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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1998

D.T.M. Dominey‐Howes

This paper describes the phenomenon of tsunamis within the European Seas and explains how tsunami research has developed during the last 40 years as a response to a large

Abstract

This paper describes the phenomenon of tsunamis within the European Seas and explains how tsunami research has developed during the last 40 years as a response to a large tsunami which occurred in the Aegean Sea region of Greece in 1956. The paper states that specific tsunami hazard maps have been established for particular coastal areas of Greece and that these maps and any associated disaster management plans have been developed as a tool to mitigate the effects of future tsunamis in the region. The author provides the results of new investigations of the effects of a past tsunami in Greece and shows that the magnitude of this event has been overestimated. The results imply that revisions of the urban hazard maps and associated disaster preparedness plans should be considered.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 November 2010

Megumi Sugimoto, Hirokazu Iemura and Rajib Shaw

This paper seeks to demonstrate a unique project with tsunami height poles and disaster education to maintain disaster awareness for several decades in the area where the…

1751

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to demonstrate a unique project with tsunami height poles and disaster education to maintain disaster awareness for several decades in the area where the Indian Ocean tsunami caused significant damage in 2004.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study approach is utilized combined with field observation, participatory observation and a general literature review of relevant studies and secondary sources.

Findings

The major finding is that the unique device of 85 tsunami height poles was brought from the outside to Banda Aceh city so that people may remember the impact of the tsunami over a longer period of time when awareness is likely to reduce. As local people gradually understood the significance of the poles, the number of local cooperators increased and the project's impact improved significantly.

Research limitations/implications

The long‐term impact of the disaster resilience is yet to be verified in Banda Aceh city. The field research results of the project's process and impact immediately connected with grassroots practice with people to maintain disaster awareness and resilence for the city. The practice to which the Hyogo Framework for Action gives priority connects with building understanding of tsunami risk and disaster awareness with local knowledge, assimilated by preserving disaster records and visualizing disaster.

Practical implications

The paper describes a field‐based project in Banda Aceh city and the suburb, Indonesia, which was implemented in cooperation with local communities, local non‐government organizations, local school boards and specialists from Kyoto University, Japan. Thus, the study findings are directly related to its practical implications.

Originality/value

The paper highlights how the device of 85 tsunami height poles which were built in order to visualize disaster and maintain disaster awareness under the concept, blended an expert's unique idea with old Japanese knowledge in Banda Aceh city by the local community in Indonesia in June 2007. The paper shows that local ideas maintain living knowledge and lessons with sustainable development in the local place after the project had finished and recommendations can apply to the other tsunami affected areas.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 19 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 17 October 2015

Masayuki Murayama and Lloyd Burton

Myth is a story of archetypical personas who behave in ways and with motives that we recognize in ourselves. We use myth as a way of reminding ourselves of the…

Abstract

Myth is a story of archetypical personas who behave in ways and with motives that we recognize in ourselves. We use myth as a way of reminding ourselves of the relationship between motives, actions, and consequences. Myths can serve either as inspirational or cautionary tales, and sometimes as both. But “myth” can also mean a fabricated story intended to create a false impression, and to achieve storytellers’ ends when they have decided the truth will not suffice. We apply the myth of Cassandra to the millennium-long recorded history of giant tsunamis in Japan. After each of these catastrophes, survivors sought to warn future generations of their recurrences. But, each time, their progeny eventually lost the memory of these lessons, and lost their lives when the next monster wave overwhelmed them. Only when they kept the lessons as living knowledge in everyday life, could they manage to escape from monster tsunamis. In this chapter, we use the myth of Cassandra in conjunction with the myth of Prometheus, the bringer of fire to humankind, as a metaphor for Japan’s growing reliance on nuclear power. Government and utility companies built powerful but inherently dangerous cauldrons in the nation’s disaster-prone landscapes, assuring the public they could control the fire’s fury and defend it against nature’s. As images of atomic bomb victims were still vivid and widely shared in Japan, they had to overcome the public fear of radioactivity by fabricating a “myth of safety.” The nuclear disaster made the public distrust the government and utility companies, which lingers in the process of reconstruction from the disaster. Myths can either reveal hidden truths or mask hidden lies. The Japanese people must now learn to distinguish one from the other.

Details

Special Issue Cassandra’s Curse: The Law and Foreseeable Future Disasters
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-299-3

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 January 2022

Indrajit Pal, Subhajit Ghosh, Itesh Dash and Anirban Mukhopadhyay

This paper aims to provide a general overview of the international Tsunami warning system mandated by the United Nations, particularly on cataloging past studies and a…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide a general overview of the international Tsunami warning system mandated by the United Nations, particularly on cataloging past studies and a strategic focus in the Indian Ocean, particularly on the Bay of Bengal region.

