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Article
Publication date: 27 April 2010

Deborah Kelly and Alfred Lewis

This article aims to examine the dynamic nature of the sources of funding for not‐for‐profit (NPs) organizations with particular reference to NPs in the human service…

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2215

Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to examine the dynamic nature of the sources of funding for not‐for‐profit (NPs) organizations with particular reference to NPs in the human service sector NPs in the US.

Design/methodology/approach

The universe of NPs include government and so‐called third sector organizations which such as charities, healthcare organizations, educational institutions and disaster relief organizations. Specifically the authors examined the human service sector of NPs with the aim of analyzing the relationships between government subsidy and the level of commercial activities of NPs.

Findings

The expectation is that NPs with greater level of commercial of for‐profit type activities are better managed than NPs that are solely reliant on government subsidies.

Originality/value

This article examines the dynamic nature of the sources of funding for not‐for‐profit (NPs) organizations with particular reference to NPs in the human service sector NPs in the US.

Details

Business Strategy Series, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-5637

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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2012

Patrick Mapulanga

The purpose of this paper is to look at adequacy or inadequacy of budgets for University of Malawi Libraries (UML) from financial years 2004 to 2009.

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533

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to look at adequacy or inadequacy of budgets for University of Malawi Libraries (UML) from financial years 2004 to 2009.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study design was used to collect quantitative data. University budget estimate from 2003/2004 to 2009/2010 financial years were used.

Findings

The results of the study show that of five constituent colleges of the University of Malawi, four (80 per cent) of their college libraries are inadequately funded below 6 per cent. The average funding as a percentage of the total college funding for the five UML in the six‐year financial period from 2004 to 2010 are as follows: Bunda College Library 2.7 per cent; Chancellor College Library 3.72 per cent; College of Medicine Library 3.52 per cent; Kamuzu College of Nursing Library 6.27 per cent; and the Polytechnic Library 3.43 per cent. Only Kamuzu College of Nursing Library received a minimum average of 6 per cent of the total college funding.

Practical implications

The study recommends that college librarians should lobby for increased budgets for UML. College librarians should also consider income‐generating activities as a means to supplement funding through government subvention.

Originality/value

There is very little researched information on inadequacy or adequacy of budgeting and funding on UML. This research adds some information on UML budgeting and financing.

Details

The Bottom Line, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0888-045X

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Article
Publication date: 11 October 2021

Patrick Mapulanga, Dorothy Doreen Eneya and Diston Store Chiweza

The purpose of this paper was to assess the similarities and differences between the Political Parties and the Access to Information Acts in Malawi. While political…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to assess the similarities and differences between the Political Parties and the Access to Information Acts in Malawi. While political parties are largely funded by donations that are frequently kept as a secret, the Access to Information Act does not include political party funding among the categories of non-disclosed information.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is based on the qualitative content analysis of the legislation in Malawi. Content analysis of the two pieces of legislation was adopted. This paper is a review of the literature and an examination of Malawi's Political Parties and Access to Information Acts. The document study was supplemented by a review of related literature on the two legislations.

Findings

The Political Parties Act prohibits the government, ministries and departments from directly or indirectly funding political parties. The Access to Information Act to ensure information generated by Malawi government ministries, departments and agencies is readily made available by the citizens when needed or requested. The Access to Information Act does not exempt political parties from disclosing their funding sources. The two acts work in tandem to promote accountability and transparency in political party funding and sources.

Research limitations/implications

This study is limited to Malawi's Political Parties and Access to Information Acts. Only the South African related acts have informed the paper. However, several acts within developing countries would have greatly aided the paper.

Practical implications

The implementation of the two pieces of legislation has implications for the balance between disclosure and non-disclosure of political party funding. Oversight functions and credible human resource capacity are needed in both political parties and government enforcement institutions.

Social implications

Oversight functions by the Administrator-General through the Registrar of Political Parties and the Malawi Human Rights Commission are key to the implementation of Malawi's Political Parties and Access to Information Acts, respectively. Proper enforcement of the oversight functions is expected to result in an open, transparent and accountable Malawian society.

Originality/value

Various players are needed in the accountability chain to protect disclosure and non-disclosure of information. Very little information is known on the powers, functions and duties of office bearers capable of enforcing legislation to keep political parties' funding clean. Little is known on how the citizens can access information regarding political parties funding.

