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Article

Clara Cullen

The aim of the Borges project was to develop a prototype information filtering service for Usenet news and Web‐based services. Developed as a service that could be offered…

Abstract

The aim of the Borges project was to develop a prototype information filtering service for Usenet news and Web‐based services. Developed as a service that could be offered by libraries, the project was user driven and emphasis was placed on user evaluation, with the results forming the basis of enhancements. This article addresses the project as it was implemented in Dublin City University, describes the three phases involved and the lessons learned.

Details

VINE, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-5728

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Article

Angela Carrillo-Ramos, Luis Guillermo Torres-Ribero, María Paula Arias-Báez, Alexandra Pomares Quimbaya, Enrique González, Julio Carreño, Juan Pablo Garzón Ruiz and Hervé Martin

This paper aims to present a detailed description of Agents for Enriching Services (AES), an agent-oriented framework that allows adapting a service in an information

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a detailed description of Agents for Enriching Services (AES), an agent-oriented framework that allows adapting a service in an information system. AES provides an adaptation logic that can be instantiated and extended to be useful in different domains. In previous works, we presented the adaptation mechanism of AES, which considers context aspects such as location, infrastructure; user aspects such as preferences and interests; and device aspects such as hardware and software features.

Design/methodology/approach

The first step was the definition of different profiles, mainly user and context profiles. Then the adaptation mechanism was defined, which considers these profiles. With this mechanism, the adaptation filters to apply them to the initial queries was specified. Finally, feedback was provided, which included implicit and explicit information from the user and the system. AES is an agent-based framework implemented in Java, using the multi-agent platform BESA and a rule-based engine Drools.

Findings

AES can be used as the starting point to adapt services by enriching them considering different stimulus whether they come from the environment, devices or user preferences.

Research limitations/implications

This work was tested in an academic environment and was only applied to enhance queries by using keywords. AES uses the query mechanism implemented in the system that invokes it.

Originality/value

This paper focuses on: an integrated view of AES including its formal description and details about its implementation. Particularly, it includes an exhaustive and formal definition of the filters used to create the adaptation rules and three different scenarios of the application of AES to adapt content according to user and context features. Finally, a comparison analysis is presented to highlight the strengths of our framework, specially its capacity of integration with systems that require providing user- and context-oriented services.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

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Article

Leena Ilmola‐Sheppard and Osmo Kuusi

This paper aims to investigate the role of information as a source of resilience in organizations. It presents both a theory based construct of information filters of the

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the role of information as a source of resilience in organizations. It presents both a theory based construct of information filters of the environment scanning and a pragmatic tool for managing the process.

Design/methodology/approach

The filter construct was tested in three qualitative case studies where the filter setting was changed in order to identify its impact on the results of the environment scan. This paper used Igor Ansoff's theory of information filters as a basis and added the required additional elements by applying complex adaptive systems theory.

Findings

The authors were able to define two dimensions: information filters' width and depth, that define the outcome of the environment scanning process. The preliminary testing of the research hypotheses was possible with the new research tool.

Research limitations/implications

There was only one case that analyzed the impact of connectivity: the role of feedback loops with the external stakeholders and their impact on the outcome of the scanning process. This interesting finding should be studied further.

Practical implications

By applying the filter construct, management is able to either destabilize the organization (for innovation or in order to facilitate a major transformation) or to stabilize the organization (e.g. post‐merger integration).

Originality/value

This paper is one of the rare pragmatic applications of complex adaptive systems theory.

Details

Foresight, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6689

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Article

Hui Shao, Zhi Xiong, Jianxin Xu, Bing Hua and Song Han

The federated filter created by Carlson has been widely used in multi-sensor integrated navigation. Compared with no-reset federated filter, the reset mode has greater sub…

Abstract

Purpose

The federated filter created by Carlson has been widely used in multi-sensor integrated navigation. Compared with no-reset federated filter, the reset mode has greater sub-filters’ performance, but faults of any subsystem would affect other healthy subsystems via global fusion and the sub-optimality of sub-filters’ estimation has influence on fault detection sensitivity. It’s a challenge to design a robust reset federated filter.

Design/methodology/approach

The time-varying observation noise is designed to reduce proportions of observation information in faulty sub-filters. A new dynamic information distribution algorithm based on optimal residual chi-square detection function is presented to reduce proportions of faulty sub-filters’ estimation in information fusion filter.

