narratives escalate when interviewees manifest their wages have been unilaterally slumped down. By the side, digital technologies offer as fertile ground to exploit new forms of tourism in the years to come.

Research Limitations: The obtained outcome should be validated in next approaches because the sample is not statistically representative of the universe. The restrictions imposed by the lockdown impeded further research today. In the same line, the sample was limited to tourism professionals, which suggests that policymakers should be included in the future research.

Practical Implications: Understanding the fears and hope of tourism staff is an alternative way to enact sustainable policies to mitigate the negative effects of the pandemic in the tourism industry. While these policies construct a bridge between theory and management, no less true is that the future of tourism remains uncertain.

Originality Value: The present chapter provides an original empirical insight into the viewpoint of tourism staff, which is today subject to countless fears and deprivations. The extensive lockdown imposed by Argentinean government, accompanied by the impossibility to orchestrate a preparedness program of mitigation, has led the industry to a slow agony. The chapter reflects the rise of an anti-foreign discourse and sentiment oriented to demonize not only the Chinese (Asian) tourists but also expatriates living abroad. This anti-tourist discourse, which oppose to the neologism offered by Urry as the “tourist-gaze,” univocally exhibits the start of a radicalized hospitality we dubbed as “the wicked-gaze.” The “Other” is not an object of curiosity any longer, but “a potential enemy” to be controlled.


Purpose: The COVID-19 pandemic has fundamentally impacted upon the travel supply chain and influenced tourist behaviours. This is further evidenced in corporate and travel firm concerns surrounding future sales and profitability. Instilling confidence amongst tourists is therefore imperative to ensure consumers continue purchasing the holiday product. However, the management of an intangible and relatively unknown virus has compounded the already difficult management of the tourist experience.

Design/Methodology/Approach: The chapter reviews the impact of COVID-19 in the context of the tourism supply chain and the safety and security measures implemented in destinations. The financial implications of safety and security measures are acknowledged with management challenges and solutions discussed. The chapter underpins its analysis with the use of regional, national and international examples.

Findings: Contingency strategies ranging from quarantine to health and safety certification have been deployed by national governments and regional authorities. However, the complexity of the tourism product and the range of stakeholders involved in its make-up and distribution compounds the ability to ensure safety from the virus.

Practical Implications: The review acknowledges limitations of health and safety measures in the field and forwards alternative suggestions that can be adopted by tourism destinations and enterprises.

Originality/Value: The chapter is novel in that it reviews health and safety and financial security practices in the field as they relate to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Purpose: This chapter analyzes how the COVID-19 pandemic has been managed and strategies put in place to rejuvenate the tourism industry in Uganda.

Methodology: This chapter adopts an integrated approach involving questionnaire survey and rapid situational analysis of documents to synthesize information on management of past disease outbreaks, COVID-19 and their impacts on tourism.

Findings: Uganda's tourism industry is vulnerable and has been exposed to past disease outbreaks such as Ebola and Marburg with varying effects on its image and performance. With the outbreak of COVID-19, the industry has drawn lessons from the previous responses and management experiences to cope with the effects of the pandemic.

Research Limitations: The main limitation in this chapter is the low response rate due to stringent lockdown conditions and limited access to respondents and official documents.

Practical Implications: This chapter recommends the need to mainstream strategies for crisis management into the tourism policy and development planning frameworks.

Originality/Value: This chapter provides a robust approach to analyze tourism industry's response, recovery and sustainability after disease outbreaks, pandemics and related crises in future.


Purpose: To investigate best practices pertaining to tourism resilience and develop a tourism resilience framework for post-COVID-19 Bangladesh from the tourism destination management perspective.

Methodology: A qualitative research approach involving an integrative literature review was used in this research. Thirty-two scholarly works were considered in a thematic data analysis conducted to inform the development of a framework for post-COVID-19 Bangladesh.

Findings: Tourism resilience will be imperative, particularly in the areas of ecology, society, economy, and engineering, on institutional and individual levels. The proposed framework includes government, organization, social, and individual level resilience as the specific measures for Bangladesh. The particular nature of COVID-19 cases in Bangladesh, resulting in a relatively low death toll amidst a high-density population, works as a supportive ground in favor of resilience in the post-COVID-19 reality.

