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Article
Publication date: 13 October 2022

Qun Cao, Yuanqing Xia, Zhongqi Sun and Li Dai

This paper aims to design an algorithm which is used to deal with non-linear discrete systems with constraints under the lower computation burden. As a result, we solve…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to design an algorithm which is used to deal with non-linear discrete systems with constraints under the lower computation burden. As a result, we solve the non-holonomic vehicle tracking problem with the lower computational load and the convergence performance.

Design/methodology/approach

A fusion event-triggered model predictive control version is developed in this paper. The authors designed a shrinking prediction strategy.

Findings

The fusion event-triggered model predictive control scheme combines the strong points of event triggered and self-triggered methods. As the practical state approaches the terminal set, the computational complexity of optimal control problem (OCP) decreases.

Originality/value

The proposed strategy has proven to stabilize the system and also guarantee a reproducible solution for the OCP. Also, it is proved to be effected by the performance of the simulation results.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1996

Irvin T. Nelson and Richard L. Ratliff

Describes control triggers as signals which initiate the right activity to occur at the right time in a process, and discusses them as a previously unrecognized category…

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Abstract

Describes control triggers as signals which initiate the right activity to occur at the right time in a process, and discusses them as a previously unrecognized category of internal control methods. Argues that, unlike traditional control mechanisms, control triggers are not dependent on the beaurocracies which world‐class companies are now dismantling. Asserts that while control triggers are important to the control and application of all organizational processes, they are particularly critical to the application of world‐class management practices, affecting the reliability, efficiency and effectiveness of an organization’s operations.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 4 August 2017

Deanna M. Kennedy and M. Travis Maynard

On the path to accomplishing task work, teams may face disruptive events like budget issues, equipment failures, and membership change that trigger adaptation. While…

Abstract

Purpose

On the path to accomplishing task work, teams may face disruptive events like budget issues, equipment failures, and membership change that trigger adaptation. While recently researchers have clarified the team adaptation nomological network, our objective is to extend theory by providing a roadmap about various ways in which temporal considerations may complicate the impact of adaptation triggers on team adaptation and in turn adaptive outcomes.

Methodology/approach

We present three adaptation temporal considerations (i.e., timing, duration, and frequency) that may change the way team adaptation unfolds in response to a given adaptation trigger. We further explore and offer propositions about how the impact of adaptation timing, adaptation duration, and adaptation frequency differ by the type of adaptation trigger (i.e., task-based or team-based) experienced by the team.

Research implications

By examining adaptation to task-based or team-based triggers from a temporal perspective researchers may better explain why the timing of when the team adapts across its lifecycle (adaptation timing), how long the team takes to adapt (adaptation duration), and the recurrent need to adapt (adaptation frequency) is more or less likely to lead to positive adaptive performance outcomes.

Practical implications

Organizations may benefit from setting up teams for success by helping members understand that there are inherent differences in the adaptation triggers they face including temporal expectations. Organizations may see value in providing initial and on-going support to teams so they are better able to adapt when needed and mitigate negative effects due to adaptation timing, adaptation duration, and adaption frequency.

Book part
Publication date: 5 July 2012

Michalis Ioannides and Frank S. Skinner

We describe some recent contingent capital securities (CoCos) and explore the issues that confront their development. We take the view that bank CoCos should be designed…

Abstract

We describe some recent contingent capital securities (CoCos) and explore the issues that confront their development. We take the view that bank CoCos should be designed to maintain confidence in a bank before a crisis begins because once a crisis commences it is difficult to see how a bank can assure the capital market without the support of state aid. With this overriding objective in mind we find that, in at least some respects, existing examples of bank CoCos have got the ‘right’ design. Existing bank CoCos are unfunded as they should be as there is no need to structure these securities to provide additional liquidity. If funding turns out to be necessary then a liquidity crisis is already underway and the CoCo has already failed in its attempt to maintain confidence in the bank. Moreover, existing CoCos use the simpler single trigger that we favour rather than dual trigger structure recommended by some.

Details

Derivative Securities Pricing and Modelling
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-616-4

Article
Publication date: 7 June 2022

Jie Gao

The purpose of this study is developing the minimum parameter learning law for the weight updating, which reduces the updating of neural network (NN) weight only at…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is developing the minimum parameter learning law for the weight updating, which reduces the updating of neural network (NN) weight only at triggering instants and makes a trade-off between the estimation accuracy and triggering frequency such that the computing complexity can be decreased. Besides that, a novel “soft” method is first constructed for the control updating at the triggered instants, to reduce the chattering effect of discontinued renewal of control. Addressing to the proposed control and updating method, a novel dead-zone condition with variable boundary about the triggered control signal is derived to ensure the positivity of adjacent execution intervals.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, to achieve the motion tracking of manipulator with uncertainty of system dynamics and the communication constraints in the control-execution channel, an adaptive event-triggered controller with NN identification is constructed to improve the transmission efficiency of control on the premise of the guaranteed performance. In the proposed method, the NN with intermittent updating is proposed to perform the uncertain approximation with the saved computation, and the triggered mechanism is constructed to regulate the transportation of the signal in the channel of controller-to-actuator.

