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Book part
Publication date: 21 April 2010

Yuval Shilony and Yossef Tobol

Using Becker's ‘taste for discrimination’ model, the chapter analyzes the current legislation against wage discrimination and finds it counterproductive. Using a costly…

Abstract

Using Becker's ‘taste for discrimination’ model, the chapter analyzes the current legislation against wage discrimination and finds it counterproductive. Using a costly apparatus of auditing, detecting and fining violators does not deliver results. If a fine is levied on discriminators and reimbursed to the disadvantaged workers in order to undo the discrimination, it affects equally the demand for and the supply of those workers, because their expected wage includes the fine, and has no real effect. If the fine is collected and kept by the government, it shifts employment away from the workers it seeks to help, to others, depressing the total employment. In contrast, levying a tax on the favored workers effectively curbs discrimination in the labor market. A quota is a possible substitute for a tax with questionable side effects. Affirmative action is in essence a sort of tax on employing favored workers, only administered in an indirect, clumsy and costly way. Yet, the chapter explains its humble impact in the right direction. An explicit and direct tax would do much more and with a negative cost. Alternatively, subsidizing the disfavored workers is a costly but as effective policy that, in addition, boosts total employment.

Details

Jobs, Training, and Worker Well-being
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-766-0

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2021

Saja Albelali and Steve Williams

The paper investigates the implications for gendered power relations at work of Nitaqat, a workforce localization policy operating in Saudi Arabia which, by regulating the…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper investigates the implications for gendered power relations at work of Nitaqat, a workforce localization policy operating in Saudi Arabia which, by regulating the employment of Saudi nationals in private sector firms, has stimulated greater feminization of employment.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on an interpretivist, phenomenological research approach, rich qualitative data were collected in two case study organizations – a retail company and an architectural firm. The mixed-method design involved in-depth interviews with managers and women workers and extensive non-participant observation.

Findings

In exploring gendered power relations in Saudi private sector workplaces under the Nitaqat regime, the paper highlights the importance of patriarchal power. However, increased feminization of employment provides women workers with access to power resources of their own, producing complexity and variation in gendered workplace power relations.

Originality/value

Drawing on Bradley's (1999) relational conception of gendered power, the paper illuminates how a Nitaqat-inspired feminization of employment, by increasing firms' dependency on women workers, has influenced the dynamics of gendered power relations in Saudi workplaces.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Article
Publication date: 8 October 2021

Abhishek Behl, Brinda Sampat and Sahil Raj

Gig workers form the backbone of any crowdsourcing platform where they showcase their talent and choose a job of their choice and freedom. The study explores the role of…

Abstract

Purpose

Gig workers form the backbone of any crowdsourcing platform where they showcase their talent and choose a job of their choice and freedom. The study explores the role of information quality (IQ) and social-mediated dialogue (SMD) in evaluating gig worker engagement and productivity on crowdsourcing platforms. The authors also propose to understand how gig worker productivity could be improved under the moderating effect of game elements.

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual model was developed and empirically tested by integrating media richness theory and dialogic public relation theory. Data were collected from gig workers that are involved in crowdsourcing activities for the past three years. An overall sample of 346 gig workers contributing to at least one of the crowdsourcing platforms was collected. The authors tested the hypotheses using Warp PLS 7.0. Warp PLS 7.0 uses partial least square (PLS) structured equation modeling (SEM) and has been used widely to test path analytical models.

Findings

Results reveal that the information quality plays an essential role in the SMD, thereby fostering gig workers' productivity and engagement, which could be improved in the presence of game elements due to their nature of supporting rewards. However, engagement in the platform leading to improved productivity was not supported.

Practical implications

The study lays practical foundations for crowdsourcing platforms as it sets the importance of both IQ and dialogic communication channels. The two-way communication between gig workers and the platforms via accurate, timely, valuable and reliable information forms the key to the task's success. The introduction of the right game element will help to achieve better engagement and productivity.

Originality/value

This study also offers a new dimension to media richness theory and dialogic public relation theory in crowdsourcing platforms. The results would help platform designers and gig employers understand gig workers' quality and performance in a platform economy. The study uniquely positions itself in the area of crowdsourcing platforms by using game elements.

