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Article
Publication date: 2 December 2020

Lee Elliot Major and Jennie Miles Weiner

The purpose of this paper is to argue that current ways school systems have addressed social mobility is misguided at best and, at worst, hurts social mobility. Instead…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to argue that current ways school systems have addressed social mobility is misguided at best and, at worst, hurts social mobility. Instead, we call for a focus on investment in teachers' professional capital as a primary lever for enhancing the likelihood they can effectively prepare and develop all children to lead successful lives after school. These arguments have become even more pertinent with the COVID-19 pandemic.

Design/methodology/approach

Using contemporary research, and grounded in our collective decades of research in these areas, we define social mobility and document how the aim of improving it has become a central tenet of our governments' stated ambitions and the yardstick by which school systems' success is measured. We then show how the application of market-based approaches to schools and teachers' work has hindered social mobility and offer a new path forward.

Findings

After 50 years of neoliberal policies incentivising individualistic and competitive behaviours, it is time to move towards policies that enhance professional capital and promote high quality collaboration between teachers. We call for a new path forward: a re-orientation to invest in teachers' capacity to realise the potential of education to improve the life prospects for all children, irrespective of their background.

Originality/value

As with so many issues, the COVID-19 pandemic has shone an intense light on the role of educators in society. There are credible concerns that economic and educational inequalities resulting from the crisis have the potential to trigger a fall in future social mobility levels. Yet this should also be seen as a new dawn for renewed thinking in which we seriously consider a shift away from neoliberal to professional capital policies to create an education system that nurtures teaching professionals, promotes collective behaviour and helps rather than hinders efforts to improve social mobility.

Details

Journal of Professional Capital and Community, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-9548

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Article
Publication date: 5 February 2018

Erika L. Paulson

The purpose of this study is to examine social mobility. Social mobility has traditionally been thought to result in a divided habitus. However, recent work has suggested…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine social mobility. Social mobility has traditionally been thought to result in a divided habitus. However, recent work has suggested that for the socially mobile, habitus may become blended or even that individuals can choose their habitus in a strategic fashion. Each position has received empirical support, raising two questions. First, does the experience of social mobility result in a habitus that is more divided or strategic? Second, what factors affect this outcome?

Design/methodology/approach

These questions are investigated by conducting depth interviews with people who have experienced social mobility.

Findings

The direction of social mobility determines what effect social mobility has on the habitus. For the downwardly mobile, the habitus appears to remain rooted in one’s former class. This is because downward movement is devalued, and so there is less incentive for those who experience it to change their thoughts, feelings or behaviors to match their new position. For the upwardly mobile, the habitus changes slowly. The trajectory and the subjective experience also affect the outcome. Two strategies respondents use to deal with social mobility are noted.

Research limitations/implications

Bourdieu’s notion of the divided habitus is reconsidered and compared to newer incarnations, and the importance of the direction of social mobility is underlined. This work explains why upward and downward mobility result in different changes in the habitus.

Practical implications

Investigating the experience of social mobility is particularly important given the frequent, dynamic nature of mobility in European countries. Two strategies used to manage downward mobility are identified.

Originality/value

This work reconsiders Bourdieu’s notion of the divided habitus and newer incarnations and explains why upward and downward mobility result in different changes in the habitus. Such a finding is not only an invitation to expand on the notion of habitus but also works to draw attention to other factors that play a role in habitus and strategies used to manage change.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 52 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 23 January 2019

Jessica Bradley, Claire Newhouse and Nadira Mirza

Apprenticeship reforms have paved the way for higher education (HE) providers, including universities, to become Degree Apprenticeships (DA) training providers, creating…

Abstract

Purpose

Apprenticeship reforms have paved the way for higher education (HE) providers, including universities, to become Degree Apprenticeships (DA) training providers, creating new work-based HE routes. The changes aim to generate a new cohort of skilled individuals to support national economic growth, as well as improve levels of social mobility. The purpose of this paper is to focus on an HE partnership project which resulted in a number of collaborative models for development that address these aims.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper focuses on qualitative interviews undertaken during the process of creating DAs through a consortium of HE providers. It considers the collaborative relationships which were built on and which developed across the course of the short-term project. It assesses the concept of competitive collaboration and its link to social mobility.

