Search results

1 – 10 of over 126000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 27 July 2021

Elizabeth Anne Weigle and Laura McAndrews

The purpose of this paper is to investigate Generation Z's physical expectations of being pregnant and their outlook for maternity wear shopping.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate Generation Z's physical expectations of being pregnant and their outlook for maternity wear shopping.

Design/methodology/approach

Females in this cohort (n = 207) participated in an online survey that included questions about perceptions of pregnancy, physical self-concept and forecasted shopping behaviors.

Findings

Results indicated that this group is concerned with physical changes of pregnancy and expect to treat each area of the body in a different way. Women's expected physical concerns of pregnancy predict how much they anticipate accentuating their pregnant body. Gen Z anticipates wearing loose maternity garments and they envision a thoughtful, in-store shopping experience for styles that are equally fashionable and comfortable, such as dresses.

Research limitations/implications

This study should be extended to future generational cohorts like Generation Alpha, along with Gen Z outside of the United States and women in the United States who are non-white. Further studies should take a longitudinal approach to gauge changes in this cohort's expectations as they progress through pregnancy.

Practical implications

This paper provides maternity wear retail brands and designers a foundation for product development and marketing geared toward this large cohort.

Originality/value

The study is the first to inquire about Gen Z's outlook on pregnancy, specifically their envisioned changes to each body area and the role of maternity garments to fulfill needs and concerns.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 6 August 2021

Kate Marston

This paper critically examines the development and direction of the Fabricating Future Bodies (FFB) Workshop. Troubling notions of co-production as enacting equality or…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper critically examines the development and direction of the Fabricating Future Bodies (FFB) Workshop. Troubling notions of co-production as enacting equality or empowering participants, it draws on feminist posthuman and new materialist concepts to understand it as an eventful process that occurs in unpredictable and shifting affect-laden assemblages.

Design/methodology/approach

The FFB Workshop formed part of the final phase of my Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) funded doctoral study, titled “Exploring young people's digital sexual cultures through creative, visual and arts-based methods”. With additional support from Wales' Doctoral Training Partnership, the workshop provided sixteen young people (aged 11–13 years) from one fieldwork school with the opportunity to work with two professional artists in order to creatively re-animate research findings on the digitally networked body. In a three-hour workshop, participants produced cut-up texts and life-size body fabrics that re-imagined what bodies might do, be and become in the future.

Findings

This paper finds that co-productive practices cannot flatten out the institutional and societal power dynamics operating within schools, highlighting how adult intervention was necessary to hold space for young people to participate. It also observes the agency of the art materials employed in the workshop in enabling young people to articulate what mattered to them about the digitally networked body. While the workshop was limited in its ability to renegotiate institutional and peer power dynamics, it produced rich data that indicated how carefully choreographed arts-based practices offer generative possibilities for digital sexualities research and education.

Originality/value

By employing speculative fiction, cut-up poetry and textiles to explore the digitally networked body, this paper outlines an innovative methodological-pedagogical approach to engaging with young people's digitally networked lives.

Details

Qualitative Research Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1443-9883

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 17 July 2020

In Hwa Kim, Hyunsook Han and Su-Jeong Hwang Shin

The purpose of study is to investigate effectiveness of pattern technique in relation to the use of anthropometric references for drafting women's basic bodice patterns by…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of study is to investigate effectiveness of pattern technique in relation to the use of anthropometric references for drafting women's basic bodice patterns by assessing characteristics of pattern formation, quantification of wearing ease on the transverse plan and actual ease distribution on body forms.

Design/methodology/approach

Three pattern drafting techniques were analyzed, which have different frequency of using direct body measurements for pattern formulation. Ease quantification and wearing ease distribution were evaluated on the two different body forms: a young female body and a heavy woman body. Women's basic bodice patterns were drafted with YUKA CAD and virtually draped on the two body forms with CLO 3D. Rapidform was used to evaluate garment appearance. Areal ease and its distribution were assessed. A deviation map was used for wrinkle analysis.

Findings

Compared to the pattern formation derived from few anthropometric references, patterns using sufficient anthropometric references provided overall better fit for the different body forms. Ease distribution without considering body arcs was found to be a cause of garment fit problems. Patterns with little or no ease caused transverse fine wrinkles and skewed side seams. Pattern techniques those used linear equations caused problems on the bust because the formulation could not reflect bust protrusions in relation to the body torso shape differences.

Originality/value

This study revealed characteristics of pattern formulae and linear equations in relation to anthropometric references and body shapes. The findings may be effective in developing algorithm of the customized pattern formation in the industry.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 9 June 2021

Nur Husnina Saadun, Nurul Aini Jaafar, Md Faisal Md Basir, Ali Anqi and Mohammad Reza Safaei

The purpose of this study is to solve convective diffusion equation analytically by considering appropriate boundary conditions and using the Taylor-Aris method to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to solve convective diffusion equation analytically by considering appropriate boundary conditions and using the Taylor-Aris method to determine the solute concentration, the effective and relative axial diffusivities.

