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Researchers have studied processes of improving road traffic-safety culture by explicitly evaluating the socio-psychological phenomenon of traffic-risk. The implicit…
Researchers have studied processes of improving road traffic-safety culture by explicitly evaluating the socio-psychological phenomenon of traffic-risk. The implicit traffic-system cues play an important role in explaining urban traffic-culture. This paper aims to ascertain an interpretive framework of the alternative processes of road traffic safety culture is antecedent to promote traffic-safety behaviour in Indian urban context. Subsequently, the authors discussed the reasons for those relationships exists.
Four experts of the urban traffic-safety domain participated in total interpretive structural modelling (TISM) study by completing an interpretive consensus-driven questionnaire. The drafted interpretive model was evaluated for road users proactive action orientation about the traffic-safety decision.
The evolved directed graph (digraph) of the culture of urban traffic-safety management was a serial three-mediator model. The model argued: In the presence of traffic-risk cues, people may become apprised to safety goals that initiate traffic-safety action. Consequently, expectancy-value evaluation motivates the continuation of traffic-safety intention that may lead to the implementation of adaptation plan (volitional control), thus habituating road users to traffic-safety management choice.
The modellers of traffic psychology may empirically estimate and test for the quality criteria to ascertain the applicability of the proposed mechanism of urban traffic-safety culture. The decision-makers should note the importance of arousal of emotions regarding traffic-risk, reduce the impact of maladaptive motivations and recursively improve control over safety actions for promoting safety interventions.
The authors attempted to induce an interpretive model of urban traffic-safety culture that might augment extant discussion regarding how and why people behave in an urban traffic system.
Purpose – Urban and suburban arterials carry a large share of urban traffic and contend with a relatively large proportion of transport network crashes. Road crashes and their consequent societal costs diminish the sustainability of transportation systems, highlighting the need to identify road safety problems and their corresponding solutions. This chapter briefly outlines problems and solutions associated with crash risk on urban and suburban arterials. In addition, this chapter studies and discusses several safety countermeasures – ranging from local treatments to integral frameworks – and their effectiveness on improving traffic safety of urban and suburban arterials.
Approach – Crash occurrence on urban and suburban arterials is affected by numerous contributing factors. This chapter pays attention primarily to the effects of traffic characteristics and road design features. In this regard, several pertinent variables which have been extensively examined in the literature are reviewed and their contributions to the safety of urban and suburban arterials are discussed.
Findings – A review of the literature identifies a number of variables as influential factors of crashes on urban and suburban arterials. Although the associations of some variables (e.g., traffic volume) are consistent with expectations, others (e.g., lane width and speed) show mixed and sometimes counterintuitive results. These findings signify that additional research is needed to reveal the correct functional form and magnitude of these relationships.
Practical implications – The results show that while the general direction and magnitude of effects of some engineering and management-related treatments are known, additional research is needed to consolidate the impact and effectiveness of integrated approaches.
Purpose – This chapter provides details of research that attempts to relate traffic operational conditions on uninterrupted flow facilities (e.g., freeways and expressways) with real-time crash likelihood. Unlike incident detection, the purpose of this line of work is to proactively assess crash likelihood and potentially reduce the likelihood through proactive traffic management techniques, including variable speed limit and ramp metering among others.
Methodology – The chapter distinguishes between the traditional aggregate crash frequency-based approach to safety evaluation and the approach needed for real-time crash risk estimation. Key references from the literature are summarised in terms of the reported effect of different traffic characteristics that can be derived in near real-time, including average speed, temporal variation in speed, volume and lane-occupancy, on crash occurrence.
Findings – Traffic and weather parameters are among the real-time crash-contributing factors. Among the most significant traffic parameters is speed particularly in the form of coefficient of variation of speed.
Research implications – In the traffic safety field, traditional data sources are infrastructure-based traffic detection systems. In the future, if automatic traffic detection systems could provide reliable data at the vehicle level, new variables such as headway could be introduced. Transferability of real-time crash prediction models is also of interest. Also, the potential effects of different management strategies to reduce real-time crash risk could be evaluated in a simulation environment.
Practical implications – This line of research has been at the forefront of bringing data mining and other machine-learning techniques into the traffic management arena. We expect these analysis techniques to play a more important role in real-time traffic management, not just for safety evaluation but also for congestion pricing and alternate routing.
In order to ensure the public safety of residential areas, starting with the urban public safety of Xi'an, the construction environment of defense safety, fire safety and…
In order to ensure the public safety of residential areas, starting with the urban public safety of Xi'an, the construction environment of defense safety, fire safety and traffic safety, and the public safety environment of residential areas are investigated. According to the characteristics of housing in Xi'an planned economy era and market economy era, the existing situation is analyzed from the aspects of overall planning layout, road traffic space, building monomer, public activity space, greening space, and lighting facilities. Based on the analysis results, the principles of planning and design of public safety space environment in Xi'an residential areas are put forward. The planning and design methods of residential space environment are discussed and studied in detail from the aspects of residential defense safety, fire safety, and traffic safety, so as to provide reference for the planning and design of urban residential safety and to create a safe, healthy and harmonious living environment for residents.