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Book part
Publication date: 10 October 2017

Suman Seth and Sabina Alkire

A number of multidimensional poverty measures that respect the ordinal nature of dimensions have recently been proposed within the counting approach framework. Besides…

Abstract

A number of multidimensional poverty measures that respect the ordinal nature of dimensions have recently been proposed within the counting approach framework. Besides ensuring a reduction in poverty, however, it is important to monitor distributional changes to ensure that poverty reduction has been inclusive in reaching the poorest. Distributional issues are typically captured by adjusting a poverty measure to be sensitive to inequality among the poor. This approach, however, has certain practical and conceptual limitations. It conflicts, for example, with some policy-relevant measurement features, such as the ability to decompose a measure into dimensions post-identification and does not create an appropriate framework for assessing disparity in poverty across population subgroups. In this chapter, we propose and justify the use of a separate decomposable inequality measure – a positive multiple of “variance” – to capture the distribution of deprivations among the poor and to assess disparity in poverty across population subgroups. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach through two contrasting inter-temporal illustrations using Demographic Health Survey data sets for Haiti and India.

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Book part
Publication date: 28 December 2018

Miri Endeweld and Jacques Silber

Using data on food insecurity in Israel, this chapter suggests borrowing techniques from the literature on multidimensional poverty to measure food insecurity, a…

Abstract

Using data on food insecurity in Israel, this chapter suggests borrowing techniques from the literature on multidimensional poverty to measure food insecurity, a distinction being made between “nominal” and “real” food insecurity. Various counting techniques are then implemented, including the well-known approach of Alkire and Foster. The chapter ends with a section where, following recent work by Dhongde, Li, Pattanaik, and Xu (2016), a distinction is also made between “basic” and “non-basic” dimensions of food insecurity.

Details

Inequality, Taxation and Intergenerational Transmission
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-458-9

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2015

Akoété Ega Agbodji, Yélé Maweki Batana and Dénis Ouedraogo

The importance of gender equality is reflected not only in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), but also in the World Bank’s Gender Action Plan launched in 2007 as…

Abstract

Purpose

The importance of gender equality is reflected not only in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), but also in the World Bank’s Gender Action Plan launched in 2007 as well as in other treaties and actions undertaken at regional and international levels. Unlike other gender poverty works, which are mostly based on monetary measurement, the purpose of this paper is to adopt a non-monetary approach.

Design/methodology/approach

The present study makes use of a counting approach to examine gender issues in Burkina Faso and Togo using household surveys, namely Enquête Intégrale surles Conditions de Vie des Ménages (2009/2010) and Core Welfare Indicators Questionnaire (2011), respectively. It focusses on six dimensions (housing, basic utilities, assets, education, employment and access to credit) largely recognized as MDG targets.

Findings

Main findings indicate that overall individuals are the most deprived in education in Burkina Faso, while the reverse situation is true in Togo. Gender inequality is observed in all dimensions since women always seem to be more deprived than men. The situation is also marked by regional disparities. Moreover, the assessment of dimensional contributions shows different patterns for each country. While employment proves to be the main contributor of gender inequality in Burkina Faso, three dimensions (assets, access to credit and employment) account together for most of the total contribution to gender inequality in Togo.

Originality/value

The main contribution of the paper is to use a multidimensional method (counting approach) to assess gender deprivation, with countries comparison. It also proposes an interesting combination of the decomposition by dimension with the subgroup’s decomposition in order to determine the largest contributor to gender inequality.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 42 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 23 April 2018

Stuart Norton, Barak Ariel, Cristobal Weinborn and Emma O’Dwyer

Virtually all analyses of hotspots have been devoted to a crude counting system, i.e. tallying the number of occurrences that take place in pre-specified units of space…

Abstract

Purpose

Virtually all analyses of hotspots have been devoted to a crude counting system, i.e. tallying the number of occurrences that take place in pre-specified units of space and time. Recent research shows that while usually half of all criminal events are concentrated in about 3 percent of places commonly referred to as “hotspots” of crime, similar proportions of harm concentrate in only 1 percent of places. These are “harmspots.” Identifying that harm is a more concentrated issue suggests wide policy and research implications, but what are the dynamics of these harmspots? The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper provides a descriptive framework for measuring, as well as evidence about, these patterns and concentrations, harmspots in Sussex, England.