Details

The TQM Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2731

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Article
Publication date: 15 October 2021

De-Graft Owusu-Manu, Frank Ato Ato Ghansah and Ewald Kuoribo

Efficient decision-making must be reinvigorated to make a good decision towards retirement by construction workers. In developing countries such as Ghana, researchers…

Abstract

Purpose

Efficient decision-making must be reinvigorated to make a good decision towards retirement by construction workers. In developing countries such as Ghana, researchers conducted investigations into the effects of investing in retirement decision-making and planning, but none has considered to examine and identify the factors/determinants influencing efficient decision-making by construction workers towards retirement. This study aims to examine and identify the determinants/factors that affect the retirement decision-making of construction workers in developing countries such as Ghana.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used primary data collected from workers of four construction companies in Ghana. The sampling technique adopted for the study was a purposive sample approach, with a survey questionnaire as a collection instrument. Means score was adopted to reveal the major determinant/factor prioritized by the respondents while binary logistic regression was used to examine and identify the effect of the retirement determinants on the retirement decision of construction workers.

Findings

The findings established the main significant determinants impacting retirement decision, namely, “financial condition,” “homeownership,” “age” and “family issues.” Among the determinants, “financial condition” was revealed as the major determinant of retirement decision-making in the construction industry of developing countries, which is an economic condition by which the workers can easily secure credit.

Practical implications

Practically, the outcome of this study serves as a base for policymakers and practitioners in making decisions concerning the retirement of workers, especially construction workers. This study also serves to provide lesson for other classifications of workers aside from the construction workers in Ghana and other developing countries.

Originality/value

This study contributes to knowledge by filling in the lacuna in research by examining and identifying the determinants/factors that impact the efficient decision-making by construction workers in developing countries towards retirement.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2021

Maude Boulet

To disentangle the impact of each type of overqualification, the author created four profiles of overqualified workers based on the metaphor of the big fish in a small…

Abstract

Purpose

To disentangle the impact of each type of overqualification, the author created four profiles of overqualified workers based on the metaphor of the big fish in a small pond: “the fish that fits the pond,” “the unaware big fish in a small pond,” “the fish fitting the pond, but feeling cramped” and “the aware big fish in a small pond.”

Design/methodology/approach

Using a Canadian representative survey, the author examined the distinctive effect of objective and subjective overqualification on job satisfaction among recent graduate workers. The subjective measure is based on the individual's perception of the match of his/her education level, training and experience with the requirements of his/her job; and the objective measure assesses the match between the individual's educational attainment and the skill level associated with his/her occupational group.

Findings

The results show that only the “the fish fitting the pond, but feeling cramped” and “the aware big fish in a small pond” profiles of overqualified workers lead to a lower probability of being satisfied with their job compared to “fish that fits the pond.”

Originality/value

The current study is original because the findings reveal that being objectively overqualified without feeling cramped has no consequence on workers' job satisfaction, while feeling cramped without being objectively overqualified leads to lower job satisfaction. Recruiters should therefore avoid to focus on overeducation since it has no impact on their job satisfaction. They should pay more attention to the feeling of being cramped when they look for the best candidates. Even if the candidate's diploma corresponds to that required by the position, this feeling reduces their chances to be satisfied with the job.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 19 October 2021

Roman Kmieciak

The purpose of this paper is to assess the effect of co-worker support on horizontal knowledge withholding and voluntary turnover intention among IT specialists. The study…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the effect of co-worker support on horizontal knowledge withholding and voluntary turnover intention among IT specialists. The study also explores the mediating role of affective organizational commitment.

Design/methodology/approach

The data are drawn from 118 IT specialists from a Polish software company. The model is tested through partial least squares path modeling.

Findings

The results revealed that the negative effect of co-worker support on voluntary turnover intention is fully mediated by organizational affective commitment. Contrary to expectations, co-worker support is not significantly negatively related to horizontal knowledge withholding.

Research limitations/implications

The cross-sectional data, self-reports and small sample size are limitations of this study. The respondents were a relatively homogenous group of employees, so the generalizability of results to other employees and industries is limited.

Practical implications

To increase affective organizational commitment and reduce voluntary turnover intention among IT specialists, managers should create the conditions to enhance co-worker support.