Design/methodology/approach

>An analysis has been conducted on how body acceleration affects the dispersion of a solute in blood flow, which is known as a Bingham fluid, within an artery. To solve the system of differential equations analytically while validating the target boundary conditions, the blood velocity is obtained.

Findings

The blood velocity is impacted by the presence of body acceleration, as well as the yield stress associated with Casson fluid and as such, the process of dispersing the solute is distracted. It graphically illustrates how the blood velocity and the process of solute dispersion are affected by various factors, including the amplitude and lead angle of body acceleration, the yield stress, the gradient of pressure and the Peclet number.

Originality/value

It is witnessed that the blood velocity, the solute concentration and also the effective and relative axial diffusivities experience a drop when either of the amplitude, lead angle or the yield stress rises.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 10 June 2021

Syeda Hira Fatima, Muhammad Aqeel, Aamna Anwar and Mahnoor Tariq

Body image perception is a complex cognitive process that involves several different dimensions. This has necessitated several studies to have different findings about…

Abstract

Purpose

Body image perception is a complex cognitive process that involves several different dimensions. This has necessitated several studies to have different findings about each dimension, therefore. This is because body image perception is a continuous and constantly evolving process. The development of self-concept depends largely on positive or negative perception of body image in today’s time. This paper aims to develop an instrument to measure beliefs and attitudes of people involved in the perception of body image, defined as the perception that a person has of their physical self and the thoughts and feelings that result into a positive or negative self-concept.

Design/methodology/approach

The factorial structure, reliability, content validity and impact of gender on factor structure of body image perception scale (BIPS) were examined among university students (N = 200) in study, with male (n = 100) and female (n = 100) population. Self-made instrument BIPS was used.

Findings

Exploratory factor analysis using direct obliman method based on principal component analysis indicated a three-factor, 20-item scale including subscales 1) negative feeling; 2) public perception; and 3) future success. BIPS exhibited decent reliability (0.789) and content validity in both male and female university students, suggesting a highly significant difference between the two genders on BIPS.

Research limitations/implications

The major limitation was that the sample was obtained from student population; therefore, it will not be entirely correct to generalize it to the whole population of Pakistan. Future studies need to include samples from different populations in Pakistan to bring out a more generalized view and try to minimize the variances in sample as much as possible for better results. Finally, the sample was drawn only from educated and young adult males and females (age ranging 17–28). Middle age and old age people must be included in future study. Also, in this study incremental and discriminant validity can be computed by comparing results on BIPS with any other body image questionnaire.

Practical implications

This standard instrument can be efficiently used for the research purpose and will enable the researcher to identify the positive and negative feelings and attitudes of male and females towards their body image and towards the development of healthy self-concept. The scale can be used by clinical psychologists and medical health professionals to help assess and treat their patients more accurately.

Originality/value

All in all, it can be suggested that the findings received illustrated that body image perception differs significantly among both men and women in Pakistani culture. The newly established version of BIPS with its high reliability indicates that the scale can be used in future as well with diverse populations to assess whether which among them hold either positive or negative self-concept of themselves based on their body image perceptions. Moreover, as the psychometric strength of the scale is well established, it can be used with future researches by health psychologists, dietitians and nutritionists to identify body image concerns among young males and females, especially in individuals with eating disorders.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 23 May 2008

Futoshi Kobayashi

The purpose of this study is to investigate cross‐cultural differences between American and Japanese college students' body type under/overestimation regarding their own…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate cross‐cultural differences between American and Japanese college students' body type under/overestimation regarding their own bodies within the framework of self‐construal theory.

Design/methodology/approach

Information from 137 American college students and 160 Japanese college students was collected in using a survey method. Their height, body weight, gender, and self‐estimated body types from three different options (underweight, normal weight, and overweight) was collected in order to assess the relationship between self‐estimated and real body types of these participants. The real body type based on one's body mass index and the self‐estimated body type were compared for each participant.

Findings

Japanese students were found to be more in the underweight category and less in the overweight category than American students. It was also found that Japanese students, and female students in general, were more likely to overestimate their body types and American students, and male students in general, were more likely to underestimate their body types.

Research limitations/implications

The present study used self‐report survey method and should be considered a pilot study. In future research, the height and weight of participants should actually be measured to obtain more reliable data. Future research should investigate other possible psychological factors for creating different body types between different cultures.

