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Article
Publication date: 15 August 2022

Sibei Xia, Jiayin Li, Cynthia L. Istook and Andre J. West

Two-dimensional (2D) measurement technology has become more popular than before, thanks to the widespread availability of smartphones and smart devices. However, most…

Abstract

Purpose

Two-dimensional (2D) measurement technology has become more popular than before, thanks to the widespread availability of smartphones and smart devices. However, most existing 2D body measurement systems have background constraints and may raise privacy concerns. The purpose of this research was to test the idea of designing a 2D measurement system that works with a color-coded measurement garment for background removal and privacy protection. Clothing consumers can use the proposed system for daily apparel shopping purposes.

Design/methodology/approach

A 2D body measurement system was designed and tested. The system adopted a close-fitted color-coded measurement garment and used neural network models to detect the color-code in the garment area and remove backgrounds. In total, 78 participants were recruited, and the collected data were split into training and testing sets. The training dataset was used to train the neural network and statistical prediction models for the 2D system. The testing dataset was used to compare the performance of the 2D system with a commercial three-dimensional (3D) body scanner.

Findings

The results showed that the color-coded measurement garment worked well with the neural network models to process the images for measurement extraction. The 2D measurement system worked better at close-fitted areas than loose-fitted areas.

Originality/value

This research combined a color-coded measurement garment with neural network models to solve the privacy and background challenges of the 2D body measurement system. Other researchers have never studied this approach.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 September 2021

Xiangyu Du, Junying Yang, Fei Gao, Xiaoming Han and Linlin Su

This paper aims to reveal the effects of the copper third body on different copper matrix friction materials with a novel experimental way called “exogenous powder.”

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to reveal the effects of the copper third body on different copper matrix friction materials with a novel experimental way called “exogenous powder.”

Design/methodology/approach

An accurate adding device of exogenous copper powder was designed to control the flow rate. The tribological properties with and without exogenous copper powder were investigated by a pin-on-disc tribometer during dry sliding.

Findings

Experimental results indicate that the Cu addition tends to increase the friction coefficient. For pure Cu material, the exogenous copper third body exhibits poor fluidity on the friction surface, causing serious adhesive wear on the friction interface. For the Cu 90% + 10% Gr material, the plasticity of exogenous copper powder may intensify the deformation of the third body of the surface, presenting layered accumulation distribution. For the pure Cu and Cu 95% + 5% SiO2 material, the Cu addition makes the composition and density of the third body uneven in the direction of depth.

Originality/value

The role of the copper component on different materials is revealed from a new perspective, and the relationship between the third body structure and the friction properties is explored.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 73 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 July 2022

Eonyou Shin, Te-Lin Doreen Chung and Mary Lynn Damhorst

The purposes of this study were twofold: (1) to develop a scale for measuring consumers’ perceived problems of finding a good fit (PFGF) and (2) to provide evidence of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purposes of this study were twofold: (1) to develop a scale for measuring consumers’ perceived problems of finding a good fit (PFGF) and (2) to provide evidence of several types of scale validities including nomological validity through examining the relationship between PFGF and body esteem based on attribution theory.

Design/methodology/approach

Scale development took place in three steps: (1) An initial pool of items was generated based on a previous study; (2) preliminary quantitative tests of reliability and validity of items were performed, including confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs); and (3) final scale validation through a discriminant and nomological validity test was conducted using CFA and the structural equation model (SEM). CFAs and SEM with the mediation effect were performed using Preacher and Hayes’ (2008) bootstrap procedure in Mplus.

Findings

Of the 20 items (four items for physical, eight items for aesthetic and eight items for functional) generated in Step 1, a total of 14 items (four items for physical, five items for aesthetic and five items for functional) were remained through preliminary tests of reliability and validity of the scale in Step 2. In Step 3, the 14 items were finalized and validated through testing the hypothesized mediating effect of internal attribution of fit problems between the PFGF scale and the measures of body esteem. The results of consumers’ internal causal attribution process of fit problems supported attribution theory.

Originality/value

The study contributes to understanding consumer fit perceptions by developing a scale to assess PFGF that may be a key factor influencing multiple apparel shopping behaviors. The multidimensional scale of perceived PFGF should be useful to provide solutions to PFGF based on information from customers. Better understanding of perceived PFGF will ultimately increase consumer satisfaction with apparel.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 May 2022

Samridhi Garg, Monica Puri Sikka and Vinay Kumar Midha

Perspiration and heat are produced by the body and must be eliminated to maintain a stable body temperature. Sweat, heat and air must pass through the fabric to be…

Abstract

Purpose

Perspiration and heat are produced by the body and must be eliminated to maintain a stable body temperature. Sweat, heat and air must pass through the fabric to be comfortable. The cloth absorbs sweat and then releases it, allowing the body to chill down. By capillary action, moisture is driven away from fabric pores or sucked out of yarns. Convectional air movement improves sweat drainage, which may aid in body temperature reduction. Clothing reduces the skin's ability to transport heat and moisture to the outside. Excessive moisture makes clothing stick to the skin, whereas excessive heat induces heat stress, making the user uncomfortable. Wet heat loss is significantly more difficult to understand than dry heat loss. The purpose of this study is to provided a good compilation of complete information on wet thermal comfort of textile and technological elements to be consider while constructing protective apparel.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper aims to critically review studies on the thermal comfort of textiles in wet conditions and assess the results to guide future research.

