Search results

1 – 10 of over 11000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 23 August 2011

Charles R. Taylor, C. Luke Bowen and Hae-Kyong Bang

Purpose – A considerable body of literature has evolved on the topic of appropriate research methodology for cross-national data collection. Additionally, prior…

Abstract

Purpose – A considerable body of literature has evolved on the topic of appropriate research methodology for cross-national data collection. Additionally, prior commentaries on cross-national research in the marketing have cited significant deficiencies in this body of research in terms of the theoretical foundations, methods, and analytical techniques used. The purpose of this chapter is to summarize guidelines for conducting cross-national research in marketing and assess the degree to which these rules are being followed.

Design/methodology/approach – The literature on cross-national research methods in marketing studies is first reviewed to identify key issues and methodological guidelines. A content analysis of cross-national studies appearing in 10 major journals in the marketing and advertising field for the period from 2005 to 2010 is conducted to assess whether the guidelines for researchers are being followed. The chapter also explores whether recent research is addressing key deficiencies identified by prior commentaries on this body of research.

Findings –Results are indicative of some promising trends. A wider range of theory bases, methodological techniques, and analytical techniques are being used in cross-national marketing studies. Additionally, methodological guidelines for conceptualizing studies, including following appropriate procedures to ensure equivalence and verifying the existence of cultural differences, are being followed at a higher rate than in the past. Still, some studies do not follow accepted guidelines, and there is a need for a wider range of theory bases and methods to be used.

Research limitations/implications – The study examines only cross-national studies published in 10 journals over a recent six years (2005–2010). As a result, no direct comparison to earlier periods is made.

Originality/value of paper – This chapter outlines key guidelines for conducting cross-national studies in marketing. It also calls attention to the need to follow these guidelines based on the trend toward a majority of studies complying with them. Finally, the chapter calls attention to the need for certain theory bases and methods to be used more frequently.

Details

Measurement and Research Methods in International Marketing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-095-7

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 31 December 2010

Rie Kijima

Participation in cross-national assessment is becoming a global phenomenon. While there were only 43 countries that participated in the Programme for International Student…

Abstract

Participation in cross-national assessment is becoming a global phenomenon. While there were only 43 countries that participated in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) in 2000, the number of participating countries/economies has increased to 65 in 2009. To understand this global trend, this chapter seeks to answer the following research questions: What are the real incentives for developing countries to participate in cross-national assessments? What do they gain from actual participation in cross-national assessments, given that there are many constraints and barriers associated with test participation? It employs country-level fixed effects to test the hypothesis that there is a positive association between participation in cross-national assessments and foreign aid to education. This study shows that countries that participate in major cross-national assessments receive, on average, 37 percent more foreign aid to education than countries that do not participate in major cross-national assessments, while holding all other variables constant. Although further research is necessary to make a causal warrant of the association between participation in cross-national assessment and education aid, the results of this study have great implications for developing countries that are considering participating in cross-national assessments.

Details

The Impact of International Achievement Studies on National Education Policymaking
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-449-9

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 10 August 2011

Chu-Hsiang (Daisy) Chang and Samantha K. Baard

Given the increasing global focus of many aspects of our society, researchers have taken significant steps in understanding the impact of culture on various psychological…

Abstract

Given the increasing global focus of many aspects of our society, researchers have taken significant steps in understanding the impact of culture on various psychological states. This review focuses on the stressor–strain relationships within the context of cross-cultural and cross-national studies. Using research findings from the United States as a baseline, we identify common and unique themes concerning the stressor–strain relationships between different countries, and clarify the differences between cross-national and cross-cultural studies. Furthermore, we consider cross-cultural and cross-national occupational stress research from an individual differences perspective. We encourage future studies to adopt this perspective and carefully consider the implications of cultural values on occupational stress research at the individual, group, and country levels.

Details

The Role of Individual Differences in Occupational Stress and Well Being
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-711-7

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 10 August 2015

Kirsten Martinus and David Hedgcock

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the difficulties faced during the interview process in a cross-national qualitative comparative case study between Japan and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the difficulties faced during the interview process in a cross-national qualitative comparative case study between Japan and Australia. It discusses the challenges in producing insightful data and preserving the integrity of findings when methodologies are influenced by different cultural and professional environments.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper explores literature on cross-national qualitative research in the context of policy research as well as the philosophical and professional differences between Japan and Western countries (like Australia). It reflects on practical examples and strategies used by the researcher during the ethics and interview processes when adapting widely accepted qualitative case study methodology to suit the Japanese cultural and professional environment.

Findings

The paper finds that linguistic, cultural, professional and philosophical differences between the countries challenged initial researcher assumptions that comparability between the case study regions would be maintained through the application of accepted methodologies and an “insider” status. It observes that the quest to generate rich and insightful data places the character and capability of the researcher as central in the research process.