Originality/value

The present study was the first cross‐cultural study regarding body type under/overestimation regarding their own bodies between American and Japanese college students.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 38 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 June 1949

W.J. Duncan

THE paper reviews the problem of the influence of the walls of a closed tunnel in increasing the velocity in the neighbourhood of a model under test. It is shown that, for…

Abstract

THE paper reviews the problem of the influence of the walls of a closed tunnel in increasing the velocity in the neighbourhood of a model under test. It is shown that, for a perfect fluid, considerations of continuity suffice to establish an exact value of the mean interference velocity for any cross‐section of the tunnel. This mean interference velocity is expressed in terms of the perturbation velocity which would be caused by the same model in the absence of the walls. The linearized theory of subsonic compressible flow is applied and it is shown that the interference velocity for a small two or three dimensional model is increased in proportion to l/β3, where β=√(l—M2) and M is the Mach number. Interference caused by a body with a long parallel middle body, the influence of the wake from a model and of the boundary layer on the tunnel walls are briefly considered.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 21 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 September 2006

Amy Jennings, V. Costarelli, G.J. Davies and P.W. Dettmar

Several recent observational studies detected inverse associations between dietary calcium intake and body weight. It was demonstrated that low calcium diets lead to an…

Abstract

Purpose

Several recent observational studies detected inverse associations between dietary calcium intake and body weight. It was demonstrated that low calcium diets lead to an increase in intracellular calcium concentrations, which in turn act to promote body fat deposition, reduce lipolysis and reduce thermogenesis. Most of the studies have been conducted on adults, however, it was recently demonstrated that longitudinal calcium intake is negatively associated with children's body fat levels. The purpose of the current study is to investigate possible associations between habitual calcium intake and body weight in a group of 7–10 years old children.

Design/methodology/approach

Eighty‐five children, 21 boys and 64 girls (mean age: 9.2±0.9) were recruited from 12 primary schools in the London area. Dietary intake was measured using the 7‐day weighed inventory method. Body weight and height measurements were also recorded.

Findings

Data suggested that girls have significantly lower intakes of calcium than boys and that 48 per cent of boys and 38 per cent of girls were overweight (above the 91st centile). However, there were no significant correlations between body weight or body mass index (BMI) and habitual intake of dietary calcium in this age group, which is in contrast with the results of similar studies conducted in adults.

Originality/value

One explanation could be that the possible effect of calcium on adiposity and body weight is more pronounced in adulthood than in childhood. It is important for future studies to measure levels of body fat in children together with body weight in conjunction with calcium intake in order to elucidate the original hypothesis.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 36 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 March 1995

Peter R.M. Jones, Peng Li, Katherine Brooke‐Wavell and Gordon M. West

Presents a standard data format for describing and interpolating 3‐D human body shapes from data collected by a 3‐D body scanner. The body data were treated as a series of…

Abstract

Presents a standard data format for describing and interpolating 3‐D human body shapes from data collected by a 3‐D body scanner. The body data were treated as a series of horizontal cross‐sections. Each cross‐section was described by 16 data points. The 3‐D surface can be calculated by interpolating between these sections. This procedure allowed editing and manipulation of raw scanned data, as well as substantial data reduction. Horizontal cross‐sections of the body were chosen to correspond to particular anatomical surface landmarks, rather than distances from a reference point. Hence, each data element described a particular anatomical location, irrespective of body shape and size. This feature allowed comparison and averaging of 3‐D shapes, greatly enhancing the application of 3‐D scanned data. The standard data format allows 3‐D scanned data to be transferred into CAD/CAM systems for automated garment design and manikin manufacture.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 6 March 2017

Jun Zhang, KyoungOk Kim and Masayuki Takatera

The purpose of this paper is to propose a size-changing method with three-dimensional (3D) garment modeling for various body sizes considering vertical body proportions in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a size-changing method with three-dimensional (3D) garment modeling for various body sizes considering vertical body proportions in addition to horizontal dimensions, while preserving the silhouette and ease of the original garment.

Design/methodology/approach

Cross-sectional dimensions and shapes of one dress form (the standard body) and jacket bodice were obtained by 3D scanning. The authors calculated horizontal multiplication factors of the relationship between the standard body and jacket bodice, and vertical body proportions. A target dress form was deformed using multiplication factors and vertical body proportions to construct a garment model that fitted the dress form. The method was verified using three different dress forms. The bodices of the jackets were compared with those obtained without adjusting vertical proportions.

Findings

Employing the proposed method, jacket bodices were made and fitted on target bodies while preserving the original shape. Jackets bodices made without considering vertical proportions had many wrinkles and deformed shape and poor fit around the bust line owing to the different vertical proportions. The vertical proportion is thus an important factor in the 3D garment modeling of garments of different size fitted on a body.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed method is a new size-changing or grading method for a bodice that preserves the original silhouette.

Originality/value

The proposed modeling method allows the construction of jacket bodice models and jackets of different size considering vertical body proportions. The method is applicable when making individually tailored garments or ready-to-wear garments for different targets.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 126000