Findings

The paper considers the various manifestations of collaboration which supported the DA developments in a competitive environment: collaboration as embedded; collaboration as negotiation; and collaboration as a driver for social mobility and social equality.

Originality/value

Working collaboratively across HE providers sought to raise the status of apprenticeships, provide opportunities for the development of new degree apprenticeship curricula and enable practitioners to establish these as a new route into HE. This paper contributes to what is currently limited knowledge about the impact of degree apprenticeships on social mobility and equality.

Details

Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-3896

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Article
Publication date: 31 December 1988

Sheena Ashford

The merits of acculturation and marginality theses are considered for the particular Management Bibliography case of upwardly mobile individuals who have followed…

Abstract

The merits of acculturation and marginality theses are considered for the particular Management Bibliography case of upwardly mobile individuals who have followed educational and non‐educational routes. Two indicators — values and social integration — have been chosen as basic to the assumptions of the accultural and marginality theses, and the relation of upward occupational mobility to each is examined independently.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 8 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Book part
Publication date: 23 May 2007

Ambra Poggi

Social exclusion can be defined as a process leading to a state of multiple functioning deprivations. Cross-sectional headcount ratios of social exclusion may overstate…

Abstract

Social exclusion can be defined as a process leading to a state of multiple functioning deprivations. Cross-sectional headcount ratios of social exclusion may overstate the extent of the problem if most individuals do not remain in the same state in successive years. To address this issue, we need to focus on mobility. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to analyse changes in the individual levels of social exclusion focusing on the extent to which individuals change place in social exclusion distribution. We find that social exclusion is partially transitory and, therefore, we suggest a more restrictive definition of social exclusion.

Details

Inequality and Poverty
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1374-7

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Article
Publication date: 26 January 2009

Thomas A. Lee

This study seeks to examine aspects of social class associated with British public accountancy immigrants to the USA prior to the First World War. The study's specific…

Abstract

Purpose

This study seeks to examine aspects of social class associated with British public accountancy immigrants to the USA prior to the First World War. The study's specific purpose is to investigate the social mobility and fluidity associated with these élite immigrants in the early history of US public accountancy.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is informed by previous studies of both social class and élite immigration and uses biographical data describing 395 British chartered and incorporated accountancy immigrants entering the USA between 1875 and 1914. Data analyses describe social mobility and fluidity based on the recorded occupations of these élite immigrants.

Findings

Despite their élite status, the immigrants experienced inter‐generational downward mobility immediately post‐migration. The evidence also indicates inter‐generational and intra‐generational upward mobility for immigrants settling in the USA and for those who did not settle there. The study further reveals evidence of social fluidity associated with both settlers and non‐settlers.

Practical implications

The study suggests that immigration to the USA did not immediately improve the occupational status of British public accountants who settled there. Nor, compared to those who did not settle in the USA, was it necessarily a more advantageous career path to improved occupational status. The study adds to existing knowledge of British accountants in the early US public accountancy profession and, more generally, to that of social mobility associated with immigration of the period.

Originality/value

The study is significant because it provides knowledge of social mobility and fluidity associated with élite immigrants and contributes to the social history of British accountants in the early development of US public accountancy.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Book part
Publication date: 30 September 2014

John A. Bishop, Haiyong Liu and Juan Gabriel Rodríguez

Countries with greater income inequality also tend to have less intergenerational mobility. This relationship, as referred by Krueger (2012), is called “The Great Gatsby…

Abstract

Countries with greater income inequality also tend to have less intergenerational mobility. This relationship, as referred by Krueger (2012), is called “The Great Gatsby Curve.” Criticisms on this curve have brought to notice several limitations of previous studies: a few number of observations; short gap of time between measured inequality and immobility; heterogeneous databases; and model-based estimates of immobility. To correct for some of these limitations, we test for the impact of past income inequality on intergenerational social status persistence using the International Social Survey Program (2009). In accordance with previous studies, we find a positive relationship between these two variables, though the relatively poor model fit suggests the presence of other factors. In this respect, we find that past economic freedom has a negative and significant impact on social status persistence, while previous growth is not significant.

