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Book part
Publication date: 2 December 2019

Frank Fitzpatrick

Abstract

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Understanding Intercultural Interaction: An Analysis of Key Concepts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-397-0

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1996

Claude Moulin

This paper will examine the importance of seeing, reading, evaluating and better appreciating the built environment. Creative observation of built environment is…

Abstract

This paper will examine the importance of seeing, reading, evaluating and better appreciating the built environment. Creative observation of built environment is fundamental to our day‐to‐day lives as well as to cultural tourism development. As we want to break away from the routine and lack of stimuli of our home work and environment, we travel to foreign places. Our cities are tourist destinations for others. Being aware of one's environment, and being able to read it should be a skill mastered by all. As many become a tourist at some point in their life, cultural tourism is judged essential to society's enrichment and to the personal enhancement of the tourist. Through methods of awareness, this process allows everyone to appreciate the built environment. None of the tourist charters, educational or initiatives adequately training cover these areas of concern. In response, this paper will explore the matters of perception, place and landscape reading, as well as visual or contextual appreciation as the basis for promotion of heritage conservation, cultural identity and sensitization to place specificities and uniqueness of landscapes. How to see and better appreciate these elements is what will progressively promote a conservation ethic in search of promising relationships between visitors and the built environment.

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The Tourist Review, vol. 51 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0251-3102

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Miao Cui, Crystal Dong, Yuekun Liu and Shujuan Wang

An increasing number of Chinese enterprises are involved in cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As). However, few Chinese enterprises have achieved successful…

Abstract

Purpose

An increasing number of Chinese enterprises are involved in cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As). However, few Chinese enterprises have achieved successful integration, which plays a critical role in enhancing performance. The important field of cultural integration is currently facing major challenges. To identify the reasons for these challenges, studies have analyzed why cultural integration succeeds or fails and have suggested that cultural differences between acquiring and acquired enterprises are the primary obstacles to cultural integration. However, it is unclear how success can be achieved. The paper aims to focus on cultural integration from the perspective of acculturation to describe the penetration of cultural elements in M&As.

Design/methodology/approach

In adopting acculturation as our theoretical lens, the authors use the case study method to answer the following research question: “how can the cultural integration of Chinese enterprises be successfully achieved?” Two typical cases are examined: Lenovo’s cultural integration with IBM’s personal computer (PC) division and Haier’s cultural integration with Sanyo home appliance. First, using the exploratory case study method, the Lenovo–IBM PC division case is analyzed. The characteristics and relationships between cultural environments, employee adoption methods and acculturation patterns are summarized to reveal a cultural integration path. Second, the Haier–Sanyo home appliance case is analyzed using the confirmative case study method to test the findings of the Lenovo–IBM PC division case.

Findings

The results indicate that it is critical to achieve a dynamic fit between cultural environments, employee adoption methods and acculturation patterns during each stage of cultural integration (exploration, experimentation, reinforcement and fixing). The three constructs of these stages reflect the following evolutionary paths: “isolate-introduce-learning-chance taking”, “detecting-icebreaking-interacting-remodeling” and “specialized sections-senior managers-managers-employees”.

Originality/value

These findings contribute to the development of cultural integration and acculturation theories and serve as a reference for Chinese enterprises wishing to implement cultural integration strategies.

Details

Nankai Business Review International, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8749

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Article
Publication date: 27 April 2020

Hao Huang, Hong Liu, Xin Huang and Yusen Ding

The purpose of this study is to explore the adjustment model of expatriates in overseas projects by studying two overseas projects of a Chinese state-owned enterprise.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore the adjustment model of expatriates in overseas projects by studying two overseas projects of a Chinese state-owned enterprise.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the grounded theory, qualitative analysis was performed based on data compiled from 116 pieces of project briefings, 105 questionnaires answered by expatriate workers and 21 interviews conducted to those workers based on briefings and questionnaires.

Findings

The study found that the simulated home is a standard cross-cultural adjustment model for expatriates in Chinese engineering projects, which are project-oriented and often inattentive to employees' individual rights. The simulated home creates a unique work-place and social environment similar to that of expatriates' home country in the cultural setting of the host country, but it also establishes a cultural barrier, limiting the communication between expatriates and the local people, which is not conducive to the cultural exchange between the two sides, causing cultural clashes and consequently hindering the progress of projects.

