Index

Tourism Destination Management in a Post-Pandemic Context

ISBN: 978-1-80071-512-7, eISBN: 978-1-80071-511-0

Publication date: 11 June 2021

This content is currently only available as a PDF

Citation

(2021), "Index", Gowreesunkar, V.G., Maingi, S.W., Roy, H. and Micera, R. (Ed.) Tourism Destination Management in a Post-Pandemic Context (Tourism Security-Safety and Post Conflict Destinations), Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 335-343. https://doi.org/10.1108/978-1-80071-511-020211026

Publisher

:

Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2021 Emerald Publishing Limited


INDEX

Accommodation sector
, 50–51, 308–309

literature review
, 51–52

methodology
, 52–54

qualitative findings
, 58–61

quantitative findings
, 54–58

Adaptive capacity
, 115–116

airBaltic
, 19

Airline sector
, 309–310

Airspaces
, 71

Andalucia tourism
, 148

Archaeological sites
, 38

Argentina, tourism industry in
, 76–80

Artificial intelligence (AI)
, 204

Association of Uganda Tour Operators (AUTO)
, 102, 107

Attractions
, 310–311

Avian Influenza
, 26

Bali Statistic Agency (BSA)
, 28

Bali tourism
, 26–28

Baltic Bubble
, 14–15

Baltic states
, 12–13, 15

Bangladesh
, 114

tourism resilience framework for
, 120–121

Behavioral intentions (BIs)
, 275

Big data
, 93

Biosecurity threats
, 50

Bird flu
, 71–72

Border reopening (BR)
, 130–131

Border reopening: polarised opinions
, 135–139

Camel Derby
, 262–263

Case study method
, 1–3

Central bank rate (CDR)
, 106

Certification measures
, 94

Change management approach to navigate through COVID-19
, 318–319

Civil society organizations
, 161–162

community-based tourism
, 162–163

literature review
, 163–165

methodology
, 165

study findings
, 165–169

Classic of hospitality
, 74–75

Cleanness, hygiene and sanitation (CHS)
, 33

Coding method
, 16

Cold water’ islands
, 51–52

Combined reliability (CR)
, 194–195

Communal Areas Program for the Indigenous Resources (CAMPFIRE)
, 163

Communication strategy
, 325

Community of practice
, 326

Community-ased management (CBM)
, 162–163

Community-based organizations (CBOs)
, 161–162

Community-based tourism (CBT)
, 162–165

Compound annual growth rate (CAGR)
, 225

Compressed natural gas (CNG)
, 284

Confirmatory factor analysis
, 193

Content analysis
, 295

Coping strategies
, 62

Coronavirus
, 38, 150, 235

pandemic
, 246–247

Cost risk (COS risk)
, 189–190

COVID-19
, 26–27, 29–30, 38–40, 50, 70–71, 86, 161–162, 174, 187–188, 246–247, 304–305, 330

cases in Baltic states
, 16

change management approach to navigate through
, 318–319

crisis
, 13, 188–189

education sector and
, 316

educational policies and rules in COVID-19 educational crisis
, 319

epidemic
, 274

and golf
, 227

and implications on tourism education
, 294–295

key players in travel and tourism education in
, 319–320

learning in times of
, 321

negative effects
, 72–73

observed impact of COVID-19 pandemic
, 236–241

outbreak
, 1, 3, 51

pandemic
, 12–13, 100, 102, 114, 130, 203, 291–292

pandemic on social sustainability
, 249–250

perceived risk of travelling and travel evasion due to
, 305–306

physical from digital spaces in
, 320

sustainability
, 275–276

and tourism finances
, 91–94

and tourism industry in Argentina
, 76–80

in tourism supply chain
, 86–87

and tourist experience
, 88–89

Creative industries
, 223

Crisis
, 50, 276

destination management
, 26–27

management
, 13

Cultural heritage
, 38, 202

findings
, 262–265

interpretation of cultural heritage attractions
, 42

literature review
, 203–205

literature review
, 259–261

methodology
, 205–207

research methodology
, 261

results
, 207–216

sites in Egypt
, 39

tourism
, 38

Cultural heritage tourism product (CHTP)
, 258–260

benefits
, 260

Cultural products
, 261

Cultural sites’ carrying capacity
, 41–42

Cultural tourism
, 26–27, 260

Cultural tourists
, 260

Culturally attracted tourists
, 260

Culturally inspired cultural tourists
, 260

