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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2014

Tiina Tuominen, Tapio Korhonen, Heikki Hämäläinen, Satu Temonen, Helena Salo, Jouko Katajisto and Hannu Lauerma

– The purpose of this paper is to determine the nature of the academic skills deficits in male offenders and their relation to neurocognitive deficits.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the nature of the academic skills deficits in male offenders and their relation to neurocognitive deficits.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 72 Finnish male prisoners were tested with regard to reading, spelling, and mathematical abilities.

Findings

Low academic skills, especially reading, were related to poor neurocognitive performance in verbal memory, visual memory, attention, and motor dexterity. The results showed a high number (29-36 percent) of reading and spelling disorders. In all, 15 percent of those with medium to severe problems in academic skills had marked difficulties in mathematics. In total, 88 percent of the participants with at least one problem area in literacy skills had neurocognitive deficits. In the present study, the pervasive neurocognitive deficits, occurring comorbidly with reading and spelling difficulties, seem to refer to a fundamental set of deficits which are only minimally explained by IQ, educational background or training.

Research limitations/implications

Reading and spelling difficulties could be seen as functional illiteracy which, combined with a broad spectrum of neuropsychological function deficits, pose a challenging task for rehabilitation. Only after proper identification of deficits has been achieved is it possible to set goals and select the appropriate means for rehabilitation. One obvious limitation is the moderate number of subjects (n=72).

Practical implications

It may not be enough just to train reading or develop literacy activities among prisoners; focussing intervention on comprehensive neurocognitive deficits is also necessary.

Originality/value

Correlates and comorbidity between academic difficulties and neurocognitive deficits among offenders, especially in arithmetic difficulties, have been less studied.

Details

Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 12 May 2022

Michael Solis and John W. McKenna

This chapter provides an overview of the current state of reading performance for adolescents. First, a review of empirical findings investigating different theoretical…

Abstract

This chapter provides an overview of the current state of reading performance for adolescents. First, a review of empirical findings investigating different theoretical models is provided. Second, a summary of research regarding intensive reading interventions for adolescents that provide 80 or more instructional sessions is described. Finally, we summarize findings from both longitudinal studies of middle-school students with reading difficulties and reading and behavior interventions to address comorbidity of reading difficulties with challenging behavior.

Details

Delivering Intensive, Individualized Interventions to Children and Youth with Learning and Behavioral Disabilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80262-738-1

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 7 January 2019

Christy R. Austin and Sharon Vaughn

A substantial number of students read significantly below grade level, and students with disabilities perform far below their non-disabled peers. Reading achievement data…

Abstract

A substantial number of students read significantly below grade level, and students with disabilities perform far below their non-disabled peers. Reading achievement data indicate that many students with and at-risk for reading disabilities require more intensive reading interventions. This chapter utilizes the theoretical model of the Simple View of Reading to describe the benefit of early reading instruction, targeting both word reading and word meaning. In addition, evidence is presented supporting the use of word meaning instruction to improve accurate and efficient word reading for students who have failed to respond to explicit decoding instruction.

Details

Special Education for Young Learners with Disabilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-041-3

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Tien-Wen Sung and Ting-Ting Wu

Learners were provided with personalized and adaptive articles in a dynamic real-time manner. This study aims to improve learners’ interest in learning English and…

Abstract

Purpose

Learners were provided with personalized and adaptive articles in a dynamic real-time manner. This study aims to improve learners’ interest in learning English and motivate them through an appropriate e-book assistance mechanism, thus increasing their English reading–comprehension skills.

Design/methodology/approach

In addition to their general auxiliary functions, e-books were designed to provide other relevant auxiliary functions to meet the English reading–learning requirements. The e-book was also equipped with a personalized reading guidance and assistance mechanism for conducting systematic assessments and calculations on the basis of the learner’s reading comprehension skills, article difficulty and difficulty stratification and connections between articles.

Findings

The personalized reading guidance and assistance strategy, which provided articles in line with the learners’ personal abilities and presented the articles in a correlated method, facilitated learners’ progressive learning and improved their reading–comprehension abilities. Learners’ confidence and satisfaction toward English reading can be improved effectively through adaptive guidance.

Originality/value

A real-time and dynamic reading guidance strategy was established in this study by considering the learner’s reading–comprehension skills, article difficulty and difficulty stratification and the connections between articles.

Details

The Electronic Library, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 February 2021

Wray Bradley and Li Sun

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of proximity to broad bond rating change on annual report reading difficulty.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of proximity to broad bond rating change on annual report reading difficulty.

Design/methodology/approach

We use regression analysis to examine the association between proximity to broad bond rating change and reading difficulty of annual report.

Findings

Using a large panel sample with 11,767 firm-year observations representing 1,474 unique US companies from 1994 to 2016, we find a significant positive relation between proximity to broad bond rating change and annual report reading difficulty, which suggests that the annual reports of borderline firms are difficult for stakeholders to read and understand.