Findings

According to the impulsive Lyapunov function, it can be proved that all the signals are semi-global uniformly ultimately bounded, and the positivity of adjacent execution intervals is also guaranteed by the proposed method. In addition, the chattering effect of control updating at the jumping instants can be relieved by the proposed “soft” mechanism, such that the control accuracy and stability can be guaranteed. Experiments on the JACO2 real manipulator are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

Originality/value

To the best of the author’s knowledge, this study is firstly to propose a “soft” method to reduce the chattering effect caused by discontinuous updating. Addressing to the updating method designed above, a novel dead-zone condition with variable threshold and boundary is first constructed to ensure the positivity of execution intervals.

Article
Publication date: 26 March 2021

Abhay Sanjay Vidhyadharan and Sanjay Vidhyadharan

Tunnel field effect transistors (TFETs) have significantly steeper sub-threshold slope (24–30 mv/decade), as compared with the conventional metal–oxide–semiconductor…

Abstract

Purpose

Tunnel field effect transistors (TFETs) have significantly steeper sub-threshold slope (24–30 mv/decade), as compared with the conventional metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs), which have a sub-threshold slope of 60 mv/decade at room temperature. The steep sub-threshold slope of TFETs enables a much faster switching, making TFETs a better option than MOSFETs for low-voltage VLSI applications. The purpose of this paper is to present a novel hetero-junction TFET-based Schmitt triggers, which outperform the conventional complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) Schmitt triggers at low power supply voltage levels.

Design/methodology/approach

The conventional Schmitt trigger has been implemented with both MOSFETs and HTFETs for operation at a low-voltage level of 0.4 V and a target hysteresis width of 100 mV. Simulation results have indicated that the HTFET-based Schmitt trigger not only has significantly lower delays but also consumes lesser power as compared to the CMOS-based Schmitt trigger. The limitations of the conventional Schmitt trigger design have been analysed, and improved CMOS and CMOS–HTFET hybrid Schmitt trigger designs have been presented.

Findings

The conventional Schmitt trigger implemented with HTFETs has 99.9% lower propagation delay (29ps) and 41.2% lesser power requirement (4.7 nW) than the analogous CMOS Schmitt trigger, which has a delay of 36 ns and consumes 8 nW of power. An improved Schmitt trigger design has been proposed which has a transistor count of only six as compared to the eight transistors required in the conventional design. The proposed improved Schmitt trigger design, when implemented with only CMOS devices enable a reduction of power delay product (PDP) by 98.4% with respect to the CMOS conventional Schmitt trigger design. The proposed CMOS–HTFET hybrid Schmitt trigger further helps in decreasing the delay of the improved CMOS-only Schmitt trigger by 70% and PDP by 21%.

Originality/value

The unique advantage of very steep sub-threshold slope of HTFETs has been used to improve the performance of the conventional Schmitt trigger circuit. Novel CMOS-only and CMOS–HTFET hybrid improved Schmitt trigger designs have been proposed which requires lesser number of transistors (saving 70% chip area) for implementation and has significantly lower delays and power requirement than the conventional designs.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 18 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 April 2021

Valerie I. Sessa, Jessica L. Francavilla, Manuel London and Marlee Wanamaker

Multi-team systems (MTSs) are expected to respond effectively to complex challenges while remaining responsive and adaptable and preserving inter-team linking mechanisms…

Abstract

Purpose

Multi-team systems (MTSs) are expected to respond effectively to complex challenges while remaining responsive and adaptable and preserving inter-team linking mechanisms. The leadership team of an MTS is expected to configure and reconfigure component teams to meet the unique needs of each situation and perform. How do they learn to do this? This paper, using a recent MTS learning theory as a basis, aims to begin to understand how MTSs learn and stimulate ideas for future research.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use two case studies to address research questions. The first case was a snapshot in time, while the second case occurred over several months. Interviews, documents and participant observation were the data sources.

Findings

As suggested by theory, findings support the idea that learning triggers, the timing of the triggers and readiness to learn (RtL) affect the type of learning process that emerges. The cases showed examples of adaptive and generative team learning. Strong and clear triggers, occurring during performance episodes, led to adaptive learning. When RtL was high and triggers occurred during hiatus periods, the associated learning process was generative.