Culturally motivated tourists
, 260

Culture
, 260

Cyprus
, 93

Decision-making
, 149

Degrowth tourism
, 72–73

Destination management
, 114

finding
, 28–33

health protocol assessment and practice
, 33

research method
, 28

theoretical background
, 26–27

Destination management organisations (DMOs)
, 92, 197

Destination marketing organizations (DMOs)
, 306

Destinations
, 1

management approaches
, 1–3

Digital technologies
, 78, 202

enhancing cultural heritage through
, 203–205

Disasters
, 50

management
, 293

Domestic tourism
, 44

Dwarapala
, 31

‘Eat Out to Help Out’ discount scheme
, 93

Ebola virus
, 89

tourism industry’s response and recovery from
, 104

Ecological justice
, 73–74

Ecological resilience
, 118

Economic fears
, 138, 143

Economic losses
, 189

Economic recession
, 50

Economic resilience
, 118

Education sector and COVID-19
, 316

Educational content
, 326

Educational crisis
, 319

Egypt, cultural heritage sites in
, 39

Egyptian e-marketplace
, 44

Egyptian tourism industry
, 39

Electronic word of mouth (e-WoM)
, 149

Emotional distress
, 137–138, 143

Emotional solidarity for tourism
, 132

Emotional solidarity theory (EST)
, 130

Employment in tourism
, 174–175

Engineering resilience
, 116

Enhancement of cultural heritage
, 215

Environment Protection and Pollution Control Board (EPPCB)
, 241

Environmental resilience
, 118

Equipment risk (EQU risk)
, 189–190

Estonia
, 13–14, 20

Eurocentric approach
, 27

Exhibited destinations
, 43

Exploratory factor analysis (EFA)
, 191

Fears
, 137–139

Federazione Italiana Golf study (FIG study)
, 225

Feminist gender approach
, 176–177

Feudalization of world
, 80

Financial risk
, 189–190

Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI)
, 305

Foreign tourist arrival (FTA)
, 237

Gender disparities
, 174

literature review
, 174–176

research method
, 177

results
, 177–181

theoretical framework
, 176–177

Gender gap in tourism
, 175–176

General management (GM)
, 174

Global Golf Tourism Market
, 225–226

Global Sustainable Tourism Criteria for Destinations (GSTC-D)
, 276

Global tourism
, 100, 233–234

industry
, 329–330

Goa Lawah temple
, 26, 28, 30

visitor management system
, 31–33

Golf tourism
, 224–225

COVID and
, 227

magic moment of Golf tourism in Italy
, 226

Good to Go’ initiative
, 93

Governance
, 118

Gross domestic product (GDP)
, 174

Guidelines
, 307–309

H5N1
, 71–72

Hand-held devices
, 204

Heads of departments (HODs)
, 317

Health
, 89

crisis
, 129–130, 133

impacts
, 130–131

protocol assessment and practice
, 33

safety
, 27

Health and safety certification
, 93

Health sector professionals (HSPs)
, 135

Health-related fears
, 143

Heritage tourism
, 38–39

findings
, 41

literature review
, 38–40

management-related challenges
, 41–43

marketing-related challenges
, 43–44

methodology
, 40–41

promoting
, 44

Higher tourism education in India
, 295

HIV/AIDS
, 71–72

Hospitality
, 50, 74–75

Hotel sector
, 236–237

Hygiene
, 43

Idumi
, 264

Immersive reality headsets
, 204

Impacts
, 239

of COVID-19
, 50–52

India
, 246–247, 274–275

higher tourism education in
, 295

Indian transport system
, 237

Individual resilience
, 118

Industry survival
, 135–137

Influencer
, 150

Information communication technologies (ICTs)
, 202

Information technology (IT)
, 149, 202

Innovative multidimensional enhancement models
, 204–205

Insecurities
, 89–91

Institutional resilience
, 118

Intangible heritage
, 38–39

Inter-disciplinary approach
, 1–3

International Air Transport Association (IATA)
, 51–52, 274

International health procedures
, 33–34

International Labour Organization (ILO)
, 175

International sport system
, 222

Interpretation of cultural heritage attractions
, 42

Invisible enemy
, 142–143

Island tourism. See also Heritage tourism
, 62–63

Islands
, 51–52

Italy
, 50

magic moment of Golf tourism in
, 226

Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin measure (KMO measure)
, 278–280

