Tourism Destination Management in a Post-Pandemic Context

ISBN: 978-1-80071-512-7, eISBN: 978-1-80071-511-0

Publication date: 11 June 2021


(2021), "Prelims", Gowreesunkar, V.G., Maingi, S.W., Roy, H. and Micera, R. (Ed.) Tourism Destination Management in a Post-Pandemic Context (Tourism Security-Safety and Post Conflict Destinations), Emerald Publishing Limited, Leeds, pp. i-xliii.



Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2021 Emerald Publishing Limited

Half Title Page

Tourism Destination Management in a Post-Pandemic Context


The COVID-19 pandemic has set major challenges for the tourism industry at both global and local scales. Central to our understanding of changes arising from and responses to the pandemic is the role of destinations and their various stakeholders and communities. The range of cases in this edited collection will provide useful insights into the strategies that destination management organisations develop in reaction to the effects of the pandemic and beyond.

Professor C. Michael Hall Department of Management, Marketing and Entrepreneurship, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand

Tourism is critical for travellers' happiness and for their life balance and mental health. It is also pivotal for the livelihood of so many communities around the world. At a time when the world is still striving to develop resources and references to face the pandemic, this book is a timely strategy offering destination management solutions post pandemic. The book draws from case studies and success stories from a variety of destinations in Europe, America, Asia, Africa, Indonesia and islands. Readers will gain knowledge from best practice around the world to restart the tourism activity and improve crisis management and resilience.

Professor Dimitrios Buhalis

Director eTourism Research Lab

Bournemouth University Business School

Tourism is a fact of life, ingrained in the socio-cultural fabrics of the global village we call home. Soon after COVID-19 checks out,tourism checks in. Based on lessons learned during the pandemic grip,this timely tome – powered with international case studies and laden with innovative strategies – favors collaborative community-based strategies for its restart.

Prof. Jafar Jafari

Professor Emeritus, University of Wisconsin-Stout, USA

Professor Catedratico, University of Algarve, Portugal

I highly recommend this important book for professionals, academics and DMOs because of its insight into the issues and challenges facing tourist destinations during and after the COVID-19 pandemic and for what it contains to reveal emerging trends and suggest new administrative solutions in order to develop the adaptive capabilities of tourism destinations during the current and post-pandemic phase.

Prof. Dr. Said El Batouty

UN Economic Commission for Europe

Geneva, Switzerland

A very comprehensive, timely and relevant piece of work on destination management. Few such good books exist on destination management. This is a masterpiece written by experienced tourism professionals, scholars and researchers from Asia, Europe, North America, Africa and the Pacific Islands.

Published at a time when the novel corona virus has ravaged most destinations worldwide and brought the once robust tourism industry almost to a standstill, it provides insights on how various destinations can build capacity and resilience to deal with the present and future pandemics.

A must read by researchers, scholars and students of tourism in general and destination management in particular. Also an essential reference for policy makers and other industry actors.

Prof. Evaristus M. Irandu, PhD, Professor of Travel, Tourism and Economic Geography, University of Nairobi, Kenya

Tourism is considered to be a resilient phenomenon, so there is much hope for a good recovery after this pandemic period is over. Resilience, however, is not a property that always spontaneously emerges out of nowhere but needs certain specific grounds. Among these are, without doubt, the capacity to address problems and a good amount of creative and innovative ideas. To do that, as known, we need a wealth of suggestions and examples. Here is where this book helps. It offers a wide spectrum of possibilities presenting both cases and models from all over the world and from diverse environments. Last but not least, the book also includes some discussions on how to better educate the future generation of practitioners and managers. An issue often little considered, but of fundamental importance.

Rodolfo Baggio, PhD FRGS, Master in Economics and Tourism and Dondena Center for Research on Social Dynamics and Public Policy Bocconi University – Milan, Italy

Tourism Security-Safety and Post Conflict Destinations

Series editors: Maximiliano E. Korstanje and Hugues Seraphin

Since the turn of the century, the international rules surrounding security and safety have significantly changed, specifically within the tourism industry. In the age of globalization, terrorism and conflict have moved beyond individual high-profile targets; instead, tourists, travellers and journalists are at risk. In response to this shift, the series invites authors and scholars to contribute to the conversation surrounding tourism security and post-conflict destinations.

The series features monographs and edited collections to create a critical platform which not only explores the dichotomies of tourism from the theory of mobilities but also provides an insightful guide for policy makers, specialists and social scientists interested in the future of tourism in a society where uncertain-ness, anxiety and fear prevail.

Tourism Security-Safety and Post Conflict Destinations explores research approaches and perspectives from a wide range of ideological backgrounds to discuss topics such as:

  • Studies related to comparative cross-cultural perceptions of risk and threat

  • Natural and human-caused disasters

  • Post-disaster recovery strategies in tourism and hospitality

  • Terror movies and tourism

  • Aviation safety and security

  • Crime and security issues in tourism and hospitality

  • Political instability, terrorism and tourism

  • Thana-tourism

  • War on terror and Muslim-tourism

  • The effects of global warming on tourism destinations

  • Innovative quantitative/qualitative methods for the study of risk and security issues in tourism and hospitality

  • Virus outbreaks and tourism mobility

  • Disasters, trauma and tourism

  • Apocalyptic theories and tourism as a form of entertainment

Volumes in this series:

Tourism, Terrorism and Security

Edited by Maximiliano E. Korstanje and Hugues Seraphin

International Case Studies in the Management of Disasters

Edited by Dr Babu George and Dr Qamaruddin Mahar

Tourism Safety and Security for the Caribbean (Forthcoming)

By Andrew Spencer and Peter E. Tarlow

Overtourism as Destination Risk: Impacts and Solutions (Forthcoming)

Edited by Anukrati Sharma and Azizul Hassan

Title Page

Tourism Destination Management in a Post-Pandemic Context: Global Issues and Destination Management Solutions

Edited by

Vanessa GB Gowreesunkar

Anant National University, India

Shem Wambugu Maingi

Kenyatta University, Kenya

Hiran Roy

Fairleigh Dickinson University, Canada


Roberto Micera

National Research Council of Italy Institute for

Studies on the Mediterranean, Italy

United Kingdom – North America – Japan – India – Malaysia – China

Copyright Page

Emerald Publishing Limited

Howard House, Wagon Lane, Bingley BD16 1WA, UK

First edition 2021

Copyright © 2021 Emerald Publishing Limited

Reprints and permissions service


No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without either the prior written permission of the publisher or a licence permitting restricted copying issued in the UK by The Copyright Licensing Agency and in the USA by The Copyright Clearance Center. Any opinions expressed in the chapters are those of the authors. Whilst Emerald makes every effort to ensure the quality and accuracy of its content, Emerald makes no representation implied or otherwise, as to the chapters' suitability and application and disclaims any warranties, express or implied, to their use.