Design/methodology/approach

Present research assimilates the secondary non-classified data on the Tsunami warning system installed in the Indian Ocean. Qualitative review and exploratory research methodology have been followed to provide a holistic profile of the Tsunami rarly warning system (TEWS) and its role in coastal resilience.

Findings

The study finds the need for strategic focus to expand and interlink regional early warning cooperation mechanisms and partnerships to enhance capacities through cooperation and international assistance and mobilize resources necessary to maintain the TEWS in the Indian Ocean region. The enhanced capacity of the TEWS certainly improves the resilience of Indian Ocean coastal communities and infrastructures.

Originality/value

The study is original research and useful for policy planning and regional cooperation on data interlinkages for effective TEWS in the Indian Ocean region.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 December 2020

R.R.J. Chathuranganee Jayakody and Dilanthi Amaratunga

Public open spaces (POS) in cities are often measured as a strength to enhance cities’ sustainability with a contribution to the three pillars: economic, social and…

Abstract

Purpose

Public open spaces (POS) in cities are often measured as a strength to enhance cities’ sustainability with a contribution to the three pillars: economic, social and environmental. Nevertheless, the importance of POS for disaster resilience is less recognised and remains under-rehearsed in the urban planning context. Within this context, this research paper aims to investigate the methods and approaches of using POS to enhance the coastal cities’ resilience to tsunamis through planning and designing interventions.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used the grounded theory as the research strategy. Accordingly, data collection involved 72 unstructured interviews covering a wide variety of participants related to the field of study including tsunami-affected communities, disaster resilience experts, urban planners, sociologists and coastal planners, in the context of Sri Lanka. The grounded theory coding procedure is used to analyse the data that includes transcripts, notes, maps and documents.

Findings

The analysis reveals that there is a significant potential to use POS to enhance the coastal cities’ resilience to tsunamis as an emergency evacuation directing point, as a primary place for emergency rescue, as an agent for temporary sheltering, as a facilitator for tsunami disaster mitigation and as a mediator to provide tsunami awareness. Finally, the findings propose five guiding factors for planning POS to enhance coastal cities’ disaster resilience to Tsunamis.

Originality/value

This paper introduces an innovative and unique approach for future urban planners and design professionals, to plan and design POS with a new direction towards disaster resilience while ensuring sustainability.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 12 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 March 2021

Iman Mazinani, Mohammad Mohsen Sarafraz, Zubaidah Ismail, Ahmad Mustafa Hashim, Mohammad Reza Safaei and Somchai Wongwises

Two disastrous Tsunamis, one on the west coast of Sumatra Island, Indonesia, in 2004 and another in North East Japan in 2011, had seriously destroyed a large number of…

Abstract

Purpose

Two disastrous Tsunamis, one on the west coast of Sumatra Island, Indonesia, in 2004 and another in North East Japan in 2011, had seriously destroyed a large number of bridges. Thus, experimental tests in a wave flume and a fluid structure interaction (FSI) analysis were constructed to gain insight into tsunami bore force on coastal bridges.

Design/methodology/approach

Various wave heights and shallow water were used in the experiments and computational process. A 1:40 scaled concrete bridge model was placed in mild beach profile similar to a 24 × 1.5 × 2 m wave flume for the experimental investigation. An Arbitrary Lagrange Euler formulation for the propagation of tsunami solitary and bore waves by an FSI package of LS-DYNA on high-performance computing system was used to evaluate the experimental results.

Findings

The excellent agreement between experiments and computational simulation is shown in results. The results showed that the fully coupled FSI models could capture the tsunami wave force accurately for all ranges of wave heights and shallow depths. The effects of the overturning moment, horizontal, uplift and impact forces on a pier and deck of the bridge were evaluated in this research.

Originality/value

Photos and videos captured during the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004 and the 2011 Japan tsunami showed solitary tsunami waves breaking offshore, along with an extremely turbulent tsunami-induced bore propagating toward shore with significantly higher velocity. Consequently, the outcomes of this current experimental and numerical study are highly relevant to the evaluation of tsunami bore forces on the coastal, over sea or river bridges. These experiments assessed tsunami wave forces on deck pier showing the complete response of the coastal bridge over water.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 31 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Anand S. Arya, G.S. Mandal and E.V. Muley

To provide a review of the general aspects of tsunamis and the specific aspects of the 2004 tsunami impacts on the coastal areas of India and surrounding islands.