Practical Implications: The integrated framework is a theoretical contribution to post-COVID-19 tourism resilience literature on Bangladesh. It will operate as a policy guideline for key stakeholders when implementing initiatives to revive the tourism sector in the changed reality of Bangladesh after the pandemic.

Originality: The framework presented in this paper is the first attempt of its kind and can facilitate effective economic rebuilding in the changed postpandemic reality. The framework can be generalized to apply to other developing countries as well.

Paper Type: Theoretical framework development.

Part 3 Local Communities and Destination Recovery Post Pandemic


In the wake of the COVID-19 health crisis, destinations are facing the challenging task of reopening their borders while keeping resident population safe. Destination communities help to flatten the infection curve while tourists contribute to spread the virus. This chapter explores the impacts of a health crisis on stakeholders' emotional solidarity and support for tourism. Twenty-six semi-structured interviews were conducted with different stakeholders. Findings show that informants who perceive socioeconomic tourism benefits are likely to support it in exchange for appropriate health measures. Others affected sociopsychologically by the pandemic feel negative emotional solidarity toward foreign tourists. Thus, delineating the role of a health crisis becomes a crucial research question that can contribute to academic understanding of support for tourism. As uncertainty over border reopening currently affects 24% countries worldwide, these findings can be relevant to policymakers.


While the tourism sector is experiencing one of the worst crises in its history due to COVID-19, institutions and governments continue to try to minimize the effects. Social networks have become an indispensable tool for communications and product sales. This case study focuses on integrating the use of social networks for the tourism sector in order to contribute to the reconstruction of the territory of Andalusia. To achieve this goal, a multistage content analysis has been carried out. On the one hand, the metrics of the institution in charge of tourism in the region have been analyzed, and on the other hand, the same study has been carried out with the residents. From this comparison it is established that residents attract more comments and responses in their individual posts about Andalusia than those published by the Andalusian government entity. Therefore, the resident can become the influence of his territory and can contribute to attract tourists and to show the products that are offered in his region. This research provides the evidence for the institutions in charge of promoting tourism to take into account the resident as a dynamic agent in overcoming the consequences of the pandemic.


The purpose of this chapter is to present survey findings on the important contributions by civil society groups and organizations involved in tourism in Kenya. This seeks to make them more understood and make a case for their involvement in efforts towards revival of tourism post COVID-19. The research objectives are to investigate contributions of these groups to tourism in Kenya as well as investigate challenges they face. The methodology used is largely qualitative whereby a survey of key informants was carried out. This allowed the researcher to be familiarized with the issues at hand. A semi-structured interview guide was developed that was pretested with four key informants. Key informants included a wide variety of stakeholders in tourism including tour guides, small restaurants owners, travel agency owners, farmers, local chiefs, women, and youth groups. Findings show the contributions of these groups including provisions of unique experiences for tourists as well as challenges experienced including poor road network. The conclusion shows that even as government and other stakeholders engage them post COVID-19, they need to pay attention to their challenges and support them so that they can make greater contributions in the sector.


Purpose: The purpose of the chapter lies in identifying the challenges that female employees in the South African hospitality industry will face in the context of the economic impact of the COVID-19 lockdown.

Design: With this aim, we developed a questionnaire that has been filled by 101 hospitality professionals in order to explore the work security and perceived opportunities of people working in hospitality in South Africa.

Findings: Our findings confirm that South African women feel more uncertainty about their occupational future and are more afraid that they will not find a job within the tourism sector, even though it is one of the sectors where female employment is higher.

Research Limitations: The study was limited by the lack of literature regarding impact on gender disparities due to lockdown and the relative short period of time during which the data were collected. We recommend that future research should measure long-term effects of COVID-19 pandemic on this issue.

Practical/Social Implications: In order to alleviate the damage done by the post-COVID-19 lockdown on the South African tourist and hospitality industries policies addressing the accessibility of female workers to the job market need to be urgently developed and implemented.