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

ISBN: 978-1-80071-512-7 (Print)

ISBN: 978-1-80071-511-0 (Online)

ISBN: 978-1-80071-513-4 (Epub)


Dedicated to all tourism entrepreneurs and employees in difficulty; to all tourism heroes who struggled hard during the pandemic and are still struggling for a livelihood; to all COVID Center Doctors and Nurses who risk their lives every day; and more importantly, to our families who unconditionally supported us in the realization of this book project.

Vanessa, Shem, Hiran and Roberto

Book Editors

List of Figures

Figure 1.1. Respondents by the Type of Tourism Organisation.
Figure 1.2. Is Loan of ALTUM Seen as Support Mechanism?
Figure 1.3. Necessity of Separate Grant for Innovation and Competitiveness.
Figure 1.4. Opening of the Borders and Closing of Restrictions for Public Events.
Figure 4.1. By How Many Units Will Hiring Be Reduced This Season?
Figure 7.1. Recovery Model for Tourism Industry.
Figure 7.2. Adaptation of Uganda's Tourism Industry to Disease Outbreaks and Post-COVID-19 Recovery Scenarios.
Figure 8.1. Integrative Framework.
Figure 12.1. Percentage Education Level of Respondents.
Figure 14.1. Methodological Scheme.
Figure 15.1. The Activation of Local Development Determined by the Creative Industry and Sport Events.
Figure 18.1. International Visitors to Kenya 2010–2019.
Figure 18.2. SWOT Analysis of CHTP in Kenya.
Figure 19.1. Potential Tourists' Post-COVID-19 Travel Plans.
Figure 19.2. Potential Tourists' Travel Purpose and Destination Priority.
Figure 19.3. Indians' Perception Regarding Post-COVID-19 Tourism.
Figure 22.1. Traditional versus Online Spaces for Travel and Tourism Education.
Figure 22.2. Kurt Lewin Change Model: Three-stage Change Process.
Figure 22.3. Kubler-Ross 5-stage Change Curve.
Figure 22.4. Ecosystem for Conducive Teaching and Learning Environment.

List of Tables

Table 1.1. Description of Three Baltic Countries.
Table 1.2. Overview of Main Crossing Points.
Table 1.3. Overview of COVID-19 Cases in All Three Baltic States.
Table 4.1. As a Consequence of the COVID-19 Outbreak How Many Booking Cancellations (%) Have You Received in Your Accommodation in the Following Months?
Table 4.2. Thinking about the Effect That the COVID-19 Outbreak Will Have in the Future, What is the Reduction (%) of Bookings You Expect to Experience in the Following Months?
Table 4.3. Response Actions in Sales: The Accommodation Providers' Views.
Table 4.4. Response Actions to Be Undertaken by the Institutions: The Accommodation Providers' Views.
Table 4.5. Respondents Views about Interventions.
Table 7.1. Strategies and Actions for Managing Disease Outbreaks.
Table 7.2. Future Tourism Research Areas.
Table 8.1. Types of Resilience.
Table 9.1. Category and Number of Informants.
Table 10.1. Vive Andalucia's Followers.
Table 10.2. Updates with More Reactions on Facebook.
Table 10.3. Most Relevant Posts on Instagram.
Table 10.4. Most Important Posts on Twitter.
Table 10.5. Residents' Posts.
Table 10.6. Residents' Posts with More Engagement on Twitter.
Table 12.1. Differences in Perception between Genders on Job Prospects and Job Security.
Table 12.2. Gender Responses Regarding Factors Influencing Employment Opportunities in Hospitality in South Africa.
Table 13.1. Variables, Scale Items, and Descriptive Statistics.
Table 13.2. Perceived Risk Scale Exploratory Factor Analysis.
Table 13.3. Goodness-of-Fit Index.
Table 13.4. Reliability and Validity Analysis Results.
Table 13.5. T-test Results for the Hypotheses.
Table 14 1. Sampling: Overview of 72 Museums Located in the Campania Region.
Table 15.1. International Sport Events in 2016 and Tourism Movement Generated.
Table 19.1. Demographic Profile.
Table 19.2. Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin (KMO) Value.
Table 19.3. Potential Tourists' Sustainable Behavior Intentions Post-COVID-19.

List of Abbreviations


Artificial Intelligence


Latvian Development Finance Institution


Museum of Contemporary Religious Art


Association of Uganda Tour Operators


British Broadcasting Corporation


Behavioural Intention


Bali Statistic Agency


Compound Annual Growth Rate


the Communal Areas Program for the Indigenous Resources


Community-based Tourism


Centre for Disease Control and Prevention


Confirmatory Factor Analysis


Cultural Heritage Tourism Product


Cambridge International Examination


Standing Committee for Economic and Commercial Cooperation of the Organization of the Islamic Cooperation


Cost Risk


Central Statistics Bureau of Latvia


Germany (D), Austria (A) and Switzerland (CH)