Originality/value

This paper provides practical examples and strategies for social science researchers using interview methods in Japan and Australian. It points to a need for further research on the ambiguous and elusive nature of the “insider” paradigm as well as the “comparability” of cross-national qualitative case studies when methodological “flexibility” is used to enrich and preserve the integrity of research findings.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 6 November 2009

Rick Ruddell and Matthew O. Thomas

This paper aims to examine the political, social, and legal factors that shape the deployment of the police in a cross‐national sample of nations.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the political, social, and legal factors that shape the deployment of the police in a cross‐national sample of nations.

Design/methodology/approach

Ordinary least squares regression models are used to investigate police strength in 70 developing and developed nations.

Findings

Controlling for indicators of crime, development, and population‐geography, it is found that political factors such as durability of the political regime, corruption, the presence of a black market, and state formation are significantly associated with police strength. Inconsistent with expectations, however, it is found that there is not a significant relationship between indicators of criminal justice system priorities, such as incarceration rates or use of the death penalty, and police strength.

Research limitations/implications

A lack of indicators of property or violent crime for large samples of nations makes it difficult to discount the role of crime in the deployment of the police. Further, cross‐national studies are hampered by a lack of data about the use of private security to bolster the formal activities of the police, or the role of the military in regulating social order.

Practical implications

This study builds on the theoretical knowledge of how the police are deployed. A better understanding of police strength can contribute to discussions about a global policing community. Implications for theories of policing and criminal justice system operations are also outlined.

Originality/value

Very few cross‐national studies of criminal justice system operations have been conducted, and this study increases knowledge of global patterns of policing.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 23 May 2008

Raj Gururajan, Mohammed Quaddus and Jun Xu

The purpose of this research is to investigate the drivers and inhibitors of clinical usefulness of handheld wireless technology in healthcare domain in Australia and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to investigate the drivers and inhibitors of clinical usefulness of handheld wireless technology in healthcare domain in Australia and India. Because of cultural differences in these two countries the paper also attempts to show how a cross‐national study of this nature can be carefully designed and undertaken to produce useful results.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed‐method research design was used in this study. First, qualitative approach was used to develop the list of drivers and inhibitors in Australia and India via interviews and a research model was developed. This was then followed by a quantitative approach where questionnaire was developed and distributed to 300 health professionals each in both Australia and India. The collected data were analysed using a combination of optimal scaling and partial least square (PLS) techniques.

Findings

The result of the study was very interesting. The PLS application to the raw data did not support any of the hypotheses. As the study was cross‐national optimal scaling procedure were used to standardize the data and then PLS used again. It was then revealed that for Australia inhibitors significantly influence the clinical usefulness of handheld wireless technology while the drivers do not. However, for India the drivers significantly influence the clinical usefulness but the inhibitors do not. Possible reasons for such contrasting results are highlighted in the paper.

Research limitations/implications

The sample size although appropriate for the tools used was a bit on the low side. The study did not follow up with representative respondents from Australia and India to get a deeper understanding of the results.

Originality/value

This study is original in the way the research model was developed from ground up. Our approach can be used for similar research. The study also makes original contribution in terms of designing an appropriate research approach for cross‐national study and how various data analyses tools can be used effective for meaningful outcomes.

Details

Journal of Systems and Information Technology, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1328-7265

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 9 May 2008

Andrea D. Ellinger, Robert G. Hamlin and Rona S. Beattie

The concept of managers assuming developmental roles such as coaches and learning facilitators has received considerable attention in recent years. Yet, despite the…

Abstract

Purpose

The concept of managers assuming developmental roles such as coaches and learning facilitators has received considerable attention in recent years. Yet, despite the growing body of expert opinion that suggests that coaching is an essential core activity of everyday management and leadership, the literature base remains largely atheoretical and devoid of empirical research. While there is some consensus about what effective coaching looks like, little if any empirical research has examined ineffective coaching behaviours. The purpose of this paper is to compare the empirical findings from three separately conducted studies to derive a comprehensive understanding of the ineffective behaviours associated with managerial coaching.

Design/methodology/approach

The current study adopted a cross‐national “etic” methodology based on the empirical findings generated by three previously conducted and purposefully selected “emic” studies. Drawing on Berry's and Lyons and Chryssochoous' “emic‐etic” approach and cross‐cultural comparisons, the researchers employed Guba and Lincoln's file card approach to analyze and compare the three behavioral datasets of the previously conducted studies.