Kedarnath disaster
, 248

Kenya
, 162, 261

Kenya Tourism Board (KTB)
, 258, 262

Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS)
, 167–168

Kruskal–Wallis H test
, 177

Kubler-Ross change 5-stage curve
, 318–319

Lamu festivals
, 263–264

Latvia
, 13–14

Learning

environment
, 321

process
, 325

in times of COVID-19
, 321

Liquid modernity
, 70–71

Lithuania
, 13–14, 19–20

Local community
, 4, 239–240

Local inhabitants (LIs)
, 135

Local organizations
, 163

Luhya initiation ceremonies
, 264–265

Macrointerventions
, 60

Management Standard of Bali Cultural Tourism
, 28

Mann–Whitney U test
, 177

Marburg virus in Uganda, tourism industry’s response and recovery from
, 104

Marketing
, 43

Mass tourism
, 86

Maulidi festivals
, 263–264

Mauritius
, 130–131

case study and methodology
, 133

findings
, 134–142

literature review
, 131–132

Mauritius Examination Syndicate (MES)
, 317

Meetings, incentives, conferencing and exhibitions (MICE)
, 51

Meta-analysis study
, 130

MIBACT website news page
, 205

Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME)
, 239

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)
, 71–72, 89, 100

Middle East respiratory syndrome–related coronovirus (MERS-CoV)
, 304

Minister of Finance, Planning and Economic Development (MFPED)
, 104

Ministry of Education (MoE)
, 317

Ministry of Tourism
, 38

Ministry of Tourism, Wildlife and Antiquities (MTWA)
, 102, 106

Mount Agung eruptions
, 26

“Mukhyamantri Swarojgar Yojana” scheme
, 250–251

Multiple cases study approach
, 206

Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Napoli (MANN)
, 214

Museums
, 203, 205

National Development Plan (NDP)
, 174

National Museums and Heritage Act
, 259

National Museums of Kenya (NMK)
, 262

Natural disasters
, 50

Natural environment
, 38

Natural heritage
, 38

Nature and environment
, 240–241

Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs)
, 161–162

Nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs)
, 233–234

Novel coronavirus
, 304

Online travel agents (OTAs)
, 87

Pandemic(s)
, 38–39, 50, 86, 114–115, 246–247, 274, 330

Perceived risk
, 189

literature review
, 189–190

reliability and validity of scales
, 191–195

research methodology
, 190–195

results
, 195–197

of traveling
, 190

of travelling and travel evasion due to COVID-19
, 305–306

Perceived tourism impacts
, 139–142

Perceptions of employability
, 177

Performance risk (PER risk)
, 189–190

Personal protective equipment (PPE)
, 137

Physical distancing
, 51

Physical risk (PHY risk)
, 189–190

Policies
, 181, 307, 309

Political instability
, 50

Post-COVID-19. See also COVID-19

development
, 261

sport
, 222–223

studies
, 101

tourism recovery
, 119–120

Post-modern theory
, 258

Potential tourists
, 274–275

Private Secondary Education Authorities (PSEA)
, 317

Product diversification
, 258

Professional Golfers’ Association (PGA)
, 226

Psychological risk (PSY risk)
, 189–190

Purposive sampling method
, 133

Qualitative methodology
, 130–131

Quantitative screening method
, 190–191

Rapid situation analysis (RSA)
, 102

Recovery

Baltic states and present state of tourism
, 13–15

golf tourism
, 222–223

literature review
, 13

methodology
, 15–16

model for tourism industry
, 103

results
, 16–20

sport tourism
, 222–223

strategies
, 293–294

survey design and respondents
, 16

tactics
, 12

Regional Agency for Employment
, 52

Residents
, 147–148

data collection and analysis
, 150–151

findings
, 151–154

methodology
, 150–151

in social networks
, 152–154

study area
, 150

support for tourism
, 131

tourism and social networks
, 149–150

Resilience
, 115–117, 292

COVID-19 and implications on tourism education
, 294–295

findings
, 296–298

higher tourism education in India
, 295

literature review
, 293

methodology
, 295–296

strategies
, 293–294

of tourism to disease outbreaks and pandemics
, 103–107

Revenue per available room (REVPAR)
, 51

Revival measures
, 307–309

Risk dimensions
, 190

Risk perception
, 189–190

Robots
, 93

Ryder Cup
, 224

‘Safe Travels’ protocols
, 92

Safety
, 43, 91, 94, 323

concerns
, 86–89

Sanitary measures for border reopening
, 134–135

Search strategy
, 16

Security
, 89, 91, 94, 323

concerns
, 86–89

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
, 26–27, 50, 71–72, 87, 100, 304