2095

Abstract

Purpose

To provide a review of the general aspects of tsunamis and the specific aspects of the 2004 tsunami impacts on the coastal areas of India and surrounding islands.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach is a general discussion of the 2004 tsunami and its effects in areas in South East Asia, followed by the specific impacts in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, including the damage to water supply and power systems, and a situation analysis of the communities, land and housing.

Findings

The impact of the 2004 tsunami highlights the vulnerability of the coastal areas and islands of India. The multi‐hazard situation existing on the sea coast of the mainland as well as in the islands of Andaman and Nicobar require a holistic multi‐hazard mitigation approach as a long term measure. The recovery programs presently in hand are being planned taking the multi‐hazard situation in view, so as to provide protection from such hazards in future.

Originality/value

Provides a review of the effects of the 2004 tsunami in the coastal areas and islands near India.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 January 2020

Dicky Hanggara and Anil Christopher Wijeyewickrema

This paper aims to evaluate the vulnerability of typical low-rise reinforced concrete (RC) buildings located in Indonesia subjected to tsunami loading.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate the vulnerability of typical low-rise reinforced concrete (RC) buildings located in Indonesia subjected to tsunami loading.

Design/methodology/approach

The vulnerability of typical three-story RC buildings located in Indonesia subjected to tsunami loading is discussed using fragility curves. Buildings without openings in all stories and buildings with openings in the first story are considered. The fragility curves are obtained by performing tsunami pushover analysis for several load cases, using different tsunami load estimation standards and references. The generalized linear method is used as a curve fitting method to construct the fragility curves.

Findings

The fragility curves show that the three-story RC buildings without openings in all stories subjected to tsunami loading have a high probability of collapse. Openings in the first story will reduce the vulnerability of the buildings.

Originality/value

Fragility curves are obtained by carrying out tsunami pushover analysis to evaluate the vulnerability of typical three-story RC buildings located in Indonesia. The results of this study show the need to include tsunami loads in the design code for Indonesian buildings and the benefits of having openings in the first story of the building.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2020

Christopher Scott Thompson

This paper aims to reintroduce to proponents of natural disaster readiness worldwide the history and content of the most renowned tsunami mitigation tale in Japan, …

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to reintroduce to proponents of natural disaster readiness worldwide the history and content of the most renowned tsunami mitigation tale in Japan, “Inamura no Hi” (“The Rice Bale Fire”) for the purpose of reconnecting with its many virtues that have made it a cross-cultural pedagogical catalyst for tsunami preparedness education. At a time in the planet's history when global warming mitigation and pandemic advertence in a milieu in which equity, diversity and human rights are highly valued, the insights it contains pertaining to tsunami preparedness, plot design and the politics of its popularity make it particularly instructive.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used methods, approaches and techniques prevalent in cultural anthropology, i.e. primary texts, historical analysis, linguistic natural hazard preparedness education theory and ethnographic insights to assess how and why “Inamura no Hi” (“The Rice Bale Fire”) has come to be used so broadly on an international scale as a tsunami preparedness teaching tool and the politics involved in this process.

Findings

The study revealed that the cross-cultural relevance of “Inamura no Hi” (“The Rice Bale Fire”) is related to its unique authorship and development which has cultivated in it three qualities highly compatible with effective disaster mitigation at the international level. These are the simplicity of its message, the practical advice it dispenses and the universally agreeable morality it supports. However, the way in which the Japanese Government has promoted this story does not effectively encourage equity, diversity, or a respect for human rights as a major facilitator of preparedness among the many nations like itself in the region and in the world that are vulnerable to natural hazards.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitations of the study are that it is based on a historic investigation of the origins of “Inamura no Hi” (“The Rice Bale Fire”) using materials in English and Japanese, a genealogical interpretation of the story using approaches prevalent in translation studies and a qualitative analysis of historical uses of the story, all of which are difficult to quantify. Since the study seeks to find social and cultural patterns in the relevant material presented, the analysis reflects a subjectivity common in all social scientific studies of this kind.

Practical implications

Educating its readers about tsunami preparedness is one of the most important functions of this paper. The study confirms that “Inamura no Hi” (“The Rice Bale Fire”) provides Japanese and non-Japanese alike with the opportunity to envision and construct a customized culturally specific sense of tsunami readiness by harnessing this dynamic. For Japanese, the story provides a chance to contemplate an astute view of Japanese-style tsunami management from the viewpoint of an outsider who became a well-respected citizen. For non-Japanese, the story offers an opportunity to be reflexive about tsunami readiness based on a cross-culturally adaptable template that Hamaguchi's protagonist Gohei provides.

