Search results

1 – 10 of over 14000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2015

Md Shah Azam

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to…

Abstract

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to economic and non-economic activities. Researchers have increasingly focused on the adoption and use of ICT by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) as the economic development of a country is largely dependent on them. Following the success of ICT utilisation in SMEs in developed countries, many developing countries are looking to utilise the potential of the technology to develop SMEs. Past studies have shown that the contribution of ICT to the performance of SMEs is not clear and certain. Thus, it is crucial to determine the effectiveness of ICT in generating firm performance since this has implications for SMEs’ expenditure on the technology. This research examines the diffusion of ICT among SMEs with respect to the typical stages from innovation adoption to post-adoption, by analysing the actual usage of ICT and value creation. The mediating effects of integration and utilisation on SME performance are also studied. Grounded in the innovation diffusion literature, institutional theory and resource-based theory, this study has developed a comprehensive integrated research model focused on the research objectives. Following a positivist research paradigm, this study employs a mixed-method research approach. A preliminary conceptual framework is developed through an extensive literature review and is refined by results from an in-depth field study. During the field study, a total of 11 SME owners or decision-makers were interviewed. The recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using NVivo 10 to refine the model to develop the research hypotheses. The final research model is composed of 30 first-order and five higher-order constructs which involve both reflective and formative measures. Partial least squares-based structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) is employed to test the theoretical model with a cross-sectional data set of 282 SMEs in Bangladesh. Survey data were collected using a structured questionnaire issued to SMEs selected by applying a stratified random sampling technique. The structural equation modelling utilises a two-step procedure of data analysis. Prior to estimating the structural model, the measurement model is examined for construct validity of the study variables (i.e. convergent and discriminant validity).

The estimates show cognitive evaluation as an important antecedent for expectation which is shaped primarily by the entrepreneurs’ beliefs (perception) and also influenced by the owners’ innovativeness and culture. Culture further influences expectation. The study finds that facilitating condition, environmental pressure and country readiness are important antecedents of expectation and ICT use. The results also reveal that integration and the degree of ICT utilisation significantly affect SMEs’ performance. Surprisingly, the findings do not reveal any significant impact of ICT usage on performance which apparently suggests the possibility of the ICT productivity paradox. However, the analysis finally proves the non-existence of the paradox by demonstrating the mediating role of ICT integration and degree of utilisation explain the influence of information technology (IT) usage on firm performance which is consistent with the resource-based theory. The results suggest that the use of ICT can enhance SMEs’ performance if the technology is integrated and properly utilised. SME owners or managers, interested stakeholders and policy makers may follow the study’s outcomes and focus on ICT integration and degree of utilisation with a view to attaining superior organisational performance.

This study urges concerned business enterprises and government to look at the environmental and cultural factors with a view to achieving ICT usage success in terms of enhanced firm performance. In particular, improving organisational practices and procedures by eliminating the traditional power distance inside organisations and implementing necessary rules and regulations are important actions for managing environmental and cultural uncertainties. The application of a Bengali user interface may help to ensure the productivity of ICT use by SMEs in Bangladesh. Establishing a favourable national technology infrastructure and legal environment may contribute positively to improving the overall situation. This study also suggests some changes and modifications in the country’s existing policies and strategies. The government and policy makers should undertake mass promotional programs to disseminate information about the various uses of computers and their contribution in developing better organisational performance. Organising specialised training programs for SME capacity building may succeed in attaining the motivation for SMEs to use ICT. Ensuring easy access to the technology by providing loans, grants and subsidies is important. Various stakeholders, partners and related organisations should come forward to support government policies and priorities in order to ensure the productive use of ICT among SMEs which finally will help to foster Bangladesh’s economic development.

Details

E-Services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-325-9

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 2 September 2014

Wantao Yu, Roberto Chavez, Mengying Feng and Frank Wiengarten

The purpose of this paper is to extend previous green supply chain management (GSCM) research by developing and empirically testing a conceptual framework that…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to extend previous green supply chain management (GSCM) research by developing and empirically testing a conceptual framework that investigates the relationships between three dimensions of integrated green supply chain management (iGSCM) and multiple dimensions of operational performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on survey data collected from 126 automotive manufacturers in China. The relationships between theoretical constructs are analysed using structural equation modelling.