Findings

Several recent studies focused on wet textiles' impact on comfort. Moisture reduces the fabric's thermal insulation value while also altering its moisture characteristics. Moisture and heat conductivity were linked. Sweat and other factors impact fabric comfort. So, while evaluating a fabric's comfort, consider both external and inside moisture.

Originality/value

The systematic literature review in this research focuses on wet thermal comfort and technological elements to consider while constructing protective apparel.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 May 2008

Futoshi Kobayashi

The purpose of this study is to investigate cross‐cultural differences between American and Japanese college students' body type under/overestimation regarding their own…

472

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate cross‐cultural differences between American and Japanese college students' body type under/overestimation regarding their own bodies within the framework of self‐construal theory.

Design/methodology/approach

Information from 137 American college students and 160 Japanese college students was collected in using a survey method. Their height, body weight, gender, and self‐estimated body types from three different options (underweight, normal weight, and overweight) was collected in order to assess the relationship between self‐estimated and real body types of these participants. The real body type based on one's body mass index and the self‐estimated body type were compared for each participant.

Findings

Japanese students were found to be more in the underweight category and less in the overweight category than American students. It was also found that Japanese students, and female students in general, were more likely to overestimate their body types and American students, and male students in general, were more likely to underestimate their body types.

Research limitations/implications

The present study used self‐report survey method and should be considered a pilot study. In future research, the height and weight of participants should actually be measured to obtain more reliable data. Future research should investigate other possible psychological factors for creating different body types between different cultures.

Originality/value

The present study was the first cross‐cultural study regarding body type under/overestimation regarding their own bodies between American and Japanese college students.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 38 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1949

W.J. Duncan

THE paper reviews the problem of the influence of the walls of a closed tunnel in increasing the velocity in the neighbourhood of a model under test. It is shown that, for…

Abstract

THE paper reviews the problem of the influence of the walls of a closed tunnel in increasing the velocity in the neighbourhood of a model under test. It is shown that, for a perfect fluid, considerations of continuity suffice to establish an exact value of the mean interference velocity for any cross‐section of the tunnel. This mean interference velocity is expressed in terms of the perturbation velocity which would be caused by the same model in the absence of the walls. The linearized theory of subsonic compressible flow is applied and it is shown that the interference velocity for a small two or three dimensional model is increased in proportion to l/β3, where β=√(l—M2) and M is the Mach number. Interference caused by a body with a long parallel middle body, the influence of the wake from a model and of the boundary layer on the tunnel walls are briefly considered.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 21 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2006

Amy Jennings, V. Costarelli, G.J. Davies and P.W. Dettmar

Several recent observational studies detected inverse associations between dietary calcium intake and body weight. It was demonstrated that low calcium diets lead to an…

546

Abstract

Purpose

Several recent observational studies detected inverse associations between dietary calcium intake and body weight. It was demonstrated that low calcium diets lead to an increase in intracellular calcium concentrations, which in turn act to promote body fat deposition, reduce lipolysis and reduce thermogenesis. Most of the studies have been conducted on adults, however, it was recently demonstrated that longitudinal calcium intake is negatively associated with children's body fat levels. The purpose of the current study is to investigate possible associations between habitual calcium intake and body weight in a group of 7–10 years old children.

Design/methodology/approach

Eighty‐five children, 21 boys and 64 girls (mean age: 9.2±0.9) were recruited from 12 primary schools in the London area. Dietary intake was measured using the 7‐day weighed inventory method. Body weight and height measurements were also recorded.

Findings

Data suggested that girls have significantly lower intakes of calcium than boys and that 48 per cent of boys and 38 per cent of girls were overweight (above the 91st centile). However, there were no significant correlations between body weight or body mass index (BMI) and habitual intake of dietary calcium in this age group, which is in contrast with the results of similar studies conducted in adults.