Details

Global Knowledge, Memory and Communication, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9342

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Article
Publication date: 31 August 2021

Sheikh Shueb, Sumeer Gul, Nahida Tun Nisa, Taseen Shabir, Shafiq Ur Rehman and Aabid Hussain

The purpose of the study is to map the funding status of COVID-19 research. The various aspects, such as funding ratio, geographical distribution of funded articles…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the study is to map the funding status of COVID-19 research. The various aspects, such as funding ratio, geographical distribution of funded articles, journals publishing funded research and institutions that sponsor the COVID-19 research are studied. To visualize the country collaboration network and research trends/hotspots in the field of COVID-19 funded research, keyword analysis is also performed. The open-access (OA) status of the funded research on COVID-19 is also discussed.

Design/methodology/approach

The leading indexing and abstracting database, i.e. Web of Science (WoS), was used to retrieve the funded articles published on the topic COVID-19. The scientometric approach, more particularly “funding acknowledgment analysis (FAA),” was used to study the research funding.

Findings

A total of 5,546 publications of varied nature have been published on COVID-19, of which 1,760 are funded, thus indicating a funding ratio of 32%. China is the leading producer of funded research (760, 43.182%) on COVID-19 followed by the USA (482, 27.386%), England (179, 10.17%), Italy (119, 6.761%), Germany (107, 6.08%) and Canada (107, 6.08%). China is also in lead in terms of the funding ratio (60.94%). However, the funding ratio of the USA (31.54%) is at 11th rank behind Canada (40.68%), Germany (34.18%) and England (35.87%). The USA occupies a central position in the collaboration network having the highest score of articles with other countries (n = 489), with the USA–China collaboration ranking first (n = 123). National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) is the largest source of funding for COVID-19 research, supporting 342 (19.432%) publications, followed by the United States Department of Health Human Services (DHHS) and National Institute of Health (NIH), USA with 211 (11.989%) and 200 (11.364%) publications, respectively. However, China's National Key Research and Development Program achieves the highest citation impact (80.24) for its funded publications. Journal of Medical Virology, Science of the Total Environment and EuroSurveillance are the three most prolific journals publishing 63 (3.58%), 35 (1.989%) and 32 (1.818%), respectively, of the sponsored research articles on the COVID-19. A total of 3,138 institutions produce funded articles with Huazhong University of Science Technology and Wuhan University from China at the forefront publishing 92 (5.227%) and 83 (4.716%) publications, respectively. The funded research on COVID-19 is largely available in OA mode (1,674, 95.11%) and mainly through the Green and Bronze routes. The keyword clustering reveals that the articles mainly focus on the impact, structure and clinical characteristics of the virus.

Research limitations/implications

The study's main limitation is that the results are based on the publications indexed by WoS, which has limited coverage compared to other databases. Moreover, all the funding agencies do not require or authors miss to acknowledge funding sources in their publications, which ultimately undermines the number of funded publications. The research publications on COVID-19 are also proliferating; thus, the study's findings shall be valid for a minimum period.

Practical implications

The funding of research on the COVID-19 is highly essential to accelerate innovative research and help countries fight against the global pandemic. The study's findings reflect the efforts made by nations and institutions to remove the financial and accessibility hurdles. It not only underscores the lead of the USA in the research on COVID-19, but also shows China as a forerunner in sponsoring the research, thus, helping to know the contribution of nations toward understanding the dynamics of pandemic and controlling it. The study will help healthcare practitioners and policymakers recognize the areas that remain the focus of sponsored research on COVID-19 and other left-out areas that need to be taken up and thus may help in policy formulation. It further highlights the impact of prolific funding agencies so that efforts may be initiated to increase the impact and thereby the returns of investment. The study can help to map the scientific structure of COVID-19 through the lens of funded research and recognize core inclinations of its development. Overall, a comprehensive analysis has been performed to present the detailed characteristics of sponsored research on emerging area of COVID-19, and it is informative, useful and one of its kind on the theme.