Originality/value

This research clarifies the role of affective organizational commitment, which has proven to be a bridge linking co-worker support and voluntary turnover intention. Moreover, this research investigates the previously unexplored effect of co-worker support on horizontal knowledge withholding.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

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Article
Publication date: 18 October 2021

Albanë Gashi, Enver Kutllovci and Genc Zhushi

This study aims to assess e-working remotely from the perspective of online workers based on important theoretical aspects that have been found to have an impact in this…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to assess e-working remotely from the perspective of online workers based on important theoretical aspects that have been found to have an impact in this regard. Specifically, the study examines the influence that work–life balance, job effectiveness, organizational trust and flexibility have on e-workers experience in terms of satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

For this research, the E-Work Life (EWL) scale, which consists of 17 questions and yields four critical dimensions, namely work–life balance, job effectiveness, organizational trust and flexibility, was adapted to measure remote e-working experience. Data were collected by sending the electronic questionnaire link to e-workers. In order to define the factorial structure and test whether the data fit the hypothesized measurement model, factor analysis was initially conducted on a sample of 230 e-workers. The relationship between EWL scale variables and e-worker experience was examined using order logit model.

Findings

This paper initially provides the validity and reliability of the EWL scale. Exploratory factor analysis optimally supported three factors and 13 items in contrast to the original scale. The influence that the remaining structure comprised of work–life balance, job effectiveness and flexibility has on e-worker experience was also measured. Results indicate that work–life balance and job effectiveness have a positive influence on e-workers satisfaction with online working, while flexibility does not show a positive association in this regard. Of the three variables, job effectiveness shows to be the most influential factor for e-worker satisfaction.

Research limitations/implications

For the nature of this study, a larger sample size would have been more preferable. It must also be noted that the study took place in circumstances of the COVID-19 pandemic where social activities were limited, and this could have interfered with employees' emotions to some level and ultimately with their evaluation of e-work. It is suggested that further research be conducted.

Practical implications

Owing to the increasing occurrence of these working practices worldwide, particularly with the COVID-19 situation, this study, through its' findings, contributes to a broader knowledge on successful implementation of e-work environments. It helps individuals to comprehend crucial e-work-related issues and supports organizations to identify areas for improvement, so that effective strategies can be developed to increase productivity while supporting worker's well-being and satisfaction at the same time.

Originality/value

This paper addresses a previously identified need for further validation of the newly developed EWL scale in a different setting and with a new sample. At the same time, it adds to the understanding of the impact of important dimensions previously shown to affect e-worker satisfaction with online working.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Article
Publication date: 29 September 2021

Arthur Yan Huang, Tyler Fisher, Huiling Ding and Zhishan Guo

This paper aims to examine transferable skills and viable career transition pathways for hospitality and tourism workers. Future career prospects are discussed, along with…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine transferable skills and viable career transition pathways for hospitality and tourism workers. Future career prospects are discussed, along with the importance of reskilling for low-wage hospitality workers.

Design/methodology/approach

A network analysis is conducted to model skill relationships between the hospitality industry and other industries such as health-care and information technology. Multiple data are used in the analysis, including data from the US Department of Labor Occupational Information Network (O*NET), wage data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics and job computerization data (Frey and Osborne, 2017).

Findings

Although hospitality workers have lower than average skills scores when compared to workers from other career clusters included in the analysis, they possess essential soft skills that are valuable in other industries. Therefore, improving hospitality workers’ existing soft skills may help them enhance their cross-sector mobility, which may allow them to obtain jobs with a lower likelihood of computerization.

Practical implications

The findings shed light on workforce development theories and practice in the hospitality industry by quantitatively analyzing cross-sector skill correlations. Sharpening transferable soft skills will be essential to enhancing hospitality workers’ career development opportunities.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that specifically examines the skill taxonomy for the hospitality industry and identifies its connection with other in-demand career clusters.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 6 September 2021

Kristine Shipman, Darrell Norman Burrell and Allison Huff Mac Pherson

The unimagined workplace disturbance caused by the Coronavirus, also known as COVID-19, has made many organizations virtual or telework driven workplaces, often without…

Abstract

Purpose

The unimagined workplace disturbance caused by the Coronavirus, also known as COVID-19, has made many organizations virtual or telework driven workplaces, often without the infrastructure and systems in place to support employees facing these sudden workplace changes (Burrell, 2020). Many stressors accompanied this transition, to include lack of childcare, home-school responsibilities and layoffs and business closings. These stressors have perpetuated concerns for the job and financial security for all workers (Fox, 2020), leading some employees to struggle with the work-life balance out of concern for being laid off due to perceived low productivity (Fox, 2020). This study aims to explore those manifestations.