Findings

This study generates important findings of the significant and positive relationships between iGSCM (internal GSCM, GSCM with customers and GSCM with suppliers) and operational performance in terms of flexibility, delivery, quality and cost.

Practical implications

It is important for managers to simultaneously consider internal GSCM and GSCM with customers and suppliers when implementing environmental sustainability in the supply chains. Overlooking either internal GSCM or external GSCM may hinder their efforts to improve operational performance.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature by defining iGSCM that combines three main dimensions, namely, internal GSCM, GSCM with customers and GSCM with suppliers, and empirically testing its impact on multiple operational performance dimensions.

Details

Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. 19 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8546

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 June 2018

Sheila Namagembe, S. Ryan and Ramaswami Sridharan

The purpose of this paper is to assess the relationship between five green practices and firm performance. In addition, this paper investigates the influence of each green…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the relationship between five green practices and firm performance. In addition, this paper investigates the influence of each green practice on environmental performance, economic benefits, and economic costs.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected based on a cross-sectional survey of owner/managers of 200 manufacturing SME firms in Uganda, Africa. SPSS was used to find descriptive means and test relationships between green practices and performance outcomes. Structural equation modelling was used to test for the influence of each practice on performance outcomes. The structural equation modelling results were obtained using the Covariance-Based Structural Equation Modelling software. Results were compared with similar studies conducted in developing countries.

Findings

Different green practices affect different performance dimensions in different ways across different industries. For example, eco-design and internal environmental management practices significantly influence environmental performance; green purchasing and internal environmental management practices significantly influence economic benefits; and internal environmental management practices affect economic costs. Overall internal environmental management is the key to positive outcomes across the three performance criteria. The authors show how the results obtained vary from similar studies conducted in developing countries and explain possible reasons for the difference.

Research limitations/implications

Africa is a rapidly industrialising nation faced with difficult choices between economic growth and increased pollution. Because SMEs represent the majority of manufacturing firms, they are the main polluters. Hence, better understanding of the costs and benefits, both environmental and economic, is important to encourage green practice adoption for the betterment of community health and prosperity.

Originality/value

Despite numerous studies on the relationships between green practice adoption and performance outcomes, only a few studies include both economic costs and benefits in addition to environmental performance. The study covers five green supply chain practices, whereas most similar studies are limited in the number of practices examined. The African context is unique and important because industrial development and environmental protection goals are in conflict. Similar studies are predominant in an Asian context which is more developed than Africa. The findings and comparisons raise important questions for further research in relation to the roles of national regulations, geographical markets and industry types in furthering green practices in manufacturing.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 March 1993

P.P. SILVESTER and D. OMERAGIĆ

The gradient recovery method proposed by Zhu and Zienkiewicz for one‐dimensional problems is generalized to two dimensions, using quadrilateral elements. Its performance…

Abstract

The gradient recovery method proposed by Zhu and Zienkiewicz for one‐dimensional problems is generalized to two dimensions, using quadrilateral elements. Its performance is compared with that of conventional local smoothing techniques and of direct differentiation of the finite‐element solution, on finite‐element approximations to analytically known polynomial and transcendental functions on a quadrilateral second‐order finite‐element mesh. The new method appears to be reliable and more stable than local smoothing, and to provide better accuracy than direct differentiation, at low computational cost.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Content available
Article
Publication date: 28 August 2019

Qian Chen, Mats Magnusson and Jennie Björk

New opportunities to nurture good ideas for innovation arise as firms use web-based ideation platforms for collective idea generation and development. What influences…

Abstract

Purpose

New opportunities to nurture good ideas for innovation arise as firms use web-based ideation platforms for collective idea generation and development. What influences creative performance in firm-internal collective idea development is however not as well researched as idea generation and thus an important area of research is the feedback and commenting on ideas. More specifically, the purpose of this paper is to explore the role of feedback timeliness and knowledge overlap between feedback providers and ideas in collective firm-internal online idea development.