Originality: Ours is the first research ever focussing on the gender inequalities in the tourism labour market in South Africa.

Part 4 Marketing and Promotion of Destinations Post Pandemic


The tourism industry has been adversely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Considering Turkey's global importance in both domestic and foreign tourism, being able to determine consumers' vacation plans and risk perceptions during the COVID-19 pandemic has become more important than ever. This study aims to quantify the effect of COVID-19 on the consumers' perceived risk and behavioral intention in the context of the tourism industry. An online questionnaire was conducted on 234 Turkish participants between July and August 2020. In this study we compare the risk perceptions of consumers who plan to take a vacation and those who do not, in six dimensions regarding the perceived risk of Turkish tourists after the first wave COVID-19 pandemic in order to provide further insight. Therefore, Exploratory Factor analysis (EFA), Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and t-test analyses were performed. The results revealed that risk perceptions of those who plan their vacation post COVID-19 are lower. Participants who plan to soon go on vacation have lower psychological, equipment and cost, performance, social, and physical risk perceptions regarding the COVID-19 pandemic than those who do not have a vacation plan. These findings aid our understanding how risk perception affects behavioral willingness to travel.


Purpose: In March 2020, due to the global emergency ensuing from the COVID-19 pandemic, the Italian government closed all national museums, institutes and places of culture heritage and landscape. The shutdown highlighted the need to develop and implement digital solutions, especially through ICTs, to enhance the cultural heritage worldwide by allowing people to go on admiring it, albeit remotely. Numerous initiatives were promoted, such as virtual experiential tours, online collections and ad hoc social and digital programs, all of which contributed to the rich dialogue between people and culture. Although digital initiatives for using and enjoying the cultural heritage have been successfully developed and implemented, in Italy the process of digitalisation of cultural heritage and the services provided are still far from being completed. This chapter investigates the development and implementation of digital technologies in the museums located in the Campania Region in Southern Italy throughout the COVID-19 outbreak to identify and analyse the experiential strategies and initiatives developed through information communication technologies (ICTs) to face the emergency.

Design/Methodology/Approach: By adopting a qualitative methodology, using primary and secondary data sources through a manual content analysis, experiential strategies and initiatives employed by the Campania regional museums when using digital solutions have been identified and categorised.

Findings: Despite the effectiveness of digital initiatives, and the experiences investigated appear both significant and interesting, there is still a need to develop and implement new experiential strategies in this field.

Research Limitations: This study presents several limitations, mostly related to its qualitative explorative nature, but also because its results cannot be generalised.

Practical Implications: These first results outline the need to further develop innovative strategies and initiatives within the museums. The process of digitalisation of cultural heritage and the services provided are still far from completion, potentially providing wide margins of further evolution by means of further investments in technology innovation, to rethink and redesign the traditional management models for enhancing the cultural heritage through digital technology.

Originality: This study provides a portrait of museum experiences supported by digital technologies in a country which plays a crucial role in the field of international cultural heritage. The analysis can also usefully contribute to the existing literature due to the qualitative technique employed for carrying out the multiple case study.


The sport events are very different for the people involved in the meeting (foreigners or national, regional, or local people) and the locations and now are in very crisis. After a review of literature on the effects of sport events, the chapter would suggest how to take into account sporting events after COVID-19. In this context, the chapter is aimed to assessing to impact the destinations through the methodology of case study. The research focused particularly on the project of the Italian Golf Federation for the organization of the Ryder Cup 2022 and assumed the economic, social, and environmental effects of this event on tourist system of local and regional scale. The golf events, nevertheless, can be easier to organize than other sporting events that take place, for example, in arenas and with great public access. The golf events, in fact, can involve a single person during the game and can play on air and be a great encouragement to promote local sustainable development (Fyall & Jago, 2007). The chapter, at least, is aimed to suggest the new policy to implement sport events to promote a new form of tourism, offering new incentives for local sustainable development of regional community, including all the participants to the events.