Findings

There are four discrete offense categories that account for 80 percent of all the harm within harmspots. These categories include: sexual offenses, violence against the person, robbery and theft. Within these high harmspots, crime counts and harm are strongly correlated (r=0.82, p=0.001). Temporal analyses show that harmspots are not evenly spread across time and place, with night time and weekends becoming substantially more susceptible to harm – more than count-based models. Harmspot trajectory analysis suggests evidence of stability over time within the high harmspots; most harmspots remain chronically inflicted with harm. Violence and sexual offenses are random in their spatial distribution between the harmspots, but robberies and theft are more closely coupled to particular harmspots than others.

Originality/value

Implications of these findings are discussed in terms of future research avenues and crime policy.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 41 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 5 February 2018

Nuno Campos Pereira, Nuno Araújo and Leonardo Costa

The purpose of this paper is to develop a multidimensional innovation index (MII) framework for measuring and benchmarking multidimensional innovation of small and medium…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a multidimensional innovation index (MII) framework for measuring and benchmarking multidimensional innovation of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and groups of SMEs.

Design/methodology/approach

A counting dual cut-off method is employed. First, output and input innovation profiles and composite scores of individual SMEs are computed. Second, a set of four composite innovation indices are generated characterizing the group of SMEs under analysis: MIIo and MIIi measure multidimensional output and input innovation, respectively; while MIIr and MIIa assess the ratio and average of MIIo and MIIi, respectively. To test the MII framework, a survey was conducted among SMEs of the metalworking industry in Portugal.

Findings

In 2012, about 28.9 percent (42.2 percent) SMEs of the Portuguese metalworking industry were determined to be multidimensional output (input) innovative. The average percentage of dimensions for which output (input) innovative SMEs were innovative was 65.0 percent (66.0 percent). Thus, the industry MII vector was (MIIo; MIIi; MIIr; MIIa)=(0.188, 0.279, 0.674; 0.233). Significant differences were found across the industry, individual SMEs’ multidimensional output and input innovation scores, enabling the identification of groups of SMEs, which can be characterized and compared by computing the corresponding and specific MII vectors.

Research limitations/implications

The research has limitations because of the small size of the sample and the benchmarking possibilities it provides.

Originality/value

The novelty of the MII framework lies in the counting dual cut-off method employed.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2003

Mike Thelwall, Liwen Vaughan, Viv Cothey, Xuemei Li and Alastair G. Smith

The use of the Web by academic researchers is discipline‐dependent and highly variable. It is increasingly central for sharing information, disseminating results and…

Abstract

The use of the Web by academic researchers is discipline‐dependent and highly variable. It is increasingly central for sharing information, disseminating results and publicising research projects. This pilot study seeks to identify the subjects that have the most impact on the Web, and look for national differences in online subject visibility. The highest impact sites were from computing, but there were major national differences in the impact of engineering and technology sites. Another difference was that Taiwan had more high impact non‐academic sites hosted by universities. As a pilot study, the classification process itself was also investigated and the problems of applying subject classification to academic Web sites discussed. The study draws out a number of issues in this regard, having no simple solutions and point to the need to interpret the results with caution.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 27 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

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Article
Publication date: 4 December 2017

Richard Chamboko, Alessandro Re and Sevias Guvuriro

As an alternative poverty analysis approach, the purpose of this paper is to map the patterns of multiple deprivation in all 13 administrative regions of Namibia using the…

Abstract

Purpose

As an alternative poverty analysis approach, the purpose of this paper is to map the patterns of multiple deprivation in all 13 administrative regions of Namibia using the National Household Income and Expenditure Survey data.

