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Article
Publication date: 26 November 2018

Saurav Pathak

The purpose of this study is to make strategic recommendations that benefit under-represented entrepreneurship (UE).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to make strategic recommendations that benefit under-represented entrepreneurship (UE).

Design/methodology/approach

The approach toward suggesting the proposed strategic recommendations is conceptual in nature. Blumberg’s theory of nested level of resource structure and McPherson’s theory of homophily will be invoked.

Findings

Under-represented entrepreneurship would benefit from initiating key resource identification and acquisition at a meso-level, i.e. within one’s own community in the first place and engaging in community-based collaborative and collective entrepreneurship.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed strategies have not been validated empirically.

Originality/value

The beneficial effects of implementing these strategies for UE will be felt in stages. First, communities will emerge as entrepreneurial as a whole. Subsequently, societal-level attribution of these communities as “entrepreneurial communities” will occur providing the necessary visibility and acceptance they would need to participate, contribute and get blended with more traditional entrepreneurship without distinction or prejudice.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 13 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 September 2019

Emma O’Brien, Thomas M. Cooney and Per Blenker

Entrepreneurship education has moved from an elitist view focussing on a start-up and picking-the-winners philosophy towards a broader enterprising behaviour approach;…

Abstract

Purpose

Entrepreneurship education has moved from an elitist view focussing on a start-up and picking-the-winners philosophy towards a broader enterprising behaviour approach; recognising entrepreneurship as an activity of relevance for everybody. The purpose of this paper is to extend this development and identify how university entrepreneurial ecosystems can be expanded to support communities that are under-represented in entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on an integrative literature review (Torraco, 2005), this paper draws together and synthesises literature from the field of entrepreneurship, higher education studies and under-represented communities in an integrated fashion, leading to the development of a new conceptual model.

Findings

This paper challenges the traditional role of universities in supporting entrepreneurship as focussing mainly on economic growth and new venture creation, and identifies how universities are also positioned to provide greater civic support to entrepreneurial learning amongst under-represented communities. Through a critical analysis of the literature, the conceptual model proposed identifies six key considerations in the expansion of university entrepreneurial ecosystems for under-represented communities.

Practical implications

There are currently 96.6m people at risk of poverty and social exclusion in the EU (OECD, 2017) and an estimated 43.1m Americans (US Census Bureau, 2017). This paper explores how university entrepreneurial ecosystems can be expanded to support minority and disadvantaged communities who are under-represented in terms of entrepreneurial activity.

Originality/value

Given that there is little research regarding how universities might activate inclusive entrepreneurship initiatives amongst under-represented communities, this paper expands existing knowledge as it identifies the key considerations encompassing university-led community collaborative enterprise support.

Book part
Publication date: 4 October 2019

Emma O’Brien and Thomas M. Cooney

A decade after the 2008 global financial crisis, economic growth is returning to many OECD countries and EU states. However, a “rising tide does not lift all boats” and…

Abstract

A decade after the 2008 global financial crisis, economic growth is returning to many OECD countries and EU states. However, a “rising tide does not lift all boats” and there are currently 96.6 million people at risk of poverty and social exclusion in the EU (OECD, 2017). Addressing this concerning social situation, requires innovative approaches and it has been suggested that inclusive entrepreneurship may be part of the solution. Yet, many under-represented groups (in terms of entrepreneurial activity) face significant barriers to entrepreneurship. This research study identifies how Higher Education Institutions can utilise their multidisciplinary knowledge and expertise in partnership with government, industry and civil society to address the economic and social challenges within under-represented communities by engendering higher levels of enterprising behaviour. Emerging studies in the literature have demonstrated how some Higher Education Institutions are providing tailored and holistic enterprise support to under-represented groups in their communities. However, such initiatives are not common and there is little research on how other HEIs might replicate inclusive entrepreneurship initiatives. Through the presentation of a conceptual model, this chapter identifies how HEIs can move outside of their formal education setting and dynamically support the development of enterprising competencies and behaviours amongst people within their local communities. The findings highlight six key areas for consideration in such developments including: 1. Teaching and Learning; 2. Resources; 3. Infrastructure; 4. Multidisciplinary Approaches; 5. Stakeholders and 6. Culture. These findings highlight the requirements for impactful HEI-community engagement and suggest that HEI community engagement through entrepreneurial education is a novel way of adding value for both under-represented communities and HEIs.

Details

Management and Administration of Higher Education Institutions at Times of Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-628-1

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 March 2008

Marilia Angove, Caryl Cresswell, Rubina Akhtar, Justine Rolfe, David Brooksbank and Brychan Thomas

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the Cyfenter Development Partnership action research programme primarily aimed at under‐represented entrepreneurs in Wales. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the Cyfenter Development Partnership action research programme primarily aimed at under‐represented entrepreneurs in Wales. The Welsh Assembly Government and the EQUAL initiative of the European Social Fund support the programme with the objective of informing and developing inclusive policies, strategies and practices within mainstream enterprise support.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology used to identify the needs of under‐represented groups when establishing a business and barriers to the start‐up process has been action research, which combines both information gathering and facilitation of change.

Findings

The research data indicate that all under‐represented groups face similar challenges and issues and many experiences are not exclusive to any one particular group. Financial risk, lack of collateral and self‐finance were significant issues for the under‐represented groups.

Research limitations/implications

Although the overall response rate of 12 per cent for the telephone and postal surveys was low, it was felt that the responses were sufficient for the study to proceed as further qualitative data gathering was undertaken.

Practical implications

Through the empowerment of excluded entrepreneurs, to express and suggest potential solutions, it is expected that policies and practices can be leveraged where enterprise support can become more relevant and appropriate for all. It is also expected that this will lead a greater number of under‐represented entrepreneurs to access mainstream enterprise support.