Part 5 Sustaining Tourism Post Pandemic


The outbreak of COVID-19 has brought the global tourism to a standstill. Being a labor-intensive industry, tourism is the worst affected sector. Since the last few years, the concept of sustainability has become an integral part of planning and developing any destination. Through its strong multiplier effect, it supports a wide variety of jobs for every strata of society. Hence, without tourism the innumerable suppliers of goods and services to the industry would unable to sustain their business and livelihood. The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a 22% fall in international tourist arrivals during the first quarter of 2020 and could lead to an annual decline of between 60% and 80% (UNWTO Report, May 2020). The purpose of the study is to understand the impact of the pandemic on key components of tourism and to determine the major challenging aspects in developing sustainable tourism post COVID-19. The chapter is based on qualitative research and a convenience sample was used for this study. To make the study more worthwhile data triangulation was used. The limitations of the study are confined to the city of Varanasi, India, workforce working in the tourism and allied sectors. The verdict of the chapter is to perceive how COVID-19 has adversely affected the tourism workforce. Also, to solve the challenges how there is a need to be decisive while planning sustainable tourism development and emphasize local people, the environment, and small-scale tourism businesses to make their survival possible post COVID-19.


Purpose: The purpose of the chapter is to analyze the impact of COVID-19 on the social sustainability of tourism in Uttarakhand, which is located in the Himalayan region in the developing country of India. The chapter also throws light on the state's governmental level interventions amidst the pandemic to restore social sustainability in the tourist destinations and debates on how social sustainability can be restored in the region.

Design/Methodology/Approach: The chapter is conceptual in nature and based upon secondary sources.

Findings: The finding highlights how the current pandemic has exacerbated the social sustainability in tourist destinations in several ways and how government steps to restore social sustainability are appreciable in the short term, but much more needs to be done in the long run.

Research Limitations/Implications: As the chapter is based on secondary literature, the study based on primary work is suggested to give a much clearer picture of the prevailing ground reality.

Practical Implications: The chapter highlights the possibilities of bringing new sustainability ideas and initiating well-being programmes for the local community during and after a pandemic that the government can adopt.

Social Implications: The chapter identifies critical social implications in terms of inequities and challenges in restoring social sustainability in tourist places amidst the pandemic.

Originality/Value: This study provides novel insight into the change in social sustainability in tourism amidst the coronavirus pandemic, which has been overlooked in tourism studies.


This study explores the potential of cultural heritage product in the promotion of Kenya's tourism. The Ministry of Tourism Strategic Plan 2008–2012 identified the untapped tourism potential in the areas of eco-tourism, culture, conference and cruise as an opportunity for the future of Kenya's tourism. The report isolated inadequate development of the cultural product as a major weakness in Kenya's tourism. Invention in the cultural heritage tourism product (CHTP) would ease overdependence on beach and wildlife tourism for sustainability and leverage Tourist Destination Kenya's (TDK) competitiveness. This can only be achieved if a blueprint for heritage conservation and tourism is developed and implemented. To achieve its objective, this study employed observation, in-depth interviews and a review of secondary data to investigate current CHTP practices. The research was extended to cultural and heritage site visits. The sites were selected in a non-probabilistic manner based on their cultural significance. The study established that Kenya has a rich CHTP which has not been fully exploited for the purpose of tourism. It observed that the promotion of cultural heritage tourism in Kenya is weakened by lack of proper policies and poor perception of culture as a tourism product. It concluded that cultural tourism has the potential to withstand the ravages of COVID-19 due to its structure and nostalgic characteristics. This study recommends a policy framework heralding effective CHTP management and a post-COVID-19 recovery program marked by new protocols. The study is novel in its methodology, choice of sites and COVID-19 reality.


Purpose: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the tourism industry globally. It is essential to explore the post-COVID-19 travel intentions of potential tourists. The exploratory study is aimed to investigate the potential Indian tourists' travel plans, tourism perceptions, and their behavioral intentions regarding the adoption of sustainable tourism practices post-COVID-19.

Methodology: The study was based on primary data. Through an online survey, 225 responses were collected using convenient sampling. Data were analyzed with SPSS 20.0 software. Simple percentage, frequency, and mean were calculated to examine the post-COVID-19 travel plans and tourism perception of Indians. Factor analysis was used to analyze the adoption of sustainable practices.