Design/methodology/approach

Unsupervised statistical learning methods including the principal component analysis, k-means clustering and bivariate analysis were applied.

Findings

The results show that the multiple deprivation approach is a useful alternative in characterising poverty dynamics in the country. Specifically, the mapping shows that other dimensions of poverty such as access to utilities and services among other things are equally useful welfare indicators as they scored higher than income and consumption on discriminant ability.

Originality/value

Unpacking the multi-dimensionality aspect of poverty has drawn significant attention from development economists and continues to play a major role in policy formulation for developing countries. The study recommends buttressing of conventional income poverty measures with multiple deprivation approaches for a comprehensive picture on poverty issues.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 44 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Book part
Publication date: 23 May 2007

Jesús Pérez-Mayo

This paper compares two alternative methods for measuring multidimensional poverty. This question has become extremely important in recent years, both in the scientific…

Abstract

This paper compares two alternative methods for measuring multidimensional poverty. This question has become extremely important in recent years, both in the scientific literature and in social policy. We propose to use latent class analysis to evaluate poverty in Spain. We make use of the “fuzzy set” approach, and compare the results achieved from these two methodologies.

Details

Inequality and Poverty
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1374-7

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Article
Publication date: 22 June 2021

Nandun Madhusanka Hewa Welege, Wei Pan and Mohan Kumaraswamy

Applications of social network analysis (SNA) are evidently popular amongst scholars for mapping stakeholder and other relational networks in improving the sustainability…

Abstract

Purpose

Applications of social network analysis (SNA) are evidently popular amongst scholars for mapping stakeholder and other relational networks in improving the sustainability of construction activities and the resulting built environment. Nevertheless, the literature reveals a lack of thorough understanding of optimal SNA applications in this field. Therefore, this paper aims to convey a comprehensive critical review of past applications of SNA in this field.

Design/methodology/approach

95 relevant journal papers were initially identified from the “Web of Science” database and a bibliometric analysis was carried out using the “VOS Viewer” software. The subsequent in-depth review of the SNA methods, focussed on 24 specifically relevant papers selected from these aforesaid 95 papers.

Findings

A significant growth of publications in this field was identified after 2014, especially related to topics on stakeholder management. “Journal of Cleaner Production”, “International Journal of Project Management” and “Sustainability” were identified as the most productive sources in this field, with the majority of publications from China. Interviews and questionnaires were the popular data collection methods while SNA “Centrality” measures were utilised in over 70% of the studies. Furthermore, potential areas were noted, to improve the mapping and thereby provide useful information to managers who could influence relevant networks and consequentially better sustainability outcomes, including those enhanced by collaborative networks.

Originality/value

Closer collaboration has been found to help enhance sustainability in construction and built environment, hence attracting research interest amongst scholars on how best to enable this. SNA is established as a significant methodological approach to analysing interrelationships and collaborative potential in general. In a pioneering application here, this paper initiates the drawing together of findings from relevant literature to provide useful insights for future researchers to comprehensively identify, compare and contrast the applications of SNA techniques in construction and built environment management from a sustainability viewpoint.

Details

Built Environment Project and Asset Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-124X

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Article
Publication date: 31 December 2007

Jang‐Ping Sheu, Yu‐Chia Chang and Gang‐Hua Song

The purpose of this paper is to propose a distributed protocol to build a logical coordinate system based on the hop counts of each node to four selected landmarks, and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a distributed protocol to build a logical coordinate system based on the hop counts of each node to four selected landmarks, and the real location information is not needed.

Design/methodology/approach

The designed protocol uses the sink node as one of the landmarks and then selects three other sensor nodes near the corners of the sensor network as landmarks.

Findings

The simulation results show that the proposed protocol has the superior performance in packet delivery ratio, average hop counts among nodes, and communication overhead to previous works.

Originality/value

This paper presents a distributed protocol to build a logical coordinate system based on hop counts to landmarks.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

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