Destination Management Organization


Exploratory Factor analysis


Equipment Risk


Education of Sustainable Development


Emotional Solidarity Theory


European Travel Commission


European Union


Ernst Young


Federation of Associations in Indian Tourism & Hospitality


Food Safety and Standards Authority of India


Federation of Hotel & Restaurant Associations of India


Foreign tourist arrival


Gross Domestic Product


Goodness of Fit Indices


Geographical Information System


Global Partnership for Financial Inclusion


the Global Sustainable Tourism Criteria for Destinations


Influenza A virus subtype


Health Sector Professionals


International Association of Golf Tour Operators


International Air Transport Association


Instituto Costarricense De Turosmo


Italian Golf Federation


International Labour Organization


International Monetary Fund


The National Institute for Statistics


International Trade Centre


Kenya National Bureau of Standards


Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy


Klynveld Peat Marwick Goerdeler


Kenya Tourism Board


Kenya Wildlife Services


Ladies Golf Association


Local inhabitant




The Peace Museum


Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Napoli


Museum and Historical Archive of the San Carlo Theatre


Middle East Respiratory Syndrome


Mauritius Examinations Syndicate


Uganda's Minister of Finance, Planning and Economic Development


Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities of Italy


Meetings, Incentives, Conferencing and Exhibitions


Mauritius Institute of Education


Ministry of Education and Human Resources of Mauritius


Micro, Small and Medium Enterprise


Ministry of Tourism, Wildlife and Antiquities


South Africa National Development Planning commission


Non-Governmental Organization


National Institute of Tourism and Hospitality Management


National Museums of Kenya


Non-pharmaceutical Intervention


Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development


Organization for European Economic Co-operation


Online Travel Agents


Pacific Asia Travel Association


Risk perception


Polymerase Chain Reaction


Performance Risk


Professional Golfers Association


Physical Risk


Personal Protective Equipment


Private Secondary Education Authority


Psychological Risk


Revenue Per Available Room


Republic of Kenya


Rapid Situation Analysis


Representative of Tourism Trade Union


Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome




Standard Deviation


Sustainable Development Goal


Social Exchange Theory


Small Medium-sized Enterprise


Social Risk


Standard Operating Procedure


Travel and Tourism


Tourist Destination Kenya


Turkey Tourism Promotion and Development Agency


Tourism Industry Representative


Tourism Professional


Turkish Statistical Institute


Uganda Development Bank


Uganda Hotel Owners Association


United Kingdom


United Nations Conference on Trade and Development


United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization


United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees


United Nations World Tourism Organization


Uganda Tourism Association


Uganda Tourism Board


Uganda Wildlife Authority


Uganda Wildlife Conservation and Education Centre


Vidzeme University of Applied Sciences


World Commission on Environment and Development


World Health Organization


Word of Mouth


World Tourism Organization


World Travel and Tourism Council

About the Contributors

Nazeerah Sheik Abbass, PhD, lectures at the Mauritius Institute of Education in the Business Education Department. She holds a PhD in Regional Cooperation and Trade. She holds 12 years of experience in the field of teacher education in economics, accounting, business and travel and tourism subjects.

Ilgvars Abols, PhD, is Director of tourism studies and Coordinator of international students at Vidzeme University of Applied Sciences, Latvia. He has several publications to his credit including CABI.

Sanjida Amin is currently serving as Lecturer of marketing at Bangladesh University of Professionals. Sanjida completed her Master of Business Administration (MBA) in the Department of Marketing at University of Dhaka. Her research interests include ecological awareness and behaviour, sustainable consumption and sustainable service management particularly in marketing, tourism and hospitality.

Bindu is Research Scholar (SRF) at IHTM, MD University, Rohtak, India. She is conducting research on online travel reviews. She completed her postgraduation in Tourism Management from IHTM. Her research interests include online reviews, social media, sustainable tourism and ecotourism.

Carmen Bizzarri, PhD, is qualified as Associate Professor in Economic Geography. She currently teaches as Assistant Professor in Environmental Policies, Sustainable Tourism and Didactic of Geography courses at European University of Rome.

Galina Bukovska, PhD is a Board Member for Latvia Convention Bureau and guest Lecturer at Vidzeme University of Applied Sciences, Latvia.

Lidia Caballero-Galeote, is a PhD candidate in the Department of Tourism at the Universidad de Málaga. Her fields of research are communication, airport management and tourism.

Juliet Chipumuro, Stenden South Africa, holds a PhD in Management from Rhodes University, a Master’s in Business Administration, a Bachelor of Technology, Education Management and a Diploma in Education. She has published a number of articles on Emotional Intelligence in Hospitality and Tourism, Leadership, Sustainable Tourism and others.

Pravina Cooshna-Gunputh lectures at the Mauritius Institute of Education (MIE, Mauritius) in the Business Education Department. She holds a BA (Economics) and MA (Economics) from SavitriBai Phule, Pune University, India. She also holds a Diploma in Aviation, Hospitality and Travel Management from the Institute of Commercial Management, UK.

Crispin Dale, PhD, is Course Leader for the Tourism Management degree at the University of Wolverhampton. He has taught tourism management at undergraduate and postgraduate levels for a number of years. Crispin has published widely in books and peer-reviewed journals. His most recent research has focused on business development and recovery for tourism and hospitality enterprises.

Giacomo Del Chiappa, PhD, is Associate Professor of Marketing at the Department of Economics and Business, University of Sassari (Italy). He is Senior Research Fellow at the School of Tourism and Hospitality of University of Johannesburg. He is Managing Editor of the European Journal of Tourism Research.

Ümit Doğrul, PhD, received his doctorate degrees from Mersin University Institute of Social Sciences in 2015. Since 2015, he has been working in Mersin University Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Department of Business Administration and teaches various courses in undergraduate, graduate and doctoral programs.

Kiran Dookhony-Ramphul lectures at the University of Mauritius. Her research interests are in sustainable tourism and entrepreneurship.

Islam Elgammal, PhD, is currently Professor in the Business Administration Department at the University of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Her research interests include tourism marketing, triple bottom line, sustainable tourism, sustainable heritage management and green events.

Faraknaaz Essmallgee is presently a full-time Educator in Travel and Tourism in a mixed specialized secondary school for Grades 12–13. She has specialized herself in the teaching of Travel and Tourism at the Higher School Certificate level and is also currently a part-time Lecturer for Travel and Tourism at the Mauritius Institute of Education.

Anisur R. Faroque, PhD, is Post-doctoral researcher (Assistant Professor) at LUT University, Finland. His research interests are in the areas of international business and entrepreneurship.

Mugizi Francis, PhD, is a Lecturer and Researcher in Tourism in the Department of Forestry, Biodiversity and Tourism, Makerere University. His research interests include tourism development with a focus on community-based tourism in Uganda's protected areas, destination management and community-based tourism enterprises.

Mohammad Osman Gani is a doctoral student at Graduate School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Hiroshima University, Japan. He has completed his MSc from Hiroshima University. He also works as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Business Administration in Marketing at Bangladesh University of Professionals.