Details

Economic Well-Being and Inequality: Papers from the Fifth ECINEQ Meeting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-556-2

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Book part
Publication date: 23 August 2012

Veronika V. Eberharter

This paper analyzes the impact of family background characteristics and social exclusion features on the intergenerational transmission of educational attainment and…

Abstract

This paper analyzes the impact of family background characteristics and social exclusion features on the intergenerational transmission of educational attainment and income positions, and the relative poverty risk in Germany and the United States. These countries vary widely by welfare regime, family role patterns, and labor market settings. From these differences we predict higher intergenerational income elasticities in the United States and higher intergenerational educational elasticities in Germany. Using longitudinal data from the Cross-National Equivalent File (CNEF) 1980–2008, we find some empirical support for these hypotheses. In both countries, parental educational attainment stimulates intergenerational economic and social mobility, which accentuates the importance of promoting human capital accumulation.

Details

Inequality, Mobility and Segregation: Essays in Honor of Jacques Silber
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-171-7

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Book part
Publication date: 16 November 2020

Norma I. Peña-Rivera and Enery López-Navarrete

Transportation planning has conventionally examined mobility from the standpoint of the efficiency of transportation systems, based on trips as units of analysis…

Abstract

Transportation planning has conventionally examined mobility from the standpoint of the efficiency of transportation systems, based on trips as units of analysis, overlooking the social needs of excluded groups, such as children. Understanding children’s geographies provides insight into one of the basic social needs of children, intrinsically related to mobility: play. Disadvantages in mobility, along with other social conditions further limit children’s autonomy in their neighbourhood. This chapter proposes the term playability as a concept that intertwines both needs. A case study of neighbourhood analyses the playability needs of children from their perspective and that of the community. Findings suggest that, in a walkable, built environment, issues from criminal activity directly influence children’s playability, even more than automobile presence. Furthermore, community perspective on playability, as mostly limited to structured play in designated spaces and time, separates mobility from play and thus limits opportunities for social inclusion. A change in both, acknowledging children’s need for play and mobility, and their reciprocity, and incorporating measures to improve it, may provide a different framework for transportation and urban planning at the local level, one that seeks greater social inclusion of children.

Details

Urban Mobility and Social Equity in Latin America: Evidence, Concepts, Methods
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-009-7

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Article
Publication date: 30 October 2018

Wei-Fen Chen

This study aims to explore the consumption practices of globally-mobile, young consumers from China who experience both upward social mobility and geographically outbound…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the consumption practices of globally-mobile, young consumers from China who experience both upward social mobility and geographically outbound mobility by studying abroad, echoing emerging scholarship of “moving consumption”.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected through in-depth interviews with 27 first-generation Chinese international students studying in the USA.

Findings

The informants interpret outbound geographical mobility and upward social mobility in an overlapping manner. For them, cosmopolitan consumption practices are a form of boundary work and identity construction, reflecting their international experience. At the same time, the informants seek affirmation of the meanings and references of their consumption in their remote, native cultural contexts. In this way, they ensure that their tastes align with the popular “West” with which Chinese consumers are already familiar.

Originality/value

This study examines international student mobility that is unique to the younger generation. It considers how such form of mobility shapes the consumption patterns of Chinese youth with substantial purchasing power. Young, affluent international students differ in fundamental ways from other cross-cultural, cross-border travelers such as migrants, globally-mobile professionals, global citizens, nomads, sojourners and tourists. Thus, this study not only sheds light on the under-researched subject of “moving consumption” but also addresses youth cultures in transitional economies by exploring how Chinese youth consume when they are away from home and exposed to global consumerism first-hand.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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