Originality/value

The study explores the funding support of research on COVID-19 and its other aspects, along with the mode of availability.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 28 July 2021

Tomi J. Kallio, Kirsi-Mari Kallio, Mira Huusko, Riitta Pyykkö and Jussi Kivistö

This article studies the tensions between universities' accountability and autonomy in response to the demands of public steering mechanisms coordinating higher education…

Abstract

Purpose

This article studies the tensions between universities' accountability and autonomy in response to the demands of public steering mechanisms coordinating higher education institutions.

Design/methodology/approach

Demonstrating the tension between accountability and autonomy, the impact and relevance of public steering mechanisms coordinating higher education are studied via a survey with selected representative Finnish universities. The response rate was an exceptionally high 94%. In addition to the statistical analysis of the survey, open-ended questions were also analyzed to give a more in-depth understanding of the findings. The study uses paradox theory and institutional complexity as its theoretical lenses.

Findings

The empirical analysis of this study shows a considerable gap between the experienced impact and the experienced relevance of the steering mechanisms in higher education. The authors’ further analysis of the open-ended data shows that indicator-based funding allocation has undermined the perceived university autonomy. The authors highlight the paradoxical tensions of university autonomy and higher education institutions' steering mechanisms' requirement for accountability. Finding an acceptable balance between accountability and institutional autonomy plays an important role in designing higher education policies.

Originality/value

The authors found that even if a steering mechanism is experienced as impactful, it is not necessarily considered relevant. One of the key aspects in understanding the reasons behind this mismatch is related to university autonomy. Most impactful steering mechanisms become considered less relevant because they also endanger institutional autonomy. In this sense, it could be expected that steering mechanisms should better balance accountability and autonomy.

Details

Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

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Article
Publication date: 25 October 2018

Sarika Sawant

Crowd funding is a method to raise funds for a specific cause or project by asking a large number of people to donate money, usually in small amounts, and usually during a…

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197

Abstract

Purpose

Crowd funding is a method to raise funds for a specific cause or project by asking a large number of people to donate money, usually in small amounts, and usually during a relatively short period, such as a few months. This paper aims to explore the global as well as Indian crowd funding platforms and literature as well to find out the success stories of crowd funding.

Design/methodology/approach

General literature was reviewed. Various crowd funding platforms were scanned, especially Indian, to find the successful crowd funding stories.

Findings

It was found that plenty of crowd funding initiatives have been taken in India, especially to build libraries, to decorate libraries, for collection development, to provide services, etc. Nongovernmental organizations/trusts are the ones who are undertaking these initiatives. There is a need to create awareness of such activities by experienced library professionals/nonprofessionals who have done crowd funding and for them to share their experiences and practices of crowd funding among other professionals, so that others can also explore such methods.

Originality/value

This paper promptly presents the Indian crowd funding initiatives and the success stories.

Details

Library Hi Tech News, vol. 35 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0741-9058

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Article
Publication date: 24 July 2007

Tugrul Daim, Mitali Monalisa, Pranabesh Dash and Neil Brown

In this paper, an analysis is presented of the research funding towards nanotechnology at the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) and its relationship to the research

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1279

Abstract

Purpose

In this paper, an analysis is presented of the research funding towards nanotechnology at the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) and its relationship to the research output in Nanoscope, an application area of nanotechnology.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper analyzes the data collected from 1997 till 2006 and derives a definitive time lag between the allocation of research funds and issued patents and published journals. This assessment is achieved by identifying growth trends in patents, funds and publications and doing a curve‐fit analysis using the Fisher‐Pry model. Linear regression analysis is used to show the correlation between the funding and research outputs. Alongside, non‐linear programming objective function optimization technique is used to derive the time lag in years for each of the research outputs from the year of funds granted.

Findings

This paper demonstrated that there is a strong correlation between research funding and different research outputs. The time lag between funding and patents issued is evident from the patent trend analysis and Bibliometric analysis. In the case of Nanoscope, the patent time lag was found to be approximately five to six years, for journal article it was approximately two to three years and conference presentations happened right after the funding. The research outputs showed similar trends and were found to be interdependent as evident from our mathematical analysis.

Research limitations/implications

While this study has shown that lag times exist within the chosen example of Nanoscope, and furthermore can be calculated to a precise degree, further data points in terms of additional emerging technologies would support the hypothesis in a more general term. A future study can look at developing technology roadmaps of the future based on the funding happening today.

