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Article

Dave Oglesby

Alternatives to conventional oxides were introduced in the mid‐1990s as part of innerlayer bonding processes that were significantly less expensive than reduced oxides…

Abstract

Alternatives to conventional oxides were introduced in the mid‐1990s as part of innerlayer bonding processes that were significantly less expensive than reduced oxides. This was due to their lower equipment costs, shorter cycle times, and lower chemistry costs. However, the first offerings of these processes forced printed circuit board suppliers to accept some performance compromises in the areas of waste treatment, filtration costs, process control, and peel strength.As chemical suppliers further refined their alternative oxide process chemistries, many of these deficiencies were overcome and a second generation was introduced. The second generation improvements have addressed the earlier deficiencies and present the so called “alternative oxides” as a cost effective, reliable process for innerlayer bonding.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

Content available
Article

Steven Gross, Katharina Stelzl, Thomas Grisold, Jan Mendling, Maximilian Röglinger and Jan vom Brocke

Process redesign refers to the intentional change of business processes. While process redesign methods provide structure to redesign projects, they provide limited…

Abstract

Purpose

Process redesign refers to the intentional change of business processes. While process redesign methods provide structure to redesign projects, they provide limited support during the actual creation of to-be processes. More specifically, existing approaches hardly develop an ontological perspective on what can be changed from a process design point of view, and they provide limited procedural guidance on how to derive possible process design alternatives. This paper aims to provide structured guidance during the to-be process creation.

Design/methodology/approach

Using design space exploration as a theoretical lens, the authors develop a conceptual model of the design space for business processes, which facilitates the systematic exploration of design alternatives along different dimensions. The authors utilized an established method for taxonomy development for constructing the conceptual model. First, the authors derived design dimensions for business processes and underlying characteristics through a literature review. Second, the authors conducted semi-structured interviews with professional process experts. Third, the authors evaluated their artifact through three real-world applications.

Findings

The authors identified 19 business process design dimensions that are grouped into different layers and specified by underlying characteristics. Guiding questions and illustrative real-world examples help to deploy these design dimensions in practice. Taken together, the design dimensions form the “Business Process Design Space” (BPD-Space).

Research limitations/implications

Practitioners can use the BPD-Space to explore, question and rethink business processes in various respects.

Originality/value

The BPD-Space complements existing approaches by explicating process design dimensions. It abstracts from specific process flows and representations of processes and supports an unconstrained exploration of various alternative process designs.

Details

Business Process Management Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-7154

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Article

Georgios I. Zekos

Investigates the differences in protocols between arbitral tribunals and courts, with particular emphasis on US, Greek and English law. Gives examples of each country and…

Abstract

Investigates the differences in protocols between arbitral tribunals and courts, with particular emphasis on US, Greek and English law. Gives examples of each country and its way of using the law in specific circumstances, and shows the variations therein. Sums up that arbitration is much the better way to gok as it avoids delays and expenses, plus the vexation/frustration of normal litigation. Concludes that the US and Greek constitutions and common law tradition in England appear to allow involved parties to choose their own judge, who can thus be an arbitrator. Discusses e‐commerce and speculates on this for the future.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 46 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Book part

Nasir Bedewi Siraj, Aminah Robinson Fayek and Mohamed M. G. Elbarkouky

Most decision-making problems in construction are complex and difficult to solve, as they involve multiple criteria and multiple decision makers in addition to subjective…

Abstract

Most decision-making problems in construction are complex and difficult to solve, as they involve multiple criteria and multiple decision makers in addition to subjective uncertainties, imprecisions and vagueness surrounding the decision-making process. In many instances, the decision-making process is based on linguistic terms rather than numerical values. Hence, structured fuzzy consensus-reaching processes and fuzzy aggregation methods are instrumental in multi-criteria group decision-making (MCGDM) problems for capturing the point of view of a group of experts. This chapter outlines different fuzzy consensus-reaching processes and fuzzy aggregation methods. It presents the background of the basic theory and formulation of these processes and methods, as well as numerical examples that illustrate their theory and formulation. Application areas of fuzzy consensus reaching and fuzzy aggregation in the construction domain are identified, and an overview of previously developed frameworks for fuzzy consensus reaching and fuzzy aggregation is provided. Finally, areas for future work are presented that highlight emerging trends and the imminent needs of fuzzy consensus reaching and fuzzy aggregation in the construction domain.