Findings

The robust filtering algorithm represents a filtering strategy for reset federated filter. Compared with fault isolation, the navigation result is smoother by using this algorithm. It has significant benefits in avoiding faulty sensors’ contamination and the performance of federated filter is greatly improved.

Research limitations/implications

The approach described in this paper provides a new method to deal with federated reset filter’s faulty problems. This new robust federated filter algorithm possesses a great potential for various applications.

Practical implications

The approach described in this paper can be used in multi-sensor integrated navigation with no fewer than three sensors.

Originality/value

Compared with conventional approach of fault isolation, the proposed algorithm does not destroy the continuity and integrity of the filtering process. It improves the performance of the federated filter by reducing proportions of faulty observation information. It also reduces the influence of sub-optimality on fault detection sensitivity.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology: An International Journal, vol. 88 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article

Fatemeh Alyari and Nima Jafari Navimipour

This paper aims to identify, evaluate and integrate the findings of all relevant and high-quality individual studies addressing one or more research questions about…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to identify, evaluate and integrate the findings of all relevant and high-quality individual studies addressing one or more research questions about recommender systems and performing a comprehensive study of empirical research on recommender systems that have been divided into five main categories. To achieve this aim, the authors use systematic literature review (SLR) as a powerful method to collect and critically analyze the research papers. Also, the authors discuss the selected recommender systems and its main techniques, as well as their benefits and drawbacks in general.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the SLR method is utilized with the aim of identifying, evaluating and integrating the findings of all relevant and high-quality individual studies addressing one or more research questions about recommender systems and performing a comprehensive study of empirical research on recommender systems that have been divided into five main categories. Also, the authors discussed recommender system and its techniques in general without a specific domain.

Findings

The major developments in categories of recommender systems are reviewed, and new challenges are outlined. Furthermore, insights on the identification of open issues and guidelines for future research are provided. Also, this paper presents the systematical analysis of the recommender system literature from 2005. The authors identified 536 papers, which were reduced to 51 primary studies through the paper selection process.

Originality/value

This survey will directly support academics and practical professionals in their understanding of developments in recommender systems and its techniques.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 47 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article

Hamid R. Jamali and Pria Shahbaztabar

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between internet filtering, emotions and information-seeking behaviour.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between internet filtering, emotions and information-seeking behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 15 postgraduate students at an Iranian university participated in the study which involved a questionnaire, search tasks with think aloud narratives, and interviews.

Findings

Internet content filtering results in some changes in the information-seeking behaviour of users. Users who face website blocking use a variety of methods to bypass filtering, mostly by using anti-filter software. Filtering encourages users to use channels such as social networking services to share resources and it increases the use of library material by some of the users. Users who face filtering during their search are more likely to visit more pages of results and click on more hits in the results, unlike users who do not experience filtering who rarely go past the first page. Blocking users’ access to content stimulates their curiosity and they become more determined to access the content. In terms of the affective aspect, filtering causes several negative emotions (e.g. anger, disgust, sadness and anxiety) and the main reason for these emotions is not the inability to access information but the feeling of being controlled and not having freedom.

Research limitations/implications

The study was limited to a small number of postgraduate students in social sciences and not generalisable to all user groups. The implication is that in countries where filtering is used, libraries can play an important role in serving users and reducing users negative emotions, especially if libraries can take advantage of technologies such as social media for their services.

Originality/value

This is first study to address the effects of internet filtering on information-seeking behaviour and emotions. The study shows that internet filtering causes negative emotions and results in some changes in information-seeking behaviour.

Details

Aslib Journal of Information Management, vol. 69 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-3806

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Article

Da‐Wei Chang, Ing‐Chou Chen, Hao‐Ren Ke and Ruei‐Chuan Chang

With the speedy growth of information quantity, people need a mechanism to discover automatically the information that interests them. Such a mechanism is called selective…

Abstract

With the speedy growth of information quantity, people need a mechanism to discover automatically the information that interests them. Such a mechanism is called selective dissemination of information (SDI). Describes the design and implementation of an SDI system with the ability of delivering real‐time, personalized news articles. In addition to delivering English news, it delivers Chinese articles also. Focuses on the problems that other researches seldom address. First, discusses how to store and delete news articles efficiently, then describes the user model to let users specify their interests. Finally, presents an efficient method to embed the ability to deliver Chinese as well as English news articles in the system.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

Keywords

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Article

Rachel Spacey, Louise Cooke, Adrienne Muir and Claire Creaser

The purpose of this paper is to review current knowledge, research and thinking about the difficulties facing public libraries offering internet access to their users in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review current knowledge, research and thinking about the difficulties facing public libraries offering internet access to their users in ensuring legally compliant and non-offensive use of this facility whilst still adhering to the professional value of freedom of access to information.