Originality/value

A key objective of the programme is to create and facilitate a platform for direct communication between under‐represented groups, policy makers and enterprise support provision, within a solutions‐oriented context.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Recognising Students who Care for Children while Studying
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-672-6

Book part
Publication date: 10 October 2022

Colin McCaig and Ruth Squire

This chapter provides the context for understanding how English widening participation (WP) policy has interacted with the development of a marketised and expanding higher…

Abstract

This chapter provides the context for understanding how English widening participation (WP) policy has interacted with the development of a marketised and expanding higher education (HE) system (the ‘dual imperative’ highlighted in the introductory chapter of this volume). It traces the intensification of market approaches in HE since 1997, examining how these interact with and become intertwined with evolving national WP policy concerns. Since 1997, WP for under-represented groups as a national policy aim has become firmly embedded in the activities undertaken by higher education providers (HEPs). Policy initiatives have moved between incentive and risk to encourage HEPs to address national and local inequalities of access and (later) student success and differential graduate outcomes. This chapter gives an overview of the key policy moments in this period and argues for how they have shaped the way in which the business of WP is enacted throughout the sector. It highlights how the business of WP drawn widely has become simultaneously a regulatory requirement, a way for institutions to differentiate themselves in the HE market and a key marker of institutional civic or social responsibilities. Situating this alongside the increasing focus on students and applicants as consumers, this chapter also begins to problematise the issues of collaboration and competition this creates.

Details

The Business of Widening Participation: Policy, Practice and Culture
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-050-1

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 July 2007

Colin Lindsay, Anne Munro and Sarah Wise

This paper seeks to analyse trade unions’ approaches to equal opportunities in Scotland, focusing on issues of: recruitment of membership from different groups; promoting…

2478

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to analyse trade unions’ approaches to equal opportunities in Scotland, focusing on issues of: recruitment of membership from different groups; promoting diversity in post‐holding; and the role of “key equalities issues” in collective bargaining.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper draws on in‐depth interviews with equalities officers of 26 unions in Scotland. The analysis takes as its starting point the three models of equality policies identified by Rees: the “sameness”, “difference” and “transformation” models.

Findings

The paper argues that, although some equalities officers demonstrated a thorough understanding of the issues, union approaches to equalities in practice reflect the “sameness”, and to some extent “difference”, models: attacking direct discrimination and insisting that members should be treated the same, establishing some limited mechanisms to reflect on the different needs of groups, but being less able to tackle the underlying structural causes of inequality. It is suggested that unions need to develop a more sophisticated analysis of equal opportunities which fully reflects the differences between the experiences of groups of workers and which challenges the fundamental, structural inequalities within (and therefore seeks to transform) organisations and labour markets. A key element of this agenda must be the mainstreaming of equal opportunities within collective bargaining.

Research limitations/implications

Further research is required on how unions are beginning to deal with the issues raised in the paper. The paper is also limited to the views of individual equalities officers – further research on local practice is required.

Practical implications

The findings will be of interest to organisations engaged in equalities work and unions seeking to develop policy and practice in this area.

Originality/value

The paper will add to the literature on unions’ approaches to equalities. It applies the Rees model to extensive new data, and is the first major piece of research to address these issues within the Scottish policy context.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 March 2019

Stella McKnight, Sarah-Louise Collins, David Way and Pam Iannotti

The government’s ambition is to have three million more apprentices by 2020. The newness of degree apprenticeships and insufficient data make it difficult to assess their…

Abstract

Purpose

The government’s ambition is to have three million more apprentices by 2020. The newness of degree apprenticeships and insufficient data make it difficult to assess their relative importance in boosting the UK economy, meeting higher skills needs of employers, closing educational attainment gaps, increasing social mobility and supporting under-represented groups into professional employment. The purpose of this paper, led by the University of Winchester and delivered by a new collaboration of private and public sector partners, is to build a pipeline between those currently failing to progress to, or engage with, degree apprenticeships and employers seeking higher skills and a broader pool of applicants.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper provides an analysis of collaborative initiatives and related research in England as the context for university involvement in degree apprenticeships. The case study illustrates the benefits of collaboration in targeted outreach initiatives within the local region to address gaps in progression to degree apprenticeships.

Findings

This paper illustrates how establishing a regional picture of degree apprenticeship provision, access and participation can inform effective partnerships and build capacity locally to deliver the higher skills employers need, further demonstrating the potential benefits of university involvement in degree apprenticeship provision in contributing to local and national policy ambition. It also shows how effective targeted interventions can help under-achieving groups, including those in social care and women in digital enterprises.

Originality/value

The authors believe this paper is the only academic analysis of the impact of Degree Apprenticeship Development Fund activity in the region.

Details

Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-3896

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2003

David Tonks and Marc Farr

The general context for this paper is access to higher education (HE) in the UK but the particular concern is participation. An important distinction is drawn between…

2387

Abstract

The general context for this paper is access to higher education (HE) in the UK but the particular concern is participation. An important distinction is drawn between access and participation. The heterogeneous characteristics of HE and the complex choice processes of applicants mean that a finer level of description and analysis is required which goes beyond aggregate measures of access and examines the extent and the nature of participation. Equality of opportunity provides the underpinning for this paper, access to HE is the starting point, the focus is on participation and the approach is empirical and pragmatic. In 2002, the target for access to UK HE was set at 50 percent, which requires attention to shift from broad measures of access towards detailed measures of participation; particularly when the agenda is one of social inclusion, and when certain groups within society are still significantly under‐represented and disadvantaged at the level of participation.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

Abstract

Details

From Access to Engagement and Beyond
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80382-037-8

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