Site accessibility
, 42–43

Small and medium enterprises (SMEs)
, 107

Social exchange theory (SET)
, 130–131

Social fears
, 138, 143

Social media
, 214

Social network sites (SNSs)
, 204–205

Social networks
, 147–150

Social resilience
, 116

Social risk (SOC risk)
, 189–190

Social sustainability
, 246–247

impact of COVID-19 pandemic on
, 249–250

government initiatives
, 250–251

learning from Uttarakhand experience
, 251–252

literature review
, 247–248

methodology
, 248

study area
, 248

Solutions
, 93

Spatial fears
, 143

Sport events

COVID and Golf
, 227

Global Golf Tourism Market
, 225–226

Golf tourism
, 224–225

magic moment of Golf tourism in Italy
, 226

theoretical background
, 219–220

tourism and
, 220–222

tourism and post-COVID sport
, 222–223

Stakeholders
, 86, 130

of tourism
, 16

Standard operating procedures (SOPs)
, 103–104, 305

Support for tourism through emotional solidarity
, 132

Support system
, 321

Sustainability
, 115, 234

COVID-19 crisis and
, 275–276

of tourism to disease outbreaks and pandemics
, 103–107

Sustainable development
, 235

future challenges
, 241–243

methodology
, 235

result
, 236–243

Sustainable tourism. See also Heritage tourism
, 234, 275

COVID-19 crisis and sustainability
, 275–276

literature review
, 275–277

research methodology
, 277

results
, 278–283

tourists behavior post-COVID-19
, 277

Swine flu
, 26

SWOT analysis
, 265

Tallinn
, 15

Tangible heritage
, 38–39

Teaching process
, 325

Technology
, 44, 93

Terroristic attacks
, 50

Thematic/conceptual approach
, 122

Time risk
, 189–190

Tirta Empul temple
, 26, 28

visitor management system
, 31–33

Tirtha
, 31

Tour operator
, 238–239

Tourism
, 1, 12, 26, 29–30, 50, 86, 129–130, 148–150, 163, 187–188, 234, 274, 291–292

COVID-19 and implications on tourism education
, 294–295

COVID-19 and tourism industry in Argentina
, 76–80

COVID-19 in tourism supply chain
, 86–87

curriculum
, 295–296

disaster preparedness post-COVID-19 pandemic
, 75–76

employment in
, 174–175

finances
, 91–94

hospitality
, 74–75

perspective
, 3–4

policy and planning frameworks to support post-COVID-19 pandemic recovery and resilience
, 107–108

and post-COVID sport
, 222–223

post-COVID-19 crisis
, 176

present state
, 13–15

response, recovery and sustainability strategies
, 102

response and recovery from Marburg virus in Uganda
, 104

sector
, 161–162, 174

service providers
, 12

and sport
, 220–222

virus and tourism
, 71–74

vulnerability
, 129–130

Tourism industry
, 1, 3, 13, 114, 274–275

in Argentina
, 76–80

and disease outbreaks in Uganda
, 101

response and recovery from Ebola virus
, 104

response to COVID-19 pandemic
, 104–107

Tourism professionals (TPs)
, 135

Tourism resilience. See also Resilience
, 114–116

domains
, 116–118

findings
, 119–121

framework for Bangladesh
, 120–121

implications
, 121–122

literature review
, 115–118

methodology
, 119

problem statement
, 115

Tourist

behavior
, 187–188

behavior post-COVID-19
, 277

destination region
, 86–87

experience
, 88–89

Tourist Destination Kenya (TDK)
, 258

Training and education importance in post-COVID-19 times
, 306–307

Transformation
, 13

Transit zone
, 86–87

Transport industry
, 237–238

Travel
, 12

adapt, adopt or perish
, 325

agent
, 238–239

assumptions
, 317

change management approach to navigate through COVID-19
, 318–319

communication strategy
, 325

community of practice
, 326

distribution of computer hardware and online resources
, 323

educational content
, 326

educational policies and rules in COVID-19 educational crisis
, 319

findings and analysis
, 322

key players in travel and tourism education in COVID-19
, 319–320

learning in times of COVID-19
, 321

methodology
, 321–322

pedagogical problem
, 316–317

physical from digital spaces in COVID-19
, 320

plans
, 275

proposals to policymakers
, 322–323

proposals to schools administration
, 323–325

rationale
, 317

restrictions
, 188–189

safety and security
, 323

support system
, 321

teaching and learning process
, 325

and tourism education
, 316

and tourism educators
, 322

Traveller generating zone
, 86–87

Turkey
, 188

Uganda

methods
, 102

response, resilience and sustainability of tourism to disease outbreaks and pandemics
, 103–107