Details

Fuzzy Hybrid Computing in Construction Engineering and Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-868-2

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Article

Sushil

A systems perspective of waste management allows an integratedapproach not only to the five basic functional elements of wastemanagement itself (generation, reduction…

Abstract

A systems perspective of waste management allows an integrated approach not only to the five basic functional elements of waste management itself (generation, reduction, collection, recycling, disposal), but to the problems arising at the interfaces with the management of energy, nature conservation, environmental protection, economic factors like unemployment and productivity, etc. This monograph separately describes present practices and the problems to be solved in each of the functional areas of waste management and at the important interfaces. Strategies for more efficient control are then proposed from a systems perspective. Systematic and objective means of solving problems become possible leading to optimal management and a positive contribution to economic development, not least through resource conservation. India is the particular context within which waste generation and management are discussed. In considering waste disposal techniques, special attention is given to sewage and radioactive wastes.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 90 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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Article

Gary Brist and Don Cullen

To examine the impact of oxide and oxide alternative processes on signal loss in commercial RF applications.

Abstract

Purpose

To examine the impact of oxide and oxide alternative processes on signal loss in commercial RF applications.

Design/methodology/approach

Stripline conductors were formed using traditional oxide, oxide dissolution/reduction, and oxide alternative processes. Conductor geometry was measured and surface topography was characterized. Effective dielectric constants and characteristic impedance for each system was determined. Finally, line loss for each treatment and rework condition was charted to nearly 20 GHz. Electrical measurements were performed by taking S‐parameter measurements through 20 GHz using an agilent vector network analyzer (VNA).

Findings

The methods employed were sufficient to statistically characterize the increased loss associated with thick oxides and high‐microetch oxide alternatives. Lower etch oxide alternatives yielded benefits for signal integrity. Of importance, rework procedures gave unacceptable increases in line loss. Overall, however, the loss due to innerlayer bonding processes was not of sufficient magnitude to elevate oxides as a primary contributor to conductor loss. For the relative simple, high production system employing epoxy substrate, oxide loss was found to be far less than substrate effects, imaging quality, and foil treatment.

Originality/value

Electrical engineers and printed circuit board (PCB) designers strive to focus their efforts on improving the PCB processes leading to maximum conductor loss in the electronic system. This work shows that oxide treatments are not a primary factor in affecting loss. Significant improvements in signal integrity may be achieved, however, with the use of low‐etch oxide alternatives and with restrictions on oxide rework. In addition, this paper allowed for new interpretations of VNA data for better modeling of PCB system data using non‐classical analysis.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article

Thiago Poleto, Thárcylla Rebecca Negreiros Clemente, Ana Paula Henriques de Gusmão, Maisa Mendonça Silva and Ana Paula Cabral Seixas Costa

The information technology (IT) outsourcing (ITO) decision is a key issue in strategic and operational management and is considered a main critical factor influencing…

Abstract

Purpose

The information technology (IT) outsourcing (ITO) decision is a key issue in strategic and operational management and is considered a main critical factor influencing successful organizational performance and technology assessment. The purpose of this paper is to propose a framework combining value-focused thinking (VFT) methodology and the FITradeoff method to support decisions regarding ITO.

Design/methodology/approach

This study answers the following questions: How to identify, in a structured way, the objectives that should be considered in an ITO decision process in a changing environment? How to identify new IT services to be outsourced from the established objectives? The VFT method is recommended in this case to structure and model the problem. Moreover, the FITradeoff multicriteria method was considered in this study to support the evaluation and prioritization of IT services in an ITO decision

Findings

The framework provides promising results for ITO decisions. This study revealed that a lack of strategic and fundamental objectives is a critical issue in making ITO decisions. Although the VFT methodology is subjective in nature, it promotes a better understanding of goals and values, and FITradeoff allows the decision-maker to make comparisons of consequences based on his/her preferences.