Findings

The findings from this cross‐national comparative “etic” study revealed that the vast majority of ineffective coaching behaviours previously identified in the emic studies were held in common with each other. The predominant ineffective behaviours included using an autocratic, directive, controlling or dictatorial style, ineffective communication and dissemination of information, and inappropriate behaviours and approaches to working with employees. Of the 17 ineffective behaviours that were compared only three were not held in common.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations associated with this cross‐national study included minor variations in the use of data collection approaches and samples of managers in the previously conducted emic studies.

Practical implications

The ineffective managerial coaching behaviours derived from the cross‐national comparisons can be integrated as diagnostic tools into coaching training programmes and management and leadership development programmes to improve the practice of managerial coaching. They can also be used to increase managers' awareness of the behaviours that impede their coaching interventions with their respective employees.

Originality/value

The literature base on coaching in general and managerial coaching in particular has been criticized for not being research‐informed and evidence‐based, but rather predominantly practice‐driven and guru‐led. The findings from the current cross‐national etic study not only add to a sparse base of empirical research on managerial coaching, but also illuminate an underdeveloped area, namely that of ineffective managerial coaching practice. Furthermore, the findings provide a foundation on which to compare and contrast future empirical research that may be conducted on managerial coaching behaviours.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 31 December 2010

Jennifer H. Chung

Finland's performance in PISA has created considerable interest in the country's education system, to ascertain what has made Finland so successful in the survey. In…

Abstract

Finland's performance in PISA has created considerable interest in the country's education system, to ascertain what has made Finland so successful in the survey. In reference to the phenomenon, this chapter discusses cross-national attraction, policy borrowing, the effect of Finland in PISA, and its influence on education policy. This chapter explores at length the theoretical background of cross-national attraction and policy borrowing, also investigating cases that have already occurred. It discusses Finland's role as the new object of cross-national attraction and eventual policy borrowing. The chapter incorporates research into the reasons for Finland's success in PISA, the possibilities of policy transfer from Finland, and delves into the likelihood of policy implications as a result of Finland in PISA. This cross-national attraction denotes the first stage in policy borrowing; however, comparative educationalists, for years, have warned about the uncritical transfer of education policy. Research in Finland has revealed many reasons for the country's PISA success stem from contextual factors: those related to historical, cultural, societal, and political features of Finland. Therefore, policy borrowing from Finland needs to heed warnings of past comparativists. The new phenomenon of Finland in PISA has generated much curiosity from those in education, educational policy, and politics. Policymakers are keen to incorporate Finland's educational features into their education systems. PISA and Finland's performance in the survey influence educational policy. This illustrates the importance the warnings of past and present comparative educationalists in order to prevent uncritical policy borrowing.

Details

The Impact of International Achievement Studies on National Education Policymaking
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-449-9

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 31 May 2011

Hugh M. Cannon and Attila Yaprak

The purpose of this paper is to provide a conceptual framework for better understanding of cross‐national segmentation under the underlying forces of globalization and technology.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a conceptual framework for better understanding of cross‐national segmentation under the underlying forces of globalization and technology.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach is conceptual with illustrative examples, with a dynamic approach to cross‐national segmentation being considered.

Findings

Cross‐national segmentation can be better understood and better structured through closer examination of how segments evolve over time in response to the underlying forces of globalization and cultural evolution.

Research limitations/implications

The framework described in the paper should inspire research on value‐based segmentation schemes across markets.

Practical implications

International marketing managers should be able to construct and adapt segmentation strategies much more effectively through the use of the conceptual framework offered in the paper.

Originality/value

The framework offered in the paper is unique in that it blends consumer value orientations with product/service characteristics and functionally vs symbolically motivated segments and how these evolve over time.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 18 September 2007

Eunju Ko, Eunyoung Kim, Charles R. Taylor, Kyung Hoon Kim and Ie Jeong Kang

To discover whether there are market segments for the fashion industry that cut across countries and respond differently to advertising messages.

Abstract

Purpose

To discover whether there are market segments for the fashion industry that cut across countries and respond differently to advertising messages.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was administered to Korean, European, and US female consumers. Cluster analysis is used in an attempt to identify lifestyle segments that cut across cultures.

Findings

Four cross‐national market segments are identified. These segments can be labeled as follows: “information seekers,” “sensation seekers,” “utilitarian consumers,” and “conspicuous consumers.” Findings also reveal that fashion lifestyle segment had a stronger effect on the reaction to a set of three ads for a major global fashion company (one each from the French, Korean, and US editions of Vogue magazine) than did consumer nationality.

Practical implications

Findings suggest that it is viable and perhaps desirable for global marketers in the fashion industry to target cross‐national market segments as opposed to developing individual segmentation schemes for each country.

Originality/value

Relatively few studies examining the viability of cross‐national segmentation have been studies. The study provides insight on building global brand equity and suggests standardized advertising is appropriate for some fashion marketers.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 24 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 11000