socioeconomic impacts of diseases
, 101

tourism industry and disease outbreaks in
, 101

tourism response, recovery and sustainability strategies
, 102

Uganda Hotel Owners Association (UHOA)
, 102

Uganda Tourism Association (UTA)
, 102

Uganda Tourism Board (UTB)
, 102, 106

Uganda Wildlife Authority (UWA)
, 102

Uganda Wildlife Conservation and Education Centre (UWEC)
, 102

UMEED network
, 250–251

United Nations (UN)
, 175

United Nations Environment Program (UNEP)
, 275

United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO)
, 1, 51, 114, 219–220, 246–247, 274, 305

Uttarakhand
, 248–250

learning from Uttarakhand experience
, 251–252

Value added tax (VAT)
, 106

Virtual reality
, 204–205

Visitor management system
, 31–33

Visual communication tools
, 204

Vulnerability
, 115–116

Word of mouth (WoM)
, 149

World Health Organization (WHO)
, 6, 50, 88, 305

World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC)
, 51, 187–188, 236–237

Xenos
, 74–75

Prelims
Introduction: Destination Management Solutions Post Pandemic: A Need of the Hour!
Part 1 Destination Management Post Pandemic
Chapter 1 The Recovery Tactics of the Tourism Industry Amid COVID-19 Pandemic Conditions in the Baltic States
Chapter 2 Destination Management Solution Post COVID-19: Best Practice from Bali – A World Cultural Tourism Destination
Chapter 3 Heritage Tourism and COVID-19: Turning the Crisis into Opportunity within the Egyptian Context
Chapter 4 COVID-19 Pandemic and the Accommodation Sector in Sardinia, Italy: Impacts and Response Actions
Part 2 Disaster Management Post Pandemic
Chapter 5 Tourism Disaster Preparedness Post-COVID-19 Pandemic: The Example of Argentina
Chapter 6 Tourist Safety and Security Post COVID-19: Global Perspectives
Chapter 7 Uganda Tourism Sector COVID-19 Response, Recovery and Sustainability Strategies: Lessons from Previous Virus Disease Outbreaks
Chapter 8 Tourism Resilience in the Context of Tourism Destination Management in Post-COVID-19 Bangladesh
Part 3 Local Communities and Destination Recovery Post Pandemic
Chapter 9 Exploring Impacts of a Health Crisis on Emotional Solidarity and Support for Tourism: Case of Mauritius
Chapter 10 Residents as Destination Influencers during COVID-19
Chapter 11 Contributions and Challenges of Civil Society Organizations in Tourism in Kenya
Chapter 12 Gender Disparities in Employability in the Tourism Sector Post-COVID-19 Pandemic: Case of South Africa
Part 4 Marketing and Promotion of Destinations Post Pandemic
Chapter 13 Effect of Perceived Risk on Tourists’ Behavioural Intentions Post COVID-19 in Turkey
Chapter 14 Enhancing Cultural Heritage at the Time of the COVID-19 Outbreak: An Overview of the ICT Strategies Adopted by Museums in the Campania Region of Italy
Chapter 15 Sport Events and Tourism for the Sustainable Local Development Post COVID
Part 5 Sustaining Tourism Post Pandemic
Chapter 16 Challenges in Developing Sustainable Tourism Post COVID-19 Pandemic
Chapter 17 Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Social Sustainability in Tourism: A Study of Uttarakhand State of India
Chapter 18 Redefining Sustainability in the Conservation and Promotion of the Cultural Heritage Tourism Product in Kenya
Chapter 19 Does Your Post-COVID-19 Travel Dream Talk about Sustainability? Insights from Potential Tourists in India
Part 6 Tourism Education Post Pandemic
Chapter 20 Resilience Adaptations in Tourism Education for the Post-COVID-19 Era – A Study of India
Chapter 21 Reviving Tourism in India Post COVID-19 Pandemic: Role of Tourism Education and Training
Chapter 22 Adopt, Adapt or Perish: Re-building Support Systems for Travel and Tourism Education in COVID-19 Educational Crisis
Conclusion: Rebuilding Tourism Post Pandemic: Some Reflections on Destination Management Solutions!
Index