Research limitations/implications

The recommendations of the study are restricted to the case study and cannot be generalized. In addition, applying the method requires attention in determining the criteria used for outsourcing IT.

Practical implications

The strategic analysis of ITO provides a holistic view of the current situation since (i) the VFT methodology enables the IT manager to generate new alternatives to assist future decisions and (ii) FITradeoff has been demonstrated as a suitable option to evaluate ITO decisions.

Originality/value

To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper to utilize a problem structuring method (VFT) to identify criteria and alternatives based on the organizational values and objectives. This is integrated with a multicriteria method that uses partial information and may consequently lead to fewer inconsistencies (FITradeoff) in the context of ITO.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 58 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article

Shye-Nee Low, Shahrul Kamaruddin and Ishak Abdul Azid

The purpose of this paper is to investigate multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM) processes within a flow-line production-improvement activity. Investigation can lead…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM) processes within a flow-line production-improvement activity. Investigation can lead to understanding of how a process improvement framework influences the decision and fulfillment of the potential to successfully change the operation process.

Design/methodology/approach

The improvement process selection (IPS) framework is built systematically by incorporating all related decision criteria with suitable tools required to select improvement alternatives. The process consists of three phases: identification, prediction, and selection. The IPS framework is validated through a case study of a company that was carrying out a flow-line production-improvement project.

Findings

The developed framework is used to prioritize the problem scope and select the solutions from various options. The case study illustrates the process through which the developed framework provided a systematic approach in identifying the solutions and achieving the desired performance improvement. Prediction result analysis shows the framework achieved sustainable process improvement changes and prevents management levels from higher risks in failure improvement. The feedback of the case study has verified the robustness of the framework.

Practical implications

Quantitative improvement tools, such as MCDM employed in the IPS framework are vital for better understanding of the improvement impact of changes. Thus, the improvement solution alternatives can be analyzed in more comprehensive ways by considering numerous performance metrics in order to select the best improvement alternatives.

Originality/value

The IPS framework can assist the company in determining optimal decisions in relation to selection of improvement alternatives. As a result, production performance can be affected positively.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 64 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

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Article

Michael Halinski and Linda Duxbury

– The purpose of this paper is to examine how the group decision-making process unfolds over time in a transorganizational system (TS) planning change.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how the group decision-making process unfolds over time in a transorganizational system (TS) planning change.

Design/methodology/approach

A longitudinal qualitative case study was designed to enable researchers to identify different stages in the group decision-making process.

Findings

The findings from this case study indicated that the group decision-making process in a TS planning change could be conceptualized to include five distinct steps: working in solitude; starting a dialogue; finding a common goal; suggesting decision alternatives; and deciding among alternatives. The group proceeded through these steps sequentially over time.

Practical implications

The paper offers TS practitioners a framework to follow when making group decisions within TSs.

Originality/value

The study develops a conceptual framework that describes how the group decision-making process unfolds over time in a TS planning change. This framework can be tested in other contexts and advance theory in both the TS and group decision-making areas.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 53 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article

John Marangos

The purpose of the paper is to develop alternative paths to the transition process as a result of alternative models of transition.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to develop alternative paths to the transition process as a result of alternative models of transition.

Design/methodology/approach

A political economy methodology to the transition process results in alternative transition models. As a result five alternative models of transition come into being.

Findings

Transition models can be distinguished on the basis of economic analysis, speed and the political structure. Each model recommended a set of economic policies to facilitate the transition process. The adoption of gradualist processes of transition – except in the case of shock therapy – requires a sequence by which the reforms should be introduced.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the transition literature by developing a set of economic policies combined with a sequence path for each transition model.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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