Joan J. W. Gathungu is a Lecturer in the Business Administration Department, Kenya Utalii College. Joan is a researcher in the area of tourism marketing. She has a keen interest in brand strategy and its impact on destination competitiveness and is awaiting her PhD graduation having met all the requirements requisite.

Paolo Giuntarelli is Manager of Lazio Italian region and teaches Sociology of Local Development in the course of Tourism Sciences from the Department of History, Heritage, Education and Society of University of Rome “Tor Vergata”.

Vanessa GB Gowreesunkar, PhD, has been appointed as Associate Professor at the Anant National University in Ahmedabad, India. She was previously serving as Head of Department for Tourism at the University of Africa in Nigeria. Vanessa is an editorial board member of several scientific journals and has a number of publications in international peer-refereed journals. Dr Vanessa also assumes the role of National Coordinator for WAELE (Women Advancement for Economic and Leadership Empowerment), an international organisation which caters for the cause of women, widows and young girls. She assumes the role of Deputy Chair for the Tourism, Infrastructure and Energy cluster of African Union Economic and Social Council (ECOSOCC).

Vikas Gupta, PhD, is an alumnus of Amity University, Uttar Pradesh, India, and holds a PhD in Hospitality. He has a rich experience of teaching for more than 13 years in both India and abroad. He also has a very good research background with publications in national and international journals.

Chaya Hurnath is serving as lecturer at the University of Mauritius and her research interests are in stakeholders’ conflicts and cultural and heritage tourism.

Indu is a Research Scholar (SRF) at IHTM, MD University, Rohtak, India. She is an awardee of Gold Medal in Master's Degree in Tourism Management. Her research areas of interest are online travel communities, social media and sustainable tourism.

Ayorekire Jim, PhD, is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Forestry, Biodiversity and Tourism, Makerere University. His research interests include tourism planning and policy, natural resource based tourism and national and regional analysis of tourism.

Obua Joseph, PhD, is Professor in the Department of Forestry, Biodiversity and Tourism, Makerere University. He has vast experience in teaching and research in tropical forestry and tourism. His research experience and interests include assessment of forestry-tourism nexus.

Simran Kashyap is the Co-Founder and Vice-President of the Confederation of Tourism Students, India. Her research interest includes responsible tourism policy and practices, and sustainable tourism. Email:

Vikrant Kaushal, PhD, is Assistant Professor at the Indian Institute of Management Sirmaur, India. His research interest includes tourism education, destination branding and sustainable development. Mr. Vikrant has published several papers on tourism and branding in reputed journals of Sage, Elsevier and Emerald.

Maximiliano E. Korstanje, PhD, is editor in chief of the International Journal of Safety and Security in Tourism (UP Argentina) and Editor in Chief Emeritus of International Journal of Cyber Warfare and Terrorism (IGI-Global US). He has a vast experience in editorial projects working as advisory member of Elsevier, Routledge, Springer, IGI global and Cambridge Scholar publishing.

Rinzing Lama has a PhD in Tourism and is a faculty at the Indian Institute of Tourism and Travel Management, India. He has 14 years of teaching and research experience. He authored a book titled Community Based Tourism Development and authored an edited book titled Tourism for Developing Economies: The Path Unexplored.

Agita Livina, PhD, is Professor at the Vidzeme University of Applied Sciences and Director of the Research Institute, Latvia. She has published several papers on sustainable tourism planning and management in CABI, Routledge, Emerald and Channel View Publications, etc. ORCiD: 0000-0003-2804-9132

Shem Wambugu Maingi, PhD, is a Lecturer in the School of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure studies at Kenyatta University in Kenya. He is also an expert member of the International Scientific Committee on Cultural Tourism of ICOMOS (ICTC). Currently, he is pursuing research on cultural ecosystems services and tourism post COVID within heritage sites in Kenya.

Roberto Micera, PhD, has been a Researcher of the National Research Council of Italy (CNR) since 2011, and is currently at the Institute for Studies on the Mediterranean (ISMed). He has National Qualification for the role of Associate Professor in Management (13/B2) and he has a PhD in Business Administration. He has been scientific coordinator for the CNR of tourism research projects and he is on the team of numerous international and national research activities on the management and organization of innovation in tourism enterprises and destinations (smart tourism destination).

Radu Mihailescu is senior Tutor and Researcher at NHL-Stenden University of Applied Sciences, The Netherlands. Radu Mihailescu has degrees in Business Management and Economics. He has published a number of articles with regard to Wine and Tourism Economics, Resource Economics and Airline Economics. He is also the author of a book on Charter Airline Economics and a book chapter on Wine Tourism Development.

Neha Mishra is pursuing her PhD in Sociology from the Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, India. Her broader area of research is social sustainability, tourism and risk analysis.

Anindya Mishra, PhD, is a Full Professor of Sociology at the Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, India. His research interests include social gerontology, sociology of health and sociology of work.

Jane Wamaitha Munene, PhD, is a development practitioner and an academic in Public Administration. She has extensive experience in the civil society sector and has worked with various organizations in Kenya. She is also well versed with community engagement processes including facilitation and trainer of trainers. She has research interests with a focus on community governance, public administration, leadership and participation.

Abureza M. Muzareba, PhD, serves as Associate Professor in the Department of Marketing at University of Dhaka, Bangladesh. He has industry experience with a prestigious international bank, and research experience with USAID, IFPRI, the University of Sheffield, UK Cabinet Office, O2, Barnsley City Council, England, Seba Limited and Care Bangladesh.

I Nengah Subadra, PhD, is Principal Lecturer and the Dean of Faculty of Tourism, University of Triatma Mulya (formerly: Tourism Institute of Triatma Jaya), Bali, Indonesia. His research interests include cultural tourism, local and tourist behaviours, community-based tourism and disaster mitigation in tourism.

Valentina Noviello is research fellow at National Research Council (CNR), Institute for Studies on the Mediterranean (ISMed), and is a PhD student at the University of Barcelona, Spain, whose research interest includes cultural heritage in the Euro-Mediterranean context.

