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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2021

Shama Nazneen, Hong Xu, Nizam Ud Din and Rehmat Karim

The COVID-19 pandemic and the travellers’ behaviour towards travel risk is an emerging issue. Nonetheless, the travellers’ perceived COVID-19 impacts, travel risk…

Abstract

Purpose

The COVID-19 pandemic and the travellers’ behaviour towards travel risk is an emerging issue. Nonetheless, the travellers’ perceived COVID-19 impacts, travel risk perception, health and safety perception and travel avoidance concerning protection motivation theory is unnoticed. Following the protection motivation theory, the current study investigates the direct and indirect relationships between perceived COVID-19 impacts and travel avoidance. Moreover, the travellers’ cognitive perceptions of risk may vary with their demographic characteristics; therefore, the present study aims to test the differences in group-specific parameter estimates using a multi-group analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors approached travellers from Tianjin, China using different communication services, including WeChat and email, through a snowball sampling technique. The study used 553 valid questionnaires for analysis.

Findings

The results of 553 questionnaires in structural equation modelling (SEM) with AMOS 21 indicated that travellers’ perceived Covid-19 impacts positively correlate with travel avoidance. The study model based on protection motivation theory specifies that travel risk perception and health and safety perception as a cognitive mediating process partially mediated the relationship between perceived COVID-19 impacts and travel avoidance. The findings specified that during COVID-19, travellers assessed the severity of travel risks and adopted preventive measures which influenced their travel behaviour and led to travel avoidance. The multi-group analysis results indicated no difference in perception for gender and education; however, concerning age, the significant nested p-value specifies a difference in perception.

Practical implications

The study offers implications for policymakers and the tourism industry to understand the travellers’ perceptions of travel during the pandemic and ensure health and safety measures to encourage travelling and reviving the tourism industry.

Originality/value

The application of protection motivation theory to analyse the travellers’ perceived COVID-19 impacts and travel avoidance in the presence of travel risk perception and health and safety perceptions as a cognitive mediating process is novel.

研究目的

COVID-19大流行下的旅行风险问题日益重要。目前, 有关旅游者COVID-19影响感知、旅行风险感知以及健康安全感知与避免旅行之间关系的问题尚未引起学者广泛关注。基于保护动机理论, 本文对COVID-19影响感知与避免旅行之间的直接关系和间接关系进行深入研究。鉴于旅游者旅行风险认知因其人口特征而异, 本文采纳多组分析来检验群体间特定参数估计差异。

研究方法

采用滚雪球抽样方法在中国天津利用微信和电子邮件共收集了553份有效问卷。

研究结果

结构方程模型分析结果显示, 旅游者Covid-19影响感知与避免旅行之间呈正相关关系。基于保护动机理论的研究模型表明, 旅行风险感知和健康安全感知作为认知中间过程, 在COVID-19影响感知与避免旅行之间起到部分中介作用。这说明在COVID-19期间, 旅游者首先评估旅行风险等级并采取预防措施, 而这将影响他们的旅行行为, 甚至导致放弃旅行。此外, 多组分析结果表明, Covid-19影响感知在性别和受教育程度上并不存在显著差异, 但在年龄上差异显著。

实践启示

研究对于政策制定者和旅游业界理解旅游者在疫情期间对旅行的看法以及采取健康和安全措施鼓励游客出游进而实现旅游业复苏具有重要启示。

研究贡献

基于保护动机理论, 引入旅行风险感知和健康安全感知作为中介变量来分析旅游者Covid-19影响感知对避免旅行的影响是本研究的重要创新点。此外, 本研究通过检验Covid-19影响感知在受访者人口学特征上的差异也对现有研究具有一定理论贡献。

Objetivo

La pandemia de COVID-19 y el comportamiento de los viajeros hacia el riesgo del viaje es un asunto emergente. No obstante, los impactos percibidos de COVID-19 por los viajeros, la percepción del riesgo de viaje, la percepción de salud y seguridad, así como la evitación de viajes con respecto a la teoría de la motivación de protección es desapercibida. Por lo tanto, el estudio actual basado en la teoría de la motivación de protección investiga las relaciones directas e indirectas entre los impactos percibidos del COVID-19 y la evitación del viaje. Las percepciones cognitivas del riesgo de los individuos varían con sus características demográficas; por lo tanto, el estudio actual que utiliza un análisis de multigrupo prueba las diferencias en las estimaciones de los parámetros de grupo específico.

Metodología

Nos acercamos a los viajeros de Tianjin, China, utilizando diferentes servicios de comunicación, incluidos WeChat y email, a través de una técnica de muestreo de bola de nieve. El estudio utilizó 553 cuestionarios válidos para el análisis.