Originality/value

The work takes bibliometric analysis to a further intelligence and establishes key linkages between these indicators.

Details

Foresight, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6689

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2005

Rose B. Okiy

To address the issue of poor government funding for Nigerian libraries. This situation has led many librarians over the years to explore the possibility of raising…

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1067

Abstract

Purpose

To address the issue of poor government funding for Nigerian libraries. This situation has led many librarians over the years to explore the possibility of raising additional funds from alternative sources of income.

Design/methodology/approach

Explores the current levels of funding for Nigerian academic libraries and identifies some alternative funding sources. On identifying these sources, the success of alternative sources of income is presented and suggestions are made for funding in the future.

Findings

Funding for libraries and information centers in Nigeria is largely through government allocations to the overseeing ministries or institutions. Government funding has been poor, requiring libraries to look for alternative sources of income in order to meet the increasingly sophisticated demand of library users for electronic information services. Several methods for generating income have been identified, explored by many libraries, and discussed in library literature, but have yielded little in the way of additional funding.

Originality/value

On evaluating all the sources of income available to Nigerian academic libraries, this paper suggests that the most stable and reliable source of funds remains with allocations from the federal government. As the support from the government has not been adequate, suggestions are included on areas where the government could raise taxes to support education in general, and libraries specifically, within Nigeria.

Details

The Bottom Line, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0888-045X

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2001

Mee Ng

Mee Ling Ng of Outset Consultancy Service (OCS) offers some thoughts and tips on where to find funding. A life in the day will have a regular section on funding issues and…

Abstract

Mee Ling Ng of Outset Consultancy Service (OCS) offers some thoughts and tips on where to find funding. A life in the day will have a regular section on funding issues and would like to hear from readers who would like to share their funding and fundraising experiences.Since the publication of Working it Out (Pozner et al, 1996) which addressed the resource needs of project development, the funding landscape has changed. New funding opportunities are available, in addition to those mentioned in the funding chapter. This article sets out the resource issues which practitioners need to be aware of and address. It also summarises the key sources of funding for project development and delivery of educational, training and employment opportunities for people with mental health problems.

Details

A Life in the Day, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-6282

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2021

Jan P. Warhuus, Casey J. Frid and William B. Gartner

This study offers empirical evidence from a nationally representative panel dataset of nascent entrepreneurs (PSED-II) regarding when external financing is acquired and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study offers empirical evidence from a nationally representative panel dataset of nascent entrepreneurs (PSED-II) regarding when external financing is acquired and how certain factors affect this timing during the cumulative process of nascent entrepreneurs taking actions toward establishing an operational entity. By assessing the relationship between the external financing event and the cumulative set of actions that nascent entrepreneurs undertake to create new businesses, we improve our understanding of how the timing of acquiring external financing affects organizational survival and growth.

Design/methodology/approach

We apply nonparametric and semiparametric survival analysis techniques to a nationally representative panel dataset of nascent entrepreneurs. This ascertains the probability of an external financing event at any given moment in time and a set of startup conditions that we hypothesize will affect this timing. First, we use Kaplan–Meier analysis to explore when external financing occurs during new business creation. We then use discrete-time survival analysis to investigate whether certain startup conditions affect when external financing occurs. Finally, we conduct a test of independence to examine the external financing event relative to other startup activities completed during new business creation.

Findings

Nascent entrepreneurs tend to acquire external funding relatively late in the new venture startup process – on average, about two-thirds of the way from conceiving of the idea and becoming operational. They tend to take actions that are less resource-demanding early in the startup process to build their organizations to a fundable stage. Net worth tends to speed up the acquisition of external funding as wealthy entrepreneurs tend to ask for funding earlier in the process. Finally, entrepreneurs in capital-intensive industries do not seem to get outside funding before entrepreneurs in other industries.

Originality/value

This study is unique in three ways. First, we investigate the timing of the highly important external financing event. Timing is critical in unpacking and making sense of the very early stages of a new business and in guiding entrepreneurs and students about when to do what. Second, we do so in a subsample of preoperational, nascent, funded entrepreneurs derived from a nationally representative panel dataset of startup attempts. Third, our findings provide a counter-intuitive yet systematic understanding of organizational emergence and very early-stage financing.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

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