Lina Öztürk, PhD, graduated from the Department of Public Administration at Anadolu University in 2009 and pursued her graduate degree on Business Administration at Mersin University (MBA, 2014; Ph.D. 2019). She has published studies on consumer behaviour, pricing, tourism and neuromarketing.

Masudur Rahman, PhD, serves as a Professor in the Department of Marketing at University of Dhaka, Bangladesh. He has more than 21 years of experience in teaching, research and consulting services in different business development and marketing issues. He has published many articles in different peer-reviewed national and international journals.

Alka Rai has qualified the University Grant Commission-National Eligibility Test in 2018 in Tourism Administration and Management. She is teaching as a guest faculty at Mahatma Gandhi Kashi Vidyapith and Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi. She has 5 years of industry experience in tour operation. She has completed her Masters in Tourism Administration and Post-graduate Diploma in Tourism and Leisure.

Gavinolla Mahender Reddy is Assistant Professor in National Institute of Tourism and Hospitality Management, India, and guest Lecturer in the Vidzeme University of Applied Sciences, Latvia. He is a PhD student who is focusing on sustainability issues in tourism. He has published several papers related to sustainable tourism and wildlife tourism in Sage, Routledge and Emerald. ORCiD: 0000-0002-3476-3132.

Hassan Refaat, PhD, is currently a Lecturer at the Faculty of Tourism and Hotels Management – Luxor University. He is Researcher at Farouk ElBaz Center of Sustainability and Future Studies at the British University in Egypt (BUE), El Sherouk City, Cairo. Graduated from the Faculty of Tourism and Hotels Management-Fayoum University (Egypt), he has a master's degree in Tourism Guidance and a PhD from Fayoum University (Egypt). He also worked as a Tourism and Heritage Consultant at United Nations Development Program (UNDP).

Azzurra Rinaldi is the Head of the Degree Course in Tourism Economics at the University of Rome Unitelma Sapienza (where she also teaches Tourism Economics). She has published many articles on the Tourism industry and the gender gap and is also the author of a book on Tourism Economics.

Neil Robinson, PhD, lectures at Salford University Business School and has research interests in dark tourism and heritage, in particular the commodification and promotion of sites associated with death and disaster and the use of dark tourism as a methodological tool for the investigation of cold case files.

Hiran Roy, PhD, is a Lecturer of International School of Hospitality, Sports, and Tourism Management at Fairleigh Dickinson University, Vancouver, Canada. He holds a PhD in Management from University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand. Prior to joining academia, he worked extensively (over 26 years) with the hospitality business industry as an Executive Chef in different continents.

Garima Sahu is a research scholar at Amity University and holds a postgraduate diploma in Management and a bachelor's degree in Computer Applications. She has rich and extensive industry experience of more than 8 years in both India and abroad with renowned names such as Unilever, Australia, Maruti Suzuki, India Ltd, etc.

Faisal Sheikh is an economics graduate and a Chartered Certified Accountant. He has worked for Big 4 firms focussing on NGO and public sector accounting and auditing. Faisal is currently an award-winning Lecturer at Salford Business School where he specialises in teaching financial reporting.

Kuldeep Singh is a research scholar (SRF) at IHTM, MD University, India. He is conducting research on service quality and tourist behavior. He completed his PGDM in Tourism and Travel from IITTM, Gwalior. He is passionate about academic areas of service quality management, tourist satisfaction, rural tourism and ecotourism.

Bosipoina Golla Suneeth is the Founder and President of the Confederation of Tourism Students, India. His research interests include tourism education, sustainable tourism and niche tourism. Email:

Luisa Varriale, PhD, is Associate Professor of Organization Theory and HRM at the Department of Sport Sciences and Wellbeing, Parthenope University, Naples (Italy), whose research interests include learning process, knowledge sharing and creation, event management and sustainability issues.

Eduardo Villena-Alarcón, PhD, is Lecturer in Organizational Communication at the University of Malaga. He graduated in journalism and public relations. He has published research about tourism and cultural communication in social networks, the tourist functionality of the communication management or hotels communication strategy.

Tiziana Volpe, PhD, is Senior Researcher at National Research Council (CNR), Institute for Studies on the Mediterranean (ISMed), whose main research interests include technological and organizational innovation and technology transfer in agro-food sector, tourism, logistic and value chain.

Ephraim W. Wahome, PhD, is Associate Professor in the Department of History and Archaeology, University of Nairobi. He is currently involved in the ‘Building Shared Futures Project’ on the conservation and documentation of historic Nairobi funded by Bristol University. His current areas of interest include conservation, heritage and cultural tourism.

Avni Can Yağcı completed his undergraduate education in Istanbul University Faculty of Business Administration in 2019. He currently continues his master's program in Mersin University Institute of Social Sciences and works at Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences Department of Business Administration as a research assistant.

Mehmet İ. Yağcı, PhD, graduated from the Department of Management at Middle East Technical University in 1988. He started his academic career at Loyola University–New Orleans. He has published studies on marketing communications, marketing theory, service quality, tourism, international marketing, pricing and branding. He currently continues his academic career at Mersin University.