Hallazgos

Los resultados empíricos de los 533 cuestionarios en los modelos de ecuaciones estructurales (MES) indican que los impactos percibidos de Covid-19 se correlacionan positivamente con la evitación del viaje. El resultado implica que los encuestados primero evalúan los riesgos y luego toman las decisiones de viajar; por consiguiente, los hallazgos apoyaron la teoría de la motivación de protección. Los hallazgos también mostraron que la percepción del riesgo de viaje y la percepción de salud y seguridad median entre los impactos percibidos de Covid-19 y la evitación de viajes. Además, los resultados del análisis de multigrupo indican que para el género y la educación, no existe una diferencia; sin embargo, en cuanto a la edad, existe una diferencia significativa en la percepción.

Implicaciones practices

Las implicaciones del estudio son importantes para que los legisladores y la industria del turismo comprendan la percepción de los viajeros durante la pandemia y garanticen las medidas de salud y seguridad para animar a viajar.

Originalidad

La aplicación de la teoría de la motivación de protección para analizar los impactos percibidos de COVID-19 por los viajeros y la evitación del viaje en la presencia de la percepción de riesgo de viaje y la percepción de salud y seguridad como variables mediadoras es novedosa. También, el estudio actual contribuye a la literatura a través de probar el modelo teórico sobre las características demográficas de los encuestados.

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Article
Publication date: 12 November 2021

Jan Klostermann, Chris Hydock and Reinhold Decker

In recent years, brands have increasingly engaged in corporate political advocacy (CPA; also termed brand activism or corporate sociopolitical activity) by taking…

Abstract

Purpose

In recent years, brands have increasingly engaged in corporate political advocacy (CPA; also termed brand activism or corporate sociopolitical activity) by taking positions on polarizing sociopolitical issues. Recent experimental research suggests that consumers respond to CPA based on its alignment with their own values, and that it typically induces an overall negative response. This study aims to provide additional insights by exploring consumer brand perceptions following CPA.

Design/methodology/approach

An event study of 106 CPA events and weekly consumer brand perception data was conducted. A regression model was used to investigate the moderating effects of CPA effort, concurrence and the strength of the online protests evoked by the CPA.

Findings

The results show that CPA had a negative effect on consumers’ brand perceptions and that the effect was stronger for customers relative to non-customers. The negative effect was attenuated by CPA concurrence and amplified by effort. Additionally, online protests were driven by the CPA effort and had a strong negative effect on brand perception. Online protests were stronger in the past, and, in turn, the negative effects of CPA on brand perceptions have slightly weakened in recent years.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the existing literature by highlighting the role of online protests following CPA and distinguishing consumer and customer responses. This study also provides converging evidence of the moderating effects of effort and concurrence identified in previous studies.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 26 November 2021

Eulalia Santos, Vasco Tavares, Fernando Oliveira Tavares and Vanessa Ratten

Risk is part of corporate activity and a consequence of the businesses' demands, the market and the changes in companies and their surroundings. The way that risk is…

Abstract

Purpose

Risk is part of corporate activity and a consequence of the businesses' demands, the market and the changes in companies and their surroundings. The way that risk is managed is different between family and non-family businesses. The paper aims to compare the different risk types experienced in the context of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic among family and non-family businesses and to analyze whether operational, legal, strategic and image risks influence financial risks.

Design/methodology/approach

The nature of the study is quantitative and based on a questionnaire survey that analyses the perception of risks by 1,090 family businesses and 557 non-family businesses.

Findings

The results show the existence of statistically significant differences in the perception of financial and legal risks between family and non-family businesses, where the former being the businesses that give more importance to these risks. The perception of operational, legal, strategic and image risks have a positive influence on the perception of financial risk in family and non-family businesses.

Originality/value

The results obtained in the study are important because they allow an understanding about the differences in risk management between family and non-family businesses, which can lead to greater corporate sustainability and increased financial performance.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 23 November 2021

Terje Slåtten and Gudbrand Lien

This paper aims to examine the factors related to organizational attractiveness (OA), a concept originating in the strategy of employer branding. Previous research on OA…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the factors related to organizational attractiveness (OA), a concept originating in the strategy of employer branding. Previous research on OA has predominantly adopted the perspective of external applicants. In contrast, the present study takes the perspective of internal and current employees, extending further the scope of studies on OA.

Design/methodology/approach

Quantitative data were collected from a survey consisting of a sample of 164 nurses, all employees of public hospitals. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were used to analyze the data. Furthermore, the indirect effects were tested by mediator analysis.

Findings

Interdepartmental collaboration climate, management support and service quality of care were shown to have a positive effect on OA, with the three factors explaining 45% (R2 = 0.45) of OA. The relationship between management support and OA was found to be mediated through the interdepartmental collaboration climate, and that between the interdepartmental collaboration climate and OA was found to be mediated through the service quality of care.

Originality/value

This study contributes to an understanding of OA from a current employee perspective. Specifically, it reveals how the three factors of interdepartmental collaboration climate, management support and service quality of care influence and shape the perception of current employees (nurses) toward the attractiveness of their organization.