Findings: Since May 2020, with the unlocking process, travel has been resuming in India. People are obligating to their “right to travel” and foreseeing travel plans. The study found that potential tourists will prefer short-duration trips with family and friends and intend to avoid crowded destinations post the pandemic. Indian tourists are inclined to consider environment conservation and sustainability in future travels and are more willing to explore natural sites. Offbeat destinations are expected to gain popularity. People believed that tourists will adopt more sustainable and innovative practices post-COVID-19.

Originality/Value: This study enhances the understanding of tourism policymakers, practitioners, and services providers concerning tourism behavior post-COVID-19.

Implications: The study focused on potential tourists' planning; the perceptions of service providers can also be studied for future research to gain profound insights regarding the tourism sector.

Part 6 Tourism Education Post Pandemic


Purpose: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in vital implications for tourism education and curricula, and the education effectiveness in times of crisis ought to be resilient in the light of its preparedness, response and recovery policies and research. Purpose of the study is to analyse the academic practices in tourism education with a specific focus for incorporating the resilient adaptation strategies.

Design/Methodology/Approach: The study is conducted using content analysis of published data along with interviews with heads of the tourism educational institutions.

Findings: Very few universities are offering courses on resilience and disaster management as part of the curriculum in the tourism study programmes.

Originality/Value: The chapter provides strategies on the effective integration of resilient tourism policy and practices as mitigation measures into the tourism education system with a special emphasis on disaster prevention, mitigation and vulnerability reduction at the destinations in the post-COVID-19 scenario.


Purpose: This study purposes to explore the numerous factors that had affected the tourism industry during the novel coronavirus outbreak in India. It also discusses the guidelines, directives and measures proposed by reputed agencies and organisations on the importance of education and training of the staff and consumers to boost their confidence in travelling and enhance their re-visit and re-purchase intentions.

Design/Methodology/Approach: A comprehensive literature review of the directives, guidelines and measures proposed by World Health Organization (WHO), Food safety and standards Authority of India (FSSAI), Federation of Hotel and Restaurant Association of India (FHRAI) will be done to explore the possibilities that are emerging for the revival of the hospitality industry in India, especially through education and training.

Results: This study based on the review of literature discussed the various guidelines on safety and hygiene concerning COVID-19 based on the different sub-sectors of the entire tourism industry (Accommodation, Airlines and Attractions) including areas where their implementation is required, for example, guest handling at front of the house areas, receiving and material handling, guest rooms, restaurants, kitchens, room service, linen handling, customer handling in airlines and airports and guest transportation.

Originality: This study will be useful for the stakeholders in tourism to re-draft their standard operating procedures to thrive back and instil trust amongst the tourists related to their safe and healthy stay at the hotels. It will also help the stakeholders to appropriately train their employees and give their guests an unforgettable and safe inclusive hotel experience.


This chapter examines the existing support systems available to educators and students for the implementation of travel and tourism education during the lockdown period following the declaration of COVID-19 as a pandemic. It also explores ways in which stakeholders, namely, policymakers, schools, travel and tourism educators, learners and others, should rethink and re-inforce the existing support systems to support travel and tourism education in an eventual educational crisis. A lack of subject-specific reports and literature on the ways travel and tourism educators and learners managed during the crisis justifies the importance of this chapter as it provides empirical evidence of a broad set of human experiences. The research design is conceptualized for a framework of future planning and response in crises for the continuity of travel and tourism education exploring change management approaches to coordination, critical processes and tools for rebuilding the support system for quality travel and tourism education. Methodologically, the voices and experiences of secondary travel and tourism educators facing teaching and learning through the period of crisis are gauged through interviews and discussion. This chapter informs about how the existing support system for travel and tourism education requires further reinforcement post COVID-19 to ensure access, equity, equality, gender equality protection, quality and continuity.

Cover of Tourism Destination Management in a Post-Pandemic Context
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Tourism Security-Safety and Post Conflict Destinations
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Emerald Publishing Limited