List of Contributors

Nazeerah Sheik Abbass Mauritius Institute of Education, Mauritius
Ilgvars Abols Vidzeme University of Applied Sciences, Latvia
Sanjida Amin Bangladesh University of Professionals, Bangladesh
Bindu Maharshi Dayanand University, India
Carmen Bizzarri European University of Rome, Italy
Galina Bukovska Latvia Convention Bureau, Latvia
Lidia Caballero-Galeote University of Málaga, Spain
Juliet Chipumuro NHL-Stenden University of Applied Sciences, Netherlands
Pravina Cooshna-Gunputh Mauritius Institute of Education, Mauritius
Crispin Dale University of Wolverhampton, UK
Giacomo Del Chiappa University of Sassari, Italy
Ümit Doğrul Mersin University, Turkey
Kiran Dookhony-Ramphul University of Mauritius, Mauritius
Islam Elgammal University of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Faraknaaz Essmallgee Mauritius Institute of Education, Mauritius
Anisur R. Faroque LUT University, Finland
Mugizi Francis Makerere University, Uganda
Mohammad Osman Gani Bangladesh University of Professionals, Bangladesh
Joan J.W. Gathungu Kenya Utalii College, Kenya
Paolo Giuntarelli University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy
Vanessa GB Gowreesunkar Anant National University, India
Vikas Gupta Amity University, India
Chaya Hurnath University of Mauritius, Mauritius
Indu Maharshi Dayanand University, India
Ayorekire Jim Makerere University, Uganda
Obua Joseph Makerere University, Uganda
Simran Kashyap The Confederation of Tourism Students, India
Vikrant Kaushal Indian Institute of Management Sirmaur (IIM Sirmaur), Himachal Pradesh, India
Maximiliano E. Korstanje University of Palermo, Argentina
Rinzing Lama Indian Institute of Tourism and Travel Management, India
Agita Livina Vidzeme University of Applied Sciences, Latvia
Shem Wambugu Maingi Kenyatta University, Kenya
Roberto Micera National Research Council of Italy, Institute for Studies on the Mediterranean (CNR ISMed), Italy
Radu Mihailescu NHL-Stenden University of Applied Sciences, Netherlands
Neha Mishra Indian Institute of Technology, India
Anindya Mishra Indian Institute of Technology, India
Abureza M. Muzareba University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh
I Nengah Subadra University of Triatma Mulya, Bali-Indonesia
Valentina Noviello National Research Council of Italy, Institute for Studies on the Mediterranean (CNR ISMed), Italy
Lina Öztürk Mersin University, Turkey
Masudur Rahman University of Dhaka, Bangladesh
Alka Rai Banaras Hindu University, India
Gavinolla Mahender Reddy National Institute of Tourism and Hospitality Management (NITHM), Hyderabad, India; Vidzeme University of Applied Sciences, Latvia
Hassan Refaat Luxor University, Egypt
Azzurra Rinaldi University of Rome Unitelma Sapienza, Italy
Neil Robinson Salford University Business School, UK
Hiran Roy Fairleigh Dickinson University, Canada
Garima Sahu Amity University, India
Faisal Sheikh Salford University Business School, UK
Kuldeep Singh Maharshi Dayanand University, India
Bosipoina Golla Suneeth The Confederation of Tourism Students, India
Luisa Varriale University of Naples “Parthenope”, Italy
Eduardo Villena-Alarcón University of Málaga, Spain
Tiziana Volpe National Research Council of Italy, Institute for Studies on the Mediterranean (CNR ISMed), Italy
Ephraim W. Wahome University of Nairobi, Kenya
Jane Wamaitha Munene Youth Ventures Initiatives (YOVI), Kenya
Mehmet İsmail Yağcı Mersin University, Turkey
Avni Can Yağcı Mersin University, Turkey


COVID-19 and Tourism: A Difficult Relation?

One of the frightening aspects of COVID-19, without any doubt, lies in the fact the virus interrogates further on the omnipotence of Western civilization and its technocratic character. To put the same in other terms, in a hyper-technological and mobile world, COVID-19 disseminates rapidly everywhere forcing the governments to close their airspaces, borders and public life as never before. As McLuhan (2014) puts it, technology amplifies part of our senses, becoming part of our bodies and sensibilities, and when this happens, it melts with us in a new hybridized self. For this case, and probably like in 9/11, the same transport means that allowed the expansion of the West were the carriers of “an invisible enemy”. The virus, which was originated in Wuhan, China, replicated in weeks all over the globe, affecting the economies of the Global North and South, the commerce and of course the tourism industry (Higgins-Desbiolles, 2020; Zheng, Goh, & Wen, 2020). In the midst of this mayhem, theorists launched to debate the opportunities open in a post COVID-19 context, for example in reversing the pollution to the atmosphere or in placating negative effects of climate change (Carr, 2020; Crossley, 2020; Gössling, Scott & Hall 2020) while others focused on the importance to adopt multidisciplinary methodologies to understand paradoxically tourism in a world without tourists (Korstanje, 2020; Wen, Wang, Kozak, Liu, & Hou, 2020). Whatever the case may be, the pandemic changes the philosophy of business as well as the modes of human relationship in what scientists dubbed “the new normal” (He & Harris, 2020). To some extent, COVID-19 confronts with our long-established anxieties and uncertainties showing how our fundamental liberties and rights can be suddenly suppressed to protect the public health. At the time of writing this foreword I have been kindly invited by Vanessa, I wish to bring some reflections on the future of tourism and tourism research in the years to come. A couple of decades ago, Adrian Franklin (2007) called attention to the problems and limitations of tourist-centricity, which means the obsession of tourism researchers to interview tourists as the only source of valid information. While tourist-centricity occupied a central position in the configuration of the economic-centered paradigm as well as the managerial perspective, other agents and voices were relegated to a peripheral position. What seems to be more important, tourism research revolved around a strong dependency on tourists, likely forgetting other methods – and cosmologies. Today, it is hard to imagine how applied research continues in a world without tourism. This suggests that big problems need a big solution. Still, it is important not to lose sight of the fact post-pandemic management and marketing play a leading role in the configuration of a new epoch, I named as post-pandemic tourism (Korstanje, 2020). Having said this, Vanessa GB Gowreesunkar, Shem Maingi, Hiran Roy, and Roberto Micera offer a more than an interesting book, entitled Tourism Destination Management in a Post-Pandemic Context to expand our current understanding and courses of actions to follow in the years to come. The book centers efforts in providing some practical insights on possible solutions (emerging trends) for mitigating the financial losses the industry is facing. As discussed, the economic-based paradigm centralized and crystallized classic destination management which was characterized by the predominance of visitor's experiences without mentioning competition and the relation with other stakeholders, but now the concept sets the pace to a new tourism management model. The question whether Destination Management Organization (classic DMO model) has some limitations to resolve the quandaries left by COVID-19 pandemic, no less true is that we need emerging empirical knowledge to formulate an all-pervading corpus based on real study cases from all the world. This point posits editors in a great dilemma simply because of the strict lockdown imposed to the applied research but the task is worth the efforts. Chapters accepted in the present editorial project, which in my viewpoint will surely pass the test of time, are high-quality texts written by experts from the four corners of the planet. Last but not least, editors struggle to organize different methodologies to review the existing literature, as well as advancing in the connection of best practices with the function of management to create more resilient destinations in a post–COVID-19 landscape. I and Professor Hugues Seraphin are happy to welcome this fascinating project to our book series Tourism Security-Safety and Post Conflict Destinations, which is published regularly by Emerald Publishing.