Design/methodology/approach

An empirical study has been performed, drawing on data collected from a Swedish multi-national company using a web-based system for collective firm-internal ideation. The investigation explicitly captures the effects on ideation performance played by idea development contributions, in terms of feedback timeliness and knowledge overlap between feedback providers and ideas.

Findings

The empirical results show that idea development is significantly influenced by feedback timeliness as well as by the knowledge overlap between feedback providers and ideas. Specifically, it is found that longer time to feedback and an increased knowledge overlap result in an increased likelihood of idea acceptance. However, beyond a certain point, the positive effects of a longer time to feedback and increased knowledge overlap decrease, resulting in curvilinear relationships with idea acceptance.

Research limitations/implications

The results do not only shed new light on theory about collective idea development, but also provides management implications for collective firm-internal ideation. As the data used in the study has been collected in one single firm, care should be taken in generalizing the results to other domains.

Practical implications

The results inform managers that it is not always better to involve more individuals in these emergent and distributed ideation systems, but that it might be beneficial to take measures to exercise some control in terms of when distributed and diverse employees can freely join in and out, especially considering the diversity of ideas, comments and creators.

Originality/value

The results from the empirical study reveal the effects of feedback timeliness and knowledge overlap on idea development. This provides us with new insights on the complex dynamics at place in collective firm-internal idea development and offers implications for how we can fruitfully manage this process.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 4 January 2011

Zi‐Qiang Zhu

Fractional slot permanent magnet (PM) brushless machines having concentrated non‐overlapping windings have been the subject of research over last few years. They have…

Abstract

Purpose

Fractional slot permanent magnet (PM) brushless machines having concentrated non‐overlapping windings have been the subject of research over last few years. They have already been employed in the commercial hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) due to high‐torque density, high efficiency, low‐torque ripple, good flux‐weakening and fault‐tolerance performance. The purpose of this paper is to overview recent development and research challenges in such machines in terms of various structural and design features for electric vehicle (EV)/HEV applications.

Design/methodology/approach

In the paper, fractional slot PM brushless machines are overviewed according to the following main and sub‐topics: first, machine topologies: slot and pole number combinations, all and alternate teeth wound (double‐ and single‐layer windings), unequal tooth structure, modular stator, interior magnet rotor; second, machine parameters and control performance: winding inductances, flux‐weakening capability, fault‐tolerant performance; and third, parasitic effects: cogging torque, iron loss, rotor eddy current loss, unbalanced magnetic force, acoustic noise and vibration.

Findings

Many fractional slot PM machine topologies exist. Owing to rich mmf harmonics, fractional slot PM brushless machines exhibit relatively high rotor eddy current loss, potentially high unbalanced magnetic force and acoustic noise and vibration, while the reluctance torque component is relatively low or even negligible when an interior PM rotor is employed.

Originality/value

This is the first overview paper which systematically reviews the recent development and research challenges in fractional‐slot PM machines. It summarizes their various structural and design features for EV/HEV applications.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 28 September 2010

Tiago Oliveira and Maria F. Martins

The paper seeks to investigate the factors that affect the adoption of e‐business by firms belonging to European Union (EU) countries, by comparing the effect across two…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper seeks to investigate the factors that affect the adoption of e‐business by firms belonging to European Union (EU) countries, by comparing the effect across two different industries: telecommunications (telco) and tourism.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 2,459 firms belonging to EU27 countries across two industries. The data were analyzed by employing factorial analysis and relevant hypotheses were derived and tested by logistic regression analysis.

Findings

The results suggest that the perceived benefits and obstacles of e‐business, technology readiness, competitive pressure, and trading partner collaboration are the drivers that are important for both industries. Through the comparison of the industries, statistically significant differences between the telco and the tourism industries, i.e. the relative importance of all drivers for e‐business adoption differs between the industries, were found. The only exception is competitive pressure.

Research limitations/implications

The cross‐sectional nature of this paper does not allow knowing how this relationship will change overtime.

