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In this work are described some concepts concerning the creation of a library’s unified network and its unified information system, based on innovative technologies for…
In this work are described some concepts concerning the creation of a library’s unified network and its unified information system, based on innovative technologies for the distribution of the largest number of advanced services to an increasing number of users. Initially, we explain the functions which characterise a unified network, describing the different levels of interoperability and application cooperation services needed to realize the library’s unified information system. The basic elements of the network architecture have been considered from the functional point of view, taking them from the distribution system’s architectures. At the end, some of the advanced systems to be used through the library’s unified network are exposed and discussed; among them, the information filtering system, the digital library, and the distance learning and educational services.
Coalition formation and dissolution are integral parts of social movement politics. This article addresses two questions about the effect of coalition politics on…
Coalition formation and dissolution are integral parts of social movement politics. This article addresses two questions about the effect of coalition politics on organizational processes within social movements. First, how does coalition leadership influence who attends mass demonstrations? Second, how does the dissolution of a coalition affect the locations of organizations in activist networks? The case of schism between United for Peace and Justice (UFPJ) and Act Now to Stop War and End Racism (ANSWER) in the contemporary American antiwar movement (2001–2007) is examined. Survey results demonstrate that variations in coalition leadership do not significantly affect protest demographics, though they do attract supporters with different political attitudes, levels of commitment, and organizational affiliations. Further, network analysis establishes that coalition dissolution weakens the ties between previous coalition partners and creates opportunities for actors uninvolved in the split to reaffirm and improve brokerage opportunities. The end result is that preexisting network structures serve to mitigate the effects of coalition dissolution on social movements.
Modern manufacturing plants have a desperate need for large amounts of sensor information, to refine and improve their production. A novel peer‐to‐peer distributed sensor…
Modern manufacturing plants have a desperate need for large amounts of sensor information, to refine and improve their production. A novel peer‐to‐peer distributed sensor network (DSN) framework is presented in this paper to continue the previous research of the IP sensor.
A device description sheet method, stemming from the TEDS of IEEE 1451 standard, is presented to achieve the self‐identify and self‐description of each IP sensor in a DSN application. Moreover, a virtual mapping mechanism, named transducer domain name server (TDNS), is also presented.
Ethernet is the backbone of the DSN architecture presented, and direct access between any two sensors located in a same DSN is allowable. With the help of the TDNS, the reallocation of each sensor's role at run‐time is achieved by performing a dynamic binding between the devices monitored and the IP sensors.
In the new proposal, two key problems, including the connection establishment of a large sensor network and the dynamic reallocation of each sensor's role at run‐time, are efficiently settled. All of the methods presented will be an important step towards seeking for a practical use at the production floor.
The purpose of this paper is to identify concerns developing in regard to current approaches used to define, deliver and fund universal service obligations (USOs) for…
The purpose of this paper is to identify concerns developing in regard to current approaches used to define, deliver and fund universal service obligations (USOs) for telecommunications due to developments in competition, new technology, e.g. wireless, convergence and next generation networks (NGN), including voice over internet protocol (VoIP). To stimulate thinking about the policies required to deliver USOs in an IP‐enabled NGN environment.
The paper examines the nature and scope of USOs, including the concept of “functional internet access” to address questions about whether in an NGN environment: present USOs are sustainable; USOs need to change; and whether USOs should include access to broadband? The paper also examines alternative/complementary sources of funding for USOs.
With falling revenue (due to increasing competition and declining prices) occurring alongside strong demand for funds to deploy NGN, telecommunications operators are less able to provide USOs sustained by cross‐subsidisation. Universal service funds, too, may be under pressure. Also there is likely to be an uneven migration to NGN since it is likely that NGN will be deployed first in more profitable, densely populated areas and then only later (if at all) in relatively less commercially viable rural/remote areas. The paper concludes that present USOs can be maintained in an NGN environment. It concludes that since USOs is an evolving concept, there should be regular systematic reviews of whether USOs should be extended to include broadband. The paper concludes that increased funding from general taxation revenue is warranted and would link decisions concerning the nature and scope of USOs more closely with financial responsibility for such decisions.