Maximiliano E. Korstanje, PhD

University of Palermo, Argentina

References Carr, 2020 Carr, A. (2020). COVID-19, indigenous peoples and tourism: A view from New Zealand. Tourism Geographies, 22(3), 491502. doi:10.1080/14616688.2020.1768433 Crossley, 2020 Crossley, É. (2020). Ecological grief generates desire for environmental healing in tourism after COVID-19. Tourism Geographies, 22(3), 536546. Franklin et al., 2007 Franklin, A. (2007). The problem with tourism theory. In I. Altejevic , A. Pritchard , & M. N. Abingdon (Eds.), The critical turn in tourism studies (pp. 153170). Abingdon; New York, NY: Routledge. Gössling et al., 2020 Gössling, S. , Scott, D. , & Hall, C. M. (2020). Pandemics, tourism and global change: A rapid assessment of COVID-19. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 29(1), 120. doi:10.1080/09669582.2020.1758708 He and Harris, 2020 He, H. , & Harris, L. (2020). The impact of covid-19 pandemic on corporate social responsibility and marketing philosophy. Journal of Business Research. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2020.05.030 Higgins-Desbiolles, 2020 Higgins-Desbiolles, F. (2020). Socialising tourism for social and ecological justice after COVID-19. Tourism Geographies, 22(3), 610623. doi:10.1080/14616688.2020.1757748 Korstanje, 2020 Korstanje, M. E. (2020). Passage from the tourist gaze to the wicked gaze. A case study on COVID19 with special reference to Argentina. In B. George , & Q. Din Mahar (Eds.), International case studies in the management of disasters: Natural and manmade calamities and pandemics. Bingley: Emerald Publishing. McLuhan, 2014 McLuhan, M. (2014). Media research: Technology, art and communication. Abingdon: Routledge. Wen et al., 2020 Wen, J. , Wang, W. , Kozak, M. , Liu, X. , & Hou, H. (2020). Many brains are better than one: The importance of interdisciplinary studies on COVID-19 in and beyond tourism. Tourism Recreation Research, 46(1), 14. doi:10.1080/02508281.2020.1761120 Zheng et al., 2020 Zheng, Y. , Goh, E. , & Wen, J. (2020). The effects of misleading media reports about COVID-19 on Chinese tourists' mental health: A perspective article. Anatolia, 31(2), 337340.


Pandemics and epidemics have always existed since the dawn of time and they did ravage humanity and economies throughout their existence. Yet none devastated the tourism industry the way the COVID-19 pandemic did. With 58,764,574 reported cases and 1,390,852 deaths (24 November 2020; Worldometer) at the time of writing, the COVID-19 not only paralyzed the global tourism industry but also panicked its stakeholders. According to the United Nations World Tourism Organisation, the industry may incur approximately $1 trillion losses and threaten more than 100 million jobs worldwide (UNWTO Policy Brief, 25 August 2020) if the current situation continues. This concern is also echoed in the words of the International Air Transport Association CEO:

….Nowhere is this more visible than in the rows of airplanes parked at airports with nowhere to go. A thriving industry, connecting the world with 4.5 billion passenger journeys and transporting 60 million tons of freight a year, has been brought to a shuddering halt.

(, 12 June 2020)

Following such a depressing picture of the world economy, the tourism community could not remain insensitive for too long. As a result, tourism destinations were anxiously looking for guidelines, textbooks and research publications that offer management solutions, given that they were not prepared to face pandemics. Destinations were getting substantially affected and major market players in the tourist value chain (airlines, hotels, travel trade, cruise lines, tourism businesses) either minimized or completely stopped their production for an undefined period of time, resulting in the sudden and total cut-off of their revenue streams. Guided by the United Nations World Tourism Organizations (UNWTO) and the World Health Organizations (WHO), destinations started deliberations via series of webinars and online meetings in order to come up with survival solutions. Following several months of lockdown, destinations finally made their decisions to gradually open up their economies, but in phased mode. As travel has restarted in some parts of the world, it is still unclear how the pandemic will further affect the industry due to its unknown evolution and unpredictable impacts on the tourism supply chain. For instance, countries like France, the United Kingdom and Turkey had to go back to lockdown after opening up their economies for a few months. At a time when the world is still striving to develop resources and references to cope with the pandemic, the book Tourism Destination Management in a Post-Pandemic Context: Global Issues and Destination Management Solutions comes as a timely strategy. To survive the pandemic, it is crucial to explore new management strategies based on prevailing trends and come up with solutions that may convert the industry's setback into a comeback. Post-COVID-19 tourism will be about survival, revival and renewal, and the critical success factors of tourism will be visibility and marketability enabled by technology. The content of this book shows that the success of a post-pandemic tourism industry lies in collaboration and discussion among stakeholders and on how destinations can learn from lessons of the pandemic and explore new opportunities offered by the new normal. Published at a time when the novel coronavirus is still ravaging, this book intends to serve as a practical guide and give insights on how various destinations can develop coping capacity and build resilience to deal with pandemics. The book offers a synthesis of its impacts and implications on several tourism destinations and thereafter proposes solutions based on case studies and success stories.

The book has a user-friendly pedagogic structure. It draws from a collection of research notes and best practice derived from various destinations in Europe, America, Asia, Africa, Indonesia and islands. The case studies presented provide a fast and reliable diagnosis and they provide a richness to readership in developing understanding of destinations from different geographical contexts. The solutions proposed will be adaptive in nature and may be translated into practice, with models and guidelines.

A huge debt of gratitude is owed to authors listed in the references; their findings and observations have enriched this book, each in their own way. We are grateful to some of our critical friends, in particular Prof Jafar Jafari, for his valuable comments. We also express our appreciation to the Emerald Team for their foresight in recognising the value of our book and for their professionalism in bringing it to fruition. As the main editor, I wish to acknowledge my co-editors, Shem, Hiran and Roberto for their unflinching support and dedication. Their patience and unreserved understanding made this book journey an enriching one.