Design/methodology/approach

This qualitative research case study explores the impact COVID-19 induced telework has on their job satisfaction, mental well-being and aspects of organizational commitment to fill a gap in the literature concerning emerging workplace dynamics due to COVID-19 for small real estate businesses in the USA.

Findings

The results of this qualitative research case study provide knowledge and information about the need for small businesses to be resourceful and resilient in the way that they support and engage remote workers. This qualitative research case study explores the impact COVID-19-induced telework has on their job satisfaction, mental well-being and aspects of organizational commitment for small real estate businesses. The analysis of current work-life structures through a qualitative lens provides trends among workers to gain a greater perspective of the current accelerators and barriers to worker success in a COVID-19 teleworking environment.

Originality/value

This qualitative research case study explores the impact COVID-19 induced telework has on their job satisfaction, mental well-being and aspects of organizational commitment to fill a gap in the literature concerning emerging workplace dynamics due to COVID-19 for small real estate businesses. The value of this research is that majority of the participants were African-Americans, which represents a participant group that is highly under researched.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Article
Publication date: 29 September 2021

Sabiha Khatoon and Ayesha Iffat

The study aims to analyse the challenges faced by the Indian Handloom Sector with a special focus on the state of Uttar Pradesh before and during the COVID-19 pandemic…

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to analyse the challenges faced by the Indian Handloom Sector with a special focus on the state of Uttar Pradesh before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study further explores the benefits of AatmaNirbhar Bharat Abhiyan for the betterment of the livelihood of the COVID-19–hit handloom weavers and allied workers.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 400 handloom weavers and allied workers from ten cities of Uttar Pradesh were contacted through telephone. Descriptive statistics were applied to measure the awareness about the government welfare schemes and the benefits of these schemes. Furthermore, satisfaction and opinion of the handloom weavers and allied workers regarding the benefits and sufficiency of the funds received under these schemes have also been measured.

Findings

Based on the results, the least awareness has been noted about government welfare schemes. However, a small number of weavers and allied workers were found beneficiaries of the schemes. Additionally, the majority of the respondents were found dissatisfied with the benefits. The COVID-19 pandemic is an addendum to the plight of handloom weavers and allied workers. The measures of AatmaNirbhar Bharat Abhiyan could be used to aid weavers and allied workers to restore their lost revenue.

Research limitations/implications

This study has limitations. Firstly, the research is limited to the handloom industry of Uttar Pradesh. Future researchers could consider the handloom sector of other states like Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh, known for hand-woven clothes. Secondly, this study aims to analyse the role of AatmaNirbhar Bharat Abhiyan in improving the living conditions of handloom weavers and allied workers and not to measure the impact of the Abhiyan on handloom weavers or the handloom sector. Researchers could measure the impact in future studies. Thirdly, the authors have not applied any behavioural theory or marketing models such as the Theory of Reasoned Action or the Blackwell model, which may be applied to study the attitude of handloom weavers towards welfare schemes. This may prove to be a potential direction for future research. Additionally, master weavers and handloom cooperatives societies were excluded while collecting the data. Future researchers could consider them to examine the role of the government’s welfare schemes for uplifting the socio-economic condition of the handloom weavers, allied workers, master weavers and the business of cooperative societies. Finally, due to lockdown and travel ban, the authors were forced to limit their survey to telephone only because of which they could not get the qualitative information in full. Researchers for future studies could visit the handloom concentrated areas personally or take the help of an enumerator for data collection.

Practical implications

The research holds significance for the young and competent designers, handloom weavers and allied workers. Designers could work with and hire handloom weavers of Uttar Pradesh. If designers and weavers work together, it will help them restore their business and generate revenue that they have lost due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, policymakers can collaborate with designers, which will help enhance the socio-economic condition of handloom weavers and allied workers, which has deteriorated due to the COVID-19 crisis.

Originality/value

The research holds significance from the point of view of exploring the challenges faced by handloom weavers and allied workers of the state of UP before and during the COVID-19 period while examining the role of AatmaNirbhar Bharat Abhiyan in setting off these challenges.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

Keywords

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