Originality/value

This research puts forward the model of “simulated home.” And this study bears significance to the cross-cultural adjustment of expatriate workers in Chinese overseas projects.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. 42 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2005

Richard Reeves-Ellington

Conceptualizing trust alone or as the starting point for understanding both trust and distrust is insufficient. Therefore, this chapter focuses on the construction of…

Abstract

Conceptualizing trust alone or as the starting point for understanding both trust and distrust is insufficient. Therefore, this chapter focuses on the construction of phenotypic trustscapes and distrustscapes that permit an abstract exploration of the concepts of trust and distrust using societal and dyadic relationships and perceptions of the individual as the units of analysis. For theoretical understanding of trust and distrust, it uses social and evolutionary biologic multi-level theory. This chapter builds on the existing trust literature in three ways: (1) by triangulating on trust and distrust through the use of a number of research methodologies; (2) by placing trust and distrust in value orientation theory and models; and (3) by extricating trust and distrust from reciprocity constructs, and placing them into separate phenotypes: trustscapes and distrustscapes. These efforts show that both trust and distrust are naturally occurring phenomena, with one or the other predominant in specific contexts. The chapter includes scenarios in Japan, Bulgaria, and Indonesia to demonstrate how micro- and macro-level examples of trustscapes and distrustscapes function.

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Multi-level Issues in Organizational Behavior and Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-269-6

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Article
Publication date: 3 December 2019

Van Thac Dang and Ying-Chyi Chou

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of extrinsic motivation, workplace learning, employer trust and self-efficacy on foreign laborers’ cross-cultural

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of extrinsic motivation, workplace learning, employer trust and self-efficacy on foreign laborers’ cross-cultural adjustment.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses structural equation modeling to analyze the data from a sample of 258 Vietnamese laborers in Taiwan.

Findings

The results show a significantly positive impact of extrinsic motivation, workplace learning, employer trust and self-efficacy on cross-cultural adjustment.

Originality/value

The findings of this study provide important implications for academic researchers and organizations concerning management and development of successful foreign laborers. From a theoretical aspect, this study shows new evidence on the impacts of extrinsic motivation, workplace learning, employer trust and self-efficacy on foreign laborer cross-cultural adjustment. In addition, this study enriches theories in the field of self-determination motivation, workplace learning, trust and self-efficacy literature. From a practical aspect, this study provides implications for business managers to make better policies in training and managing foreign laborers.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 49 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 5 May 2015

Natalie S. Mikhaylov and Isidro Fierro

The purpose of this paper is to explore the process of development of cultural knowledge and cosmopolitan identities among international management students in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the process of development of cultural knowledge and cosmopolitan identities among international management students in multicultural learning environments and to investigate how international business students develop global mindset during their studies.

Design/methodology/approach

A comparative analysis was conducted within four undergraduate management and business administration programs in international higher educational institutions, based on constructivist grounded theory methodology. The empirical study is grounded in data that were collected from triangulated multiple sources: qualitative semi-structured interviews with students, faculty and student services professional (n = 95) from 23 countries, participant observation in four programs and document reviews, and were analyzed using the dimensional analysis.

Findings

The study presents a global mindset development process model, which takes into the account social capital of the learners, as well as the existing and emergent social ties.

Practical implications

The paper provides tentative recommendations for the steps that management educational programs and multinational companies can take to promote an environment conductive for cultural knowledge exchange.

Originality/value

The paper presents the development of global mindset as a social learning process; in particular, it addresses the role social capital plays in knowledge generation and sharing in multicultural learning environment. It contributes to the understanding of cultural knowledge development in social networks. Additionally, the paper examines the feasibility of development of global mindset in international higher educational.

Details

Journal of International Education in Business, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-469X

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Article
Publication date: 30 April 2020

Shangui Hu, Lingyu Hu and Guoyin Wang

This paper aims to investigate the adverse effects of addiction to social media usage on expatriates' cultural identity change in cross-cultural settings.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the adverse effects of addiction to social media usage on expatriates' cultural identity change in cross-cultural settings.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire survey was conducted in two public universities in China. Among the questionnaires distributed, 333 useful responses were obtained from international students for data analysis.

Findings

Regression results show addiction to social media usage exerts adverse effects by negatively moderating the relationship between associations with locals and the three dimensions of cultural intelligence. Addiction to social media usage impairs expatriates from developing cultural intelligence from associations with locals, which in turn affects their cultural identity change.