Social implications

Pedagogically speaking, “Inamura no Hi” (“The Rice Bale Fire”) makes the most sense when regarded as a starting point for preparing for any natural disaster anywhere. The story reminds us that the most educational, globally relevant tsunami preparedness narratives are those that complement and extend the latest of what the world knows about these destructive ocean waves to keep vulnerable citizens safe and alive. This study reveals that as important as the story is the politics of its delivery to provide the best first line of defense against tsunami amnesia which in Japan and many other countries has historically taken far too many lives.

Originality/value

The paper argues that “Inamura no Hi” (“The Rice Bale Fire”) is an example of a tsunami preparedness story that contains a variety of insights that continue to contribute to tsunami awareness education cross culturally that must not be underestimated. However, the way it is currently promoted by the Japanese Government needs to be improved, so that more representatives from more countries involved in tsunami preparedness and natural hazard readiness worldwide can benefit. These are insights not accessible by a researcher who is not bilingual in English and Japanese; thus, by using an ethnographic approach and participant observation utilizing both languages as part of long-term fieldwork, the researcher can gain these insights.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 January 2020

Sanjeewa Wickramaratne, S. Chan Wirasinghe and Janaka Ruwanpura

Based on the existing provisions/operations of tsunami warning in the Indian Ocean, authors observed that detection as well as arrival time estimations of regional tsunami

Abstract

Purpose

Based on the existing provisions/operations of tsunami warning in the Indian Ocean, authors observed that detection as well as arrival time estimations of regional tsunami service providers (RTSPs) could be improved. In particular, the detection mechanisms have been eccentrically focussed on Sunda and Makran tsunamis, although tsunamis from Carlsberg ridge and Chagos archipelago could generate devastating tsunamis for which inadequate provisions exist for detection and arrival time/wave height estimation. RTSPs resort to assess estimated arrival time/wave heights from a scenario-based, pre-simulated database. These estimations in terms of Sri Lanka have been found inconsistent. In addition, current warning mechanism poorly manages non-seismic tsunamis. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate these drawbacks and attempt to carve out a series of suggestions to improve them.

Design/methodology/approach

The work initiated with data retrieved from global earthquake and tsunami databases, followed by an estimation of probabilities of tsunamis in the Indian Ocean with particular emphasis on Carlsberg and Chagos tsunamis. Second, probabilities of tsunami detection in each sub-region have been estimated with the use of available tide gauge and tsunami buoy data. Third, the difficulties in tsunami detection in the Indian Ocean are critically assessed with case studies, followed by recommendations to improve the detection and warning.

Findings

Probabilistic estimates show that given the occurrence of a significant earthquake, both Makran and Carlsberg/Chagos regions possess higher probabilities to harbour a tsunami than the Sunda subduction zone. Meanwhile, reliability figures of tsunami buoys have been declined from 79-92 to 68-91 per cent over the past eight years. In addition, a Chagos tsunami is left to be detected by only one tide gauge prior to it reaching Sri Lankan coasts.

Research limitations/implications

The study uses an averaged tsunami speed of 882 km/h based on 2004 Asian tsunami. However, using exact bathymetric data, Tsunamis could be simulated to derive speeds and arrival times more accurately. Yet, such refinements do not change the main derivations and conclusions of this study.

Practical implications

Tsunami detection and warning in the Indian Ocean region have shown room for improvement, based on the inadequate detection levels for Carlesberg and Chagos tsunamis, and inconsistent warnings of regional tsunami service providers. The authors attempted to remedy these drawbacks by proposing a series of suggestions, including a deployment of a new tsunami buoy south of Maldives, revival of offline buoys, real-time tsunami simulations and a strategy to deal with landslide tsunamis, etc.

Social implications

Indian Ocean is prone to mega tsunamis as witnessed in 2004. However, more than 50 per cent of people in the Indian Ocean rim countries dwell near the coast. This is verified with deaths of 227,898 people in 14 countries during the 2004 tsunami event. Thus, it is of paramount importance that sufficient detection levels are maintained throughout the Indian Ocean without being overly biased towards Sunda tsunamis. With respect to Sri Lanka, Makran, Carlesberg or Chagos tsunamis could directly hit the most populated west coast and bring about far worse repercussions than a Sunda tsunami.

Originality/value

This is the first instance where the threats from Carlesberg and Chagos tsunamis to Sri Lanka are discussed, probabilities of tsunamis are quantified and their detection levels assessed. In addition, reliability levels of tsunami buoys and tide gauges in the Indian Ocean are recomputed after eight years to discover that there is a drop in reliability of the buoy data. The work also proposes a unique approach to handle inconsistencies in the bulletins of regional tsunami service providers, and to uphold and improve dwindling interest on tsunami buoys.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 3000