Details

International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-669X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 November 2021

Baoku Li, Yafeng Nan and Ruoxi Yao

The purpose of this paper is to explore the effect of cuteness and cool on the perceived quality of digital products, the mediating effect of brand perception (warmth and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the effect of cuteness and cool on the perceived quality of digital products, the mediating effect of brand perception (warmth and competence) and the moderating effect of the individual perception level.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper utilizes experimental design and survey methods to collect data and the ANOVA, independent sample t-test and bootstrap analysis methods to verify the assumed hypotheses.

Findings

Studies 1 and 2 demonstrate that cuteness (vs cool) is more likely to promote the perception of brand warmth (vs competence), and the brand perception plays a mediating role between cuteness (cool) and the perceived quality. Study 3 replicates the findings of Study 2 and indicates that people with high-cuteness (vs low-cuteness) perception are the same to perceive the brand warmth to promote the perceived quality of digital products, but people with high-cool (vs low-cool) perception are more likely to perceive the brand competence to promote the perceived quality of digital products.

Practical implications

Based on the conclusions in this paper, marketers could emphasize the cool information of digital products in advertisements to promote the perceived quality to promote younger consumers' willingness to pay (WTP). Furthermore, firms could shape warm brand images by the perception of cuteness because cuteness is positively associated with the warmth of brand perception (e.g. the logo of Three Squirrels, a Chinese nut business brand that consists of three cute squirrels).

Originality/value

From a theoretical standpoint, this paper contributes to the brand perception when consumers accept product information with the characteristics of cuteness or cool. Second, a model of perceived quality of digital products is built based on the stereotype content theory. Third, this paper considers individual perception levels on cuteness and cool as the boundaries to conduct further conceptual model.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 November 2021

Rita Rosa Carballo, Carmelo Javier León and María Magdalena Carballo

This paper aims to study the influence of gender on the theoretical and empirical relationships between tourists’ risk perceptions and both destination image and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the influence of gender on the theoretical and empirical relationships between tourists’ risk perceptions and both destination image and behavioural intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

An empirical study was carried out with potential tourists at home in Germany and the UK considering travelling to Spain, Egypt, Morocco, Brazil, Colombia and Indonesia. Data were analysed using structural equation modelling with multi-group analysis.

Findings

Results show that gender moderates the theoretical relationships between risk perception and both destination image and behavioural intentions. Risk perception is higher for women than for men and depends on the type of risks and the characteristics of the destination. Women are more likely than men to reduce their visit to a destination whenever there is an increase in their risk perceptions. However, the influence of risk perception on destination image is higher for men than for women. Thus, results prove there are significant gender differences in the theoretical relationships between risk perceptions and destination image and visiting intentions.

Originality/value

This paper provides new evidence on the gender differences in risk perceptions in tourism and their impact on destination image and visiting intentions, showing that whenever there are higher risks at a tourist destination women do change more than men their behavioural intentions. The results are useful for designing risk management and promotion policies at destinations that avoid the masculinisation bias, thereby considering the impact of gender differences on travel behaviour and consumption decisions.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 30 November 2021

Hasan Tutar, Ahmet Tuncay Erdem and Ömer Karademir

There has been a rapid generational change in the business world in Turkey recently, and X generation managers are rapidly leaving their place to Y generation managers. In…

Abstract

Purpose

There has been a rapid generational change in the business world in Turkey recently, and X generation managers are rapidly leaving their place to Y generation managers. In countries with relatively young populations such as Turkey, management in family businesses passes into the hands of Generation Y. This study aims to examine the moderator role of the difference between old and new generation Y in the effect of self-efficacy perceptions on decision-making strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

This research, which was designed according to the quantitative research method, was designed according to the cross-sectional survey model, one of the general survey models. The research data were collected from a sample of 441 family business managers determined according to the simple random sampling technique. The data were analyzed and interpreted with various statistical techniques. Data analysis was done with AMOS. 20 and International Business Machines statistical package for the social sciences 22 data analysis programs.

Findings

According to the analysis findings, there is a significant relationship between the participants’ self-efficacy perceptions and decision-making strategies. Research findings old and new generation Y managers have different decision strategies. The research results showed that the dominant self-efficacy perceptions of the Y generation affect their decision-making strategies.

Research limitations/implications

This research only examines whether the old and new generation Y perceptions have a moderator function in the relationship between the participants’ self-efficacy perceptions and decision-making strategies. The research is quantitative research limited to family businesses. The results can be compared by repeating the research with other variables and in different samples, for example, by researching in public institutions. In addition, the way of reflecting the differences in perception to the management can be subjected to deeper analysis with mixed studies.

Practical implications

One of the important reasons for the difference in people’s approaches to events is their personality structure. Generational differences, which have been discussed primarily in recent years, make themselves felt in working life. The new working models arising from the different perspectives of the Y generation differ from the traditional business models. Today, in traditional business models, the manager profile is usually the X generation. However, the process is moving toward gaining essential positions in the management levels of the new Y generation. They put traditional managers in a difficult situation with their impatient behavior and desire to climb the career ladder quickly.

Social implications

In the studies conducted