Research limitations/implications

Research findings suggest that expatriates, administrators and educators should be highly aware of the adverse effects of addiction to social media usage in complex cross-cultural settings wherein expatriates are more dependent on information technology. The important role of cultural intelligence should also be highlighted for its bridging role in managing cultural identity change for acculturation purpose. No causal relationships between variables can be established considering the cross-sectional design of the research. Longitudinal or experimental design could be a promising methodology for future efforts.

Originality/value

The current research contributes to the knowledge on information management applied to cross-cultural settings. The present study combines an IT contingent view with cross-cultural study to explore the adverse effects of addiction to social media usage on the development of expatriates' cultural intelligence from associations with locals, thereby influencing cultural identity change. The research provides new perspectives to expand the nomological framework of cross-cultural studies by combining the enabling roles of information technology.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

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Article
Publication date: 11 December 2017

Syed Ali Fazal, Abdullah Al Mamun, Sazali Abdul Wahab and Muhammad Mohiuddin

Under the premise of resource-based view (RBV), this study aims to examine the influence of host-country characteristics (i.e. market environment, cultural factors…

Abstract

Purpose

Under the premise of resource-based view (RBV), this study aims to examine the influence of host-country characteristics (i.e. market environment, cultural factors, government policies and absorptive capacity) on improved knowledge acquired by means of intra-firm technology transfer and the latter’s subsequent effect on corporate sustainability among subsidiaries of foreign multinational corporations (MNCs) in Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

The following study adopted a cross-sectional design. Quantitative data were collected through structured interview from the representatives of selected 252 subsidiaries of foreign-based MNCs located in Peninsular Malaysia.

Findings

The findings of this study revealed that market environment, government policies and absorptive capacity significantly affect the adoption of innovative knowledge, which also has a significant positive effect on corporate sustainability. The findings also revealed a partial mediation of improved knowledge between market environment, government policies and absorptive capacity on corporate sustainability.

Research limitations/implications

This study recommends that the host country should formulate and adopt trade and FDI friendly policies, as well as stricter intellectual property laws, and, at the same time, provide higher education and training to its citizens to maximize foreign investment and knowledge transfer.

Originality/value

Apart from highlighting the under-researched issue of organizational sustainability, this study is unique in its approach of connecting the external environment of the host country with the internal knowledge of the firm and corporate sustainability in a single framework. The empirical findings of this study support the hypothesized relationships and thereby extend the scope of the contingency theory and RBV in addition to simultaneously enriching the existing intra-firm knowledge management literature, particularly in the Malaysian context.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2016

Chih-Hung Chung, Putthachat Angnakoon, Jessica Li and Jeff Allen

– The purpose of this study is to provide researchers with a better understanding of the cultural impact on information processing in virtual learning environment.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to provide researchers with a better understanding of the cultural impact on information processing in virtual learning environment.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a causal loop diagram to depict the cultural impact on information processing in the virtual human resource development (VHRD) learning platform. This study takes a theoretical approach and examines current literature pertaining to VHRDs, virtual worlds (VWs), system dynamics, causal loop diagrams (CLDs) and cross-cultural studies.

Findings

This study provides a conceptual model to describe and discuss the cultural impact on information processing in VHRD.

Research limitations/implications

Literature has begun to reflect the concerns with cultural impact in VHRD; however, research is still in the beginning stages. This study proposes a conceptual model of information processing that includes the cultural impact. Future work based on this study will continue to test and improve the conceptual model.

Practical implications

The conceptual model accounts for the complexities of the interaction between internal and external information processing systems. Instructional designers or educators can apply this conceptual model to understand the impact of culture on information process during training programs in the VHRD environment. With this model, they could provide an effective or efficient training programs for their trainees.

Social implications

The conceptual model adopts a systemic viewpoint to describe the cultural impact on VHRD. For future studies, researchers could adopt this conceptual model to further illustrate the association between understanding information processing and recognizing the cultural impact on information processing.

Originality/value

This study provided a framework for HRD researchers and practitioners to detect challenges and opportunities to work with cultural impact on information processing in VHRD. Instructional designers or educators could utilize this model to understand the process, and further offer an effective or efficient training programs for their trainees.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

Keywords

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