Originality/value

Using an available theoretical model and case studies, the research describes how MTS readiness to learn and triggers for learning affect MTS learning processes and how learning outcomes became codified in the knowledge base or structure of the MTS. This provides a framework for subsequent qualitative and quantitative research.

Details

Team Performance Management: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7592

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1976

Eli Segev

In one case, after a detailed study of production processes, market forecasts and possible plant locations, top management of the industrial instruments division of a…

Abstract

In one case, after a detailed study of production processes, market forecasts and possible plant locations, top management of the industrial instruments division of a large US corporation approved a plan to produce a certain line of instruments. Why did these items (and not others) catch the attention of someone in the organisation and become the subject of a strategic decision‐making process? Why did this process start when it did (and not earlier or later)? In another case, a governmental committee did not approve a suggestion that working women receive a tax reduction as an incentive to increase female participation in the labour force. Why did the committee consider the suggestion at all? In a third case, at a luncheon meeting, an engineer suggested to the president of a manufacturing company that a plant be set up in a certain under developed country. The president rejected the idea out of hand, without bringing it up within his organisation. Why use a strategic decision‐making process never even initiated? An organisation's opportunities for making strategic decisions are practically unlimited. However, in only a few cases does the decision‐making process actually begin, and the number of strategic decisions eventually made by top management is even fewer. What triggers the decision‐making process? And how can top management achieve greater control over the triggering action?

Details

Management Decision, vol. 14 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Rami Olkkonen and Pekka Tuominen

To describe, analyse, and understand relationship fading between a business sponsor and a sponsored museum in the context of cultural sponsorships.

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Abstract

Purpose

To describe, analyse, and understand relationship fading between a business sponsor and a sponsored museum in the context of cultural sponsorships.

Design/methodology/approach

The empirical study uses a longitudinal and a dyadic approach to analyse the temporal development of a three‐year cultural‐sponsorship relationship.

Findings

This study tackles the phenomenon of relationship fading in cultural sponsorships. The triggers of relationship fading are first elaborated into structural and situational triggers. These triggers are further categorised into structural predisposing triggers, situational precipitating triggers, situational attenuating, and structural attenuating triggers.

Research limitations/implications

Most of the triggers of relationship fading are passive and indirect. Consequently, the triggers of fading affect the development of the relationship by gradually reducing the sponsor's motivations to invest and develop the cultural‐sponsorship relationship.

Practical implications

Successful management of cultural sponsorship requires the interacting actors to be aware of the structural and situational triggers of fading that can lead to the fading and potential ultimate ending of such a relationship. Using culture‐oriented marketing professionals with good communication skills between the business and the arts community is vital in managing cultural sponsorships and in avoiding fading in cultural‐sponsorship relationships.

Originality/value

A central feature of the fresh theoretical framework on relationship fading is the link between relatively permanent structures and the situational processes. A dyadic and longitudinal approach is adopted to reveal the past, present, and future dynamics of fading in the cultural‐sponsorship relationship.

Details

Corporate Communications: An International Journal, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-3289

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 May 2014

Zhuowei (Joy) Huang, Chen Zhao, Li Miao and Xiaoxiao Fu

The study aims to investigate the illegitimate customer complaining behavior (ICCB) in the hospitality industry from the perspective of frontline employees. In particular…

1982

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to investigate the illegitimate customer complaining behavior (ICCB) in the hospitality industry from the perspective of frontline employees. In particular, this study identified ICCB incidents, ICCB triggering factors and inhibitors in the hospitality industry.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative research approach was adopted in this study by using in-depth personal interviews. Twenty-six semi-structured interviews were conducted with frontline employees who had first-hand experiences with ICCB in the hospitality industry. The interviews were transcribed, coded and analyzed following the procedures of open coding, axial coding and selective coding.

Findings

Analysis of the qualitative data has revealed 7 types of ICCB incidents, 11 ICCB triggering factors and 3 ICCB inhibitors in the hospitality industry, as perceived by frontline employees. The study also proposed a multiple-layer model of ICCB triggers and inhibitors based on the results. Four propositions are developed delineating three layers of driving forces and the dynamics between ICCB triggers and inhibitors that exert joint effects on ICCB.

Research limitations/implications

Impacts of various cultural settings, different hospitality business settings (hotels vs restaurants) and profile information of frontline employees on ICCB need to be examined in future research.

Originality/value

Findings of this study contribute to the customer complaining literature and the hospitality service management literature by offering the frontline employees’ perspective of ICCB. Hospitality businesses can benefit from this study by using the research findings to develop more effective company policies and training programs to recognize, monitor and resolve ICCB incidents.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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