Design/methodology/approach

A range of recently published sources (1997-2013) relating to the technical and organisational measures used to manage public internet access primarily in public libraries in the UK with some limited international examples were reviewed and analysed. This work was undertaken as the underpinning research for an AHRC-funded project, MAIPLE (Managing Access to the internet in Public Libraries).

Findings

The provision of public internet access is a well-established component of the role of public libraries, but is seen as a potential problem due to the possibility of misuse, and it appears that simplistic technical solutions have disappointed. Legislation increases the need for more effective solutions that can provide a balance between the need for legal compliance, a welcoming environment for users, and the protection of key freedoms. A range of measures are being adopted worldwide in response to this dilemma.

Originality/value

Research exploring internet access in public libraries and its management in the UK is numerically small and much of it dates back to the start of the twenty-first century. This review presents a comprehensive analysis of the available literature and is of relevance to practitioners and academics in the fields of public librarianship.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 70 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article

Alexander Binun, Bracha Shapira and Yuval Elovici

The purpose of this paper is to present an extension to a framework based on the information structure (IS) model for combining information filtering (IF) results. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present an extension to a framework based on the information structure (IS) model for combining information filtering (IF) results. The main goal of the framework is to combine the results of the different IF systems so as to maximise the expected payoff (EP) to the user. In this paper we compare three different approaches to tuning the relevance thresholds of individual IF systems that are being combined in order to maximise the EP to the user. In the first approach we set the same threshold for each of the IF systems. In the second approach the threshold of each IF system is tuned independently to maximise its own EP (“local optimisation”). In the third approach the thresholds of the IF systems are jointly tuned to maximise the EP of the combined system (“global optimisation”).

Design/methodology/approach

An empirical evaluation is conducted to examine the performance of each approach using two IF systems based on somewhat different filtering algorithms (TFIDF, OKAPI). Experiments are run using the TREC3, TREC6, and TREC7 test collections.

Findings

The experiments reveal that, as expected, the third approach always outperforms the first and the second, and that for some user profiles, the difference is significant. However, operational goals argue against global optimisation, and the costs of meeting these operational goals are discussed.

Research limitations/implications

One limitation is the assumption of independence of the IF systems: in real life systems usually use similar algorithms, so dependency might occur. The approach also tends to be examined with the assumption of dependency between systems.

Practical implications

The main practical implications of this study lie in the empirical proof that combination of filtering systems improves filtering results and the finding about the optimal combination methods for the different user profiles. Many filtering applications exist (e.g. spam filters, news personalisation systems, etc.) that can benefit from these findings.

Originality/value

The study presents and compares the contribution of three different combination methods of filtering systems to the improvement of filtering results It empirically shows the benefits of each method and draws important conclusions about the combination of filtering systems.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 33 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

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Article

Veronica Maidel, Peretz Shoval, Bracha Shapira and Meirav Taieb‐Maimon

The purpose of this paper is to describe a new ontological content‐based filtering method for ranking the relevance of items for readers of news items, and its evaluation…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe a new ontological content‐based filtering method for ranking the relevance of items for readers of news items, and its evaluation. The method has been implemented in ePaper, a personalised electronic newspaper prototype system. The method utilises a hierarchical ontology of news; it considers common and related concepts appearing in a user's profile on the one hand, and in a news item's profile on the other hand, and measures the “hierarchical distances” between these concepts. On that basis it computes the similarity between item and user profiles and rank‐orders the news items according to their relevance to each user.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper evaluates the performance of the filtering method in an experimental setting. Each participant read news items obtained from an electronic newspaper and rated their relevance. Independently, the filtering method is applied to the same items and generated, for each participant, a list of news items ranked according to relevance.

Findings

The results of the evaluations revealed that the filtering algorithm, which takes into consideration hierarchically related concepts, yielded significantly better results than a filtering method that takes only common concepts into consideration. The paper determined a best set of values (weights) of the hierarchical similarity parameters. It also found out that the quality of filtering improves as the number of items used for implicit updates of the profile increases, and that even with implicitly updated profiles, it is better to start with user‐defined profiles.

Originality/value

The proposed content‐based filtering method can be used for filtering not only news items but items from any domain, and not only with a three‐level hierarchical ontology but any‐level ontology, in any language.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 34 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

Keywords

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