Practical implications

The findings offer valuable insight to managerial and policy makers; they should promote information and communication technology infrastructure, information technology training programmes to employees, and trading partner collaboration with business partners in each industry mainly in the tourism industry.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors' knowledge, this paper is one of the first that examines adoption of e‐business with a multi‐industries comparison of EU27 countries using a research model that combines the Tornatzky and Fleischer model and the Iacovou et al. model.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 110 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 2 February 2015

Chunguang Bai, Joseph Sarkis and Yijie Dou

The purpose of this paper is to threefold. The first purpose is to review and critically analyze corporate sustainability development (CSD) research in China. Second, the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to threefold. The first purpose is to review and critically analyze corporate sustainability development (CSD) research in China. Second, the paper extracts a unified theoretical framework among CSD drivers, CSD practices, and corporate performance in China. Finally, it seeks to identify links between CSD and industrial management and data systems (IMDS) topics.

Design/methodology/approach

A comprehensive and structured review of the research literature investigating CSD in China was completed. Categorizations and classifications of the literature were summarized. A critical analysis of the literature resulted in a generic theoretical framework that can be used for evaluation of the literature and further investigation.

Findings

The literature review found over 189 papers on CSD in China published from 1997 to 2013. The framework developed focussed on relationships among drivers, practices, and performance within a CSD in China context. The framework provides useful insights into the implementation of CSD practices. The integration of the three dimensions of sustainability and decision-making methodology are still rare. Specific features of CSD are also reviewed with a linkage to IMDS research around information technology, business process modeling, and supply chain management.

Originality/value

This is one of the first works to provide a comprehensive focus on CSD in China. The theoretical framework was developed for CSD in China to clarify the relationships between the drivers, the corporation’s characteristics, CSD practices, and corporation performance and will prove useful for future research development and investigation. The linkage to IMDS topics is novel and will help further research related to CSD in China for this journal.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 115 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Yi-Chun Huang, Chih-Hsuan Huang and Min-Li Yang

The purpose of this paper is to explore how internal and external factors simultaneously drive firms to adopt green supply chain (GSC) initiatives and to construct a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how internal and external factors simultaneously drive firms to adopt green supply chain (GSC) initiatives and to construct a comprehensive research model by drawing upon institutional theory, stewardship theory, and view of performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The data collected from 380 manufacturers in the electrical and electronics industries in Taiwan were analyzed via structural equation modeling and bootstrapping.

Findings

First, institutional pressures affect the GSC initiatives of firms. Second, institutional pressures influence the environmental stewardship behaviors (ESBs) of managers. Third, the ESBs of managers affect the GSC initiatives of firms. Fourth, the GSC initiatives of firms influence their environmental performance, economic performance, and competitiveness. Fifth, the bootstrapping results reveal that institutional pressures indirectly affect the GSC initiatives of firms through the ESBs of managers.

Research limitations/implications

Environmental sustainability has intensified the need for firms to develop a corporate culture. Future research can investigate the relationship among the institutional pressures, greening corporate culture, and GSC initiatives of firms.

Practical implications

Those managers facing institutional pressures must continually focus on the effects of external factors on the GSC initiatives of their firms. They must also increase their commitment and support to such initiatives to attain favorable levels of environmental performance, economic performance, and competitiveness.

Originality/value

This study integrates four streams of literature on institutional theory, stewardship theory, GSC initiatives, and view of performance. Apart from analyzing field- and organization-level data simultaneously, this paper is also the first to demonstrate the relationships among institutional pressures, ESBs of managers, GSC initiatives, and firm performance.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 47 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 31 May 2016

Carlos Pestana Barros and Peter Wanke

This chapter analyses the efficiency of African airlines using a two-stage network DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) model. Network DEA models usually take into account the…

Abstract

This chapter analyses the efficiency of African airlines using a two-stage network DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) model. Network DEA models usually take into account the production process with intermediate inputs derived from the first stage and a second stage that departs from it. This fundamental feature enables one to view the airline production process as a carry-over activity. The analysis covers the 2010–2013 period. The relative efficiency ranks are presented and policy implications are derived.

Details

Airline Efficiency
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-940-4

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 14000