Originality/value

One explanation could be that the possible effect of calcium on adiposity and body weight is more pronounced in adulthood than in childhood. It is important for future studies to measure levels of body fat in children together with body weight in conjunction with calcium intake in order to elucidate the original hypothesis.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 36 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1995

Peter R.M. Jones, Peng Li, Katherine Brooke‐Wavell and Gordon M. West

Presents a standard data format for describing and interpolating 3‐D human body shapes from data collected by a 3‐D body scanner. The body data were treated as a series of…

638

Abstract

Presents a standard data format for describing and interpolating 3‐D human body shapes from data collected by a 3‐D body scanner. The body data were treated as a series of horizontal cross‐sections. Each cross‐section was described by 16 data points. The 3‐D surface can be calculated by interpolating between these sections. This procedure allowed editing and manipulation of raw scanned data, as well as substantial data reduction. Horizontal cross‐sections of the body were chosen to correspond to particular anatomical surface landmarks, rather than distances from a reference point. Hence, each data element described a particular anatomical location, irrespective of body shape and size. This feature allowed comparison and averaging of 3‐D shapes, greatly enhancing the application of 3‐D scanned data. The standard data format allows 3‐D scanned data to be transferred into CAD/CAM systems for automated garment design and manikin manufacture.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 March 2017

Jun Zhang, KyoungOk Kim and Masayuki Takatera

The purpose of this paper is to propose a size-changing method with three-dimensional (3D) garment modeling for various body sizes considering vertical body proportions in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a size-changing method with three-dimensional (3D) garment modeling for various body sizes considering vertical body proportions in addition to horizontal dimensions, while preserving the silhouette and ease of the original garment.

Design/methodology/approach

Cross-sectional dimensions and shapes of one dress form (the standard body) and jacket bodice were obtained by 3D scanning. The authors calculated horizontal multiplication factors of the relationship between the standard body and jacket bodice, and vertical body proportions. A target dress form was deformed using multiplication factors and vertical body proportions to construct a garment model that fitted the dress form. The method was verified using three different dress forms. The bodices of the jackets were compared with those obtained without adjusting vertical proportions.

Findings

Employing the proposed method, jacket bodices were made and fitted on target bodies while preserving the original shape. Jackets bodices made without considering vertical proportions had many wrinkles and deformed shape and poor fit around the bust line owing to the different vertical proportions. The vertical proportion is thus an important factor in the 3D garment modeling of garments of different size fitted on a body.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed method is a new size-changing or grading method for a bodice that preserves the original silhouette.

Originality/value

The proposed modeling method allows the construction of jacket bodice models and jackets of different size considering vertical body proportions. The method is applicable when making individually tailored garments or ready-to-wear garments for different targets.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2015

Xiaoning Jing

The research is made in view of the anthropometry information obtaining problem in garment MTM on the network mode. The purpose of this paper is to obtain anthropometry…

Abstract

Purpose

The research is made in view of the anthropometry information obtaining problem in garment MTM on the network mode. The purpose of this paper is to obtain anthropometry information in a convenient and detailed way in garment MTM on the network mode.

Design/methodology/approach

First of all, 24 main measurement sizes of 427 young females are collected to constitute the measurement database. The database is used as background data support of the system. The images are captured to simplify the way of inputting the anthropometry information to the system. Through the 2D feature sizes extracted from body image and the basic dimensions provided by customer input to the system, so that to gain the body sample which is closest to the customer body type through query matching in the database. The detailed anthropometry information of the closest sample is used to describe the customer. The human body measurement database and the technology of body image acquisition are used to extract the feature sizes to achieve obtaining the anthropometry information in a convenient and detailed way.

Findings

Through query matching to the customer in a test, the body sample closest to the customer is gained, and the matching error rate is 0.0132. In the end, some customer samples are input to test the system, in order to verify the effectiveness of system functions. The matching error rates of five body types are gained all less than 0.006. The error is small, and the matching result is ideal.

Research limitations/implications

The size of database established in the paper can be increased constantly in the future to obtain the more accurately matching result.

Practical implications

The research of anthropometry information obtaining system in garment MTM on the network mode is the basis to achieve gaining the anthropometry information in a convenient and detailed way.

Social implications

Applying the established system of human body measurement information acquisition in this paper, it can achieve to obtain the detailed measurement information of customer through a convenient way, combining the method of human body parameter model establishment in the existing research, it can achieve the complete network tailored mode with detailed measurement information acquisition and 3D virtual fitting functions. And it can provide the most convenient experience and the most ideal garment MTM effect to the customer. This mode can be forecast to be an ideal form of garment MTM on the network in the future.

Originality/value

The anthropometry information obtaining system is the important part of garment MTM system on the network mode. It should be applied to the network mode and can obtain the detailed measurements for garment MTM. In this paper, the human body measurement database and the technology of body image acquisition are used in order to extract the feature size to obtain the anthropometry information in a convenient and detailed way.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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