Originality/value

By investigating whether and how borderline firms manipulate readability of annual reports, our study contributes to bond rating research in finance literature and disclosure quality research in accounting literature. To the best of our knowledge, this study is perhaps the first empirical study that directly tests the link between proximity to broad bond rating change and annual report readability. In particular, the majority of prior studies concentrate on the economic consequences of annual report readability, but few studies investigate the determinants of readability. Therefore, examining the impact of proximity to broad bond rating change on readability contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of annual report readability.

Details

Asian Review of Accounting, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1321-7348

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 2 January 2013

Lisa V. McCulley, Sarah Katz and Sharon Vaughn

Students with learning disabilities characteristically demonstrate unexpected underachievement and continued learning challenges in spite of appropriate instruction…

Abstract

Students with learning disabilities characteristically demonstrate unexpected underachievement and continued learning challenges in spite of appropriate instruction. Because reading is fundamental to competency of all future endeavors, reading interventions have been the focus of considerable public and professional attention. Intensive interventions that reflect students’ cognitive processing challenges, address the need for feedback, and take into consideration the learning environment have been associated with improved student learning outcomes.

While elementary and secondary struggling readers differ, the targeted reading skills are the same. At all levels, fundamental skills such as phonemic awareness, fluency, vocabulary knowledge, and comprehension are crucial to reading success. At the elementary level, phonemic awareness and the alphabetic principle are best taught through direct and explicit instruction; vocabulary instruction emphasizes word recognition. Fluency problems can be addressed through such activities as repeated or timed readings.

As students progress to the secondary levels, vocabulary demands become increasingly related to content acquisition, and a combination of generative and non-generative approaches to vocabulary instruction is recommended. At the secondary level, fluency practice is best coupled with comprehension instruction, which can include the explicit teaching of strategies and opportunities for students to work collaboratively. While there are no simple solutions to the challenges experienced by struggling learners, appropriate, differentiated, and intensive interventions can increase the likelihood of improved learning outcomes for these students.

Details

Learning Disabilities: Practice Concerns And Students With LD
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-428-2

Book part
Publication date: 7 July 2017

Timothy Rasinski and Chase Young

In the United States, a significant number of primary grade students struggle to achieve fluency in reading. Research indicates that achieving proficiency in the…

Abstract

In the United States, a significant number of primary grade students struggle to achieve fluency in reading. Research indicates that achieving proficiency in the foundational reading competencies is a common difficulty manifested in a majority of these students. We will explore approaches for helping younger students develop proficiency in word recognition, reading fluency, and ultimately comprehension. A number of the research-based strategies can be used with the whole class which creates a context for inclusive literacy education.

Details

Inclusive Principles and Practices in Literacy Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-590-0

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 28 April 2021

Emily J. Solari, Nancy S. McIntyre, Jaclyn M. Dynia and Alyssa Henry

Academic outcomes for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) remain poor, especially in the area of reading, in particular, reading comprehension. In recent…

Abstract

Academic outcomes for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) remain poor, especially in the area of reading, in particular, reading comprehension. In recent years, researchers have begun to investigate subcomponent skills of reading comprehension for children with ASD in order to better understand its development and potential interventions to enhance outcomes. This chapter highlights the current knowledge in the field in regards to the key cognitive and language skills associated with reading development for individuals with ASD. These include emergent-literacy skills, word-reading and decoding, reading fluency, oral language, and social cognition. Additionally, the chapter makes suggestions for future research in this area, in particular the need to conduct research to establish evidence-based practices to better support the syndrome-specific reading needs for this population.

Details

The Next Big Thing in Learning and Behavioral Disabilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-749-7

Book part
Publication date: 1 April 2011

Rollanda E. O'Connor and Victoria Sanchez

Response to Intervention (RtI) models require valid assessments for decisions regarding whether a student should receive more intensive intervention, whether interventions…

Abstract

Response to Intervention (RtI) models require valid assessments for decisions regarding whether a student should receive more intensive intervention, whether interventions improve performance, whether a student has improved sufficiently to no longer need intervention, or whether a student should be considered for a formal evaluation for special education. We describe assessment tools used currently in RtI models in reading in kindergarten through third grade, along with how these tools function in multiyear implementations of RtI. In addition to the measurement tools, we describe concerns regarding when RtI models are judged for their effects on reading improvement and the attrition that may inflate these results.

Details

Assessment and Intervention
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-829-9

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2008

Michael Jones

This article explains in detail why children can fail to read and spell effectively, even though they may be judged to be ‘good readers’. The interface between children's…

Abstract

This article explains in detail why children can fail to read and spell effectively, even though they may be judged to be ‘good readers’. The interface between children's lack of phonological awareness and the complex structure of the English spelling system is seen to have a major impact on their reading and spelling difficulties. Unidentified reading difficulties can erode children's confidence and affect family life. Children with a history of glue ear may be particularly at risk of not receiving support in schools. Software that can identify needs and provide effective remedial programmes helps significantly. Lexion software has a unique feature that allows links between learning at home and school. This can promote independence and develop children's and families' confidence as learners.

Details

Journal of Assistive Technologies, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-9450

Keywords

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