Undoubtedly when the war against the coronavirus will be over, the tourism community will find a changed industry and we will be pondering over the next normal. This book will therefore remind future generations of this pandemic and of the tough moments encountered by the tourism industry. Nonetheless, perceived differently, a good crisis is never wasted (Winston Churchill). While some commentators are already speculating on the next normal (that is, what will travel be like after the corona virus), with some unrealistic perspectives already proven wrong, the general belief is that tourism will rebound as it has, from previous crises. Editors, contributors and well-wishers of this book believe that the industry will recover if the appropriate destination management solutions are applied. Tourism is a fact of life, ingrained in the sociocultural fabrics of the global village. Soon after COVID-19 checks out, tourism will hopefully check in. Based on lessons learned during the pandemic grip, this timely tome – powered with international case studies and laden with innovative strategies – favors collaborative community-based strategies for its restart. The words of the CEO of Pacific Asia Travel Association (PATA) are encouraging:

We can only hope that COVID-19 pandemic is brought under absolute control quickly and effectively, enabling the global travel and tourism industry to get back on its feet, re-employ the millions of people who lost their positions and create even more employment opportunities both directly and for the upstream and downstream sectors that rely on it.

(, 12 June 2020)

Travel may never be the same again, but the ‘new normal’ will probably inspire destination managers to rethink the future of tourism based on three important elements, namely, precaution, medication and education. Hopefully, destination management solutions proposed in this book will stimulate the interest of both tourism and non-tourism stakeholders. As editors, we are united by a belief that this book will provide relief to tourism destinations, as they gradually enter the ‘next normal’. In adversity, we found opportunity and altogether as a terrific team, we are glad to offer readership a memorable gift produced during the lockdown of the COVID-19 pandemic. With the following inspiring words, editors of this book wish you all a pleasant reading:

Wear your mask…Wear your gloves! Do not fear…Travel the globe!

Vanessa, Shem, Hiran, Roberto


The book Tourism Destination Management in a Post-Pandemic Context: Global Issues and Destination Management Solutions would not have seen the light of day without the continued and committed effort of some special people. The book idea was conceived, developed and proposed during the lockdown period of the COVID-19 pandemic. A textbook like this one can never be a one-person effort, but is the result of some creative minds. We wish to offer our gratitude to all those creative minds behind: the contributors, the reviewers, the Emerald team and all those who indirectly accompanied us during this wonderful journey.

We are grateful to Prof. Jafar Jafari, professor Emeritus of University of Wisconsin-Stout, for his precious suggestions and recommendations. We gratefully acknowledge the endorsements of the following eminent personalities of the tourism community:

  • Prof. Michael Hall, University of Canterbury, New Zealand

  • Prof. Dimitrios Buhalis, Bournemouth University, UK

  • Prof. Rodolfo Baggio, Bocconi University, Italy

  • Prof. Dr. Said El Batouty, UN Economic Commission for Europe, Switzerland

  • Prof. Evaristus M.Irandu, University of Nairobi, Kenya

It is a matter of pride to have the support of the above professors, who are models and references to the tourism academic community worldwide. Last, but not the least, we wish to acknowledge the unstinting support of our families, especially that the book was written during a period when the world was painting a depressing picture of tourism. In adversity, we found opportunity and altogether as a terrific team, we are glad to offer readership a memorable gift produced during the lockdown of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Vanessa, Shem, Hiran, Roberto

Book Editors

Introduction: Destination Management Solutions Post Pandemic: A Need of the Hour!
Part 1 Destination Management Post Pandemic
Chapter 1 The Recovery Tactics of the Tourism Industry Amid COVID-19 Pandemic Conditions in the Baltic States
Chapter 2 Destination Management Solution Post COVID-19: Best Practice from Bali – A World Cultural Tourism Destination
Chapter 3 Heritage Tourism and COVID-19: Turning the Crisis into Opportunity within the Egyptian Context
Chapter 4 COVID-19 Pandemic and the Accommodation Sector in Sardinia, Italy: Impacts and Response Actions
Part 2 Disaster Management Post Pandemic
Chapter 5 Tourism Disaster Preparedness Post-COVID-19 Pandemic: The Example of Argentina
Chapter 6 Tourist Safety and Security Post COVID-19: Global Perspectives
Chapter 7 Uganda Tourism Sector COVID-19 Response, Recovery and Sustainability Strategies: Lessons from Previous Virus Disease Outbreaks
Chapter 8 Tourism Resilience in the Context of Tourism Destination Management in Post-COVID-19 Bangladesh
Part 3 Local Communities and Destination Recovery Post Pandemic
Chapter 9 Exploring Impacts of a Health Crisis on Emotional Solidarity and Support for Tourism: Case of Mauritius
Chapter 10 Residents as Destination Influencers during COVID-19
Chapter 11 Contributions and Challenges of Civil Society Organizations in Tourism in Kenya
Chapter 12 Gender Disparities in Employability in the Tourism Sector Post-COVID-19 Pandemic: Case of South Africa
Part 4 Marketing and Promotion of Destinations Post Pandemic
Chapter 13 Effect of Perceived Risk on Tourists’ Behavioural Intentions Post COVID-19 in Turkey
Chapter 14 Enhancing Cultural Heritage at the Time of the COVID-19 Outbreak: An Overview of the ICT Strategies Adopted by Museums in the Campania Region of Italy
Chapter 15 Sport Events and Tourism for the Sustainable Local Development Post COVID
Part 5 Sustaining Tourism Post Pandemic
Chapter 16 Challenges in Developing Sustainable Tourism Post COVID-19 Pandemic
Chapter 17 Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Social Sustainability in Tourism: A Study of Uttarakhand State of India
Chapter 18 Redefining Sustainability in the Conservation and Promotion of the Cultural Heritage Tourism Product in Kenya
Chapter 19 Does Your Post-COVID-19 Travel Dream Talk about Sustainability? Insights from Potential Tourists in India
Part 6 Tourism Education Post Pandemic
Chapter 20 Resilience Adaptations in Tourism Education for the Post-COVID-19 Era – A Study of India
Chapter 21 Reviving Tourism in India Post COVID-19 Pandemic: Role of Tourism Education and Training
Chapter 22 Adopt, Adapt or Perish: Re-building Support Systems for Travel and Tourism Education in COVID-19 Educational Crisis
Conclusion: Rebuilding Tourism Post Pandemic: Some Reflections on Destination Management Solutions!