The paper stimulates rethinking about whether, and if so how, arrangements relating to USOs need to change? In adopting a longer term perspective of universal services, the paper may be a valuable complement to the reviews of USOs being conducted in various countries (since short term decisions should be consistent with longer term developments).
The current approach to universal service involving the provision of specific services (such as fixed voice, public payphones, ability to make emergency calls, etc.) needs…
The current approach to universal service involving the provision of specific services (such as fixed voice, public payphones, ability to make emergency calls, etc.) needs re‐thinking in a convergent, NGN environment. This paper seeks to be part of that re‐thinking.
Questions addressed include: Should we move to a focus on universal access to communications infrastructure, allowing consumers to dictate preferred services? Since access to the full range of NGN services, including VoIP, requires broadband connection, should the scope of USOs be “upgraded” to include broadband?
A shift towards universal network access seems sensible provided that a number of conditions exist. One is that traditional services defined under universal service obligations (USOs), remain available. In particular, a shift to VoIP raises questions about whether present features of universal service (quality, ability to make emergency calls, etc) can be sustained. Another condition is widespread access to broadband. Another condition is that consumers are empowered to exercise the increased choice of services that will be available in an NGN environment. Such consumer empowerment requires that market power, information asymmetry, barriers to “switching”, as well as “systematic bias” in consumer decisions be effectively addressed.
Stimulates the policy reconsideration that is needed in regard to universal service in an NGN environment.
Focuses on the year 2000, reviewing the periodical literature of information and library services management, and of the relevant literature from the field of management…
Focuses on the year 2000, reviewing the periodical literature of information and library services management, and of the relevant literature from the field of management in general. Notes the themes of major conferences in the field of information and library services management, and of reference tools for library managers.
Introduction Electronic mail, in the broadest sense; is not by any means a new technology. From the earliest days of telegraph; back in the 19th centuary; electronic media have been used to transmit textual information between distant points of the globe. Today the humble but ubiquitous telex machine is perhaps the best representative of this form of communication.
This case traces through a 20-year history of a Chinese high-tech company, Maipu Communications Technology Company. Throughout the company’s growth, Maipu adjusted its…
This case traces through a 20-year history of a Chinese high-tech company, Maipu Communications Technology Company. Throughout the company’s growth, Maipu adjusted its innovation models in order to ensure that they remained compatible with corporate strategies, resources and external environments. However, as the company grew bigger, it was finding it more and more difficult to meet its innovation goals. Its current innovation model is a market-driven platform + distributed innovation. While Maipu has achieved some success under this model, it is faced with a myriad of challenges during the execution of the model. The key questions raised by this case are whether Maipu’s current innovation model is suitable for the company at this stage and how the innovation model should be adjusted to propel new innovation and growth opportunities for Maipu in this increasingly competitive market.
This case was a field research case. The authors paid three visits to Maipu Communications Technology Company, during which the authors conducted in-depth interviews with Mr Zhao, the Head of Maipu’s R&D and Innovation group, and several senior and functional managers of the company. Follow-up communication via telephone and e-mail was conducted to verify the accuracy of the written case.
Relevant courses and levels
This case is well suited for courses in the areas of strategic management, innovation management, high-tech management, entrepreneurship, and international business. The target audiences of the case are primarily MBA students, although this case can also be used in upper-level undergraduate business courses.
The theoretical basis for this case includes the following management theories: strategy formulation and strategy implementation, business-level and corporate-level strategies, enterprise life-cycle, corporate strategies at various stages of growth, patterns of innovation and applications, and implementation of innovation strategies.
At the 1978 Aslib conference, I gave a talk entitled ‘The New Technology’, subsequently summarised in a short article in this journal. In it a drawing of something I…
At the 1978 Aslib conference, I gave a talk entitled ‘The New Technology’, subsequently summarised in a short article in this journal. In it a drawing of something I called the ‘Consumersole’ appeared. This device, which was discussed in an article also published in 1978, was a prediction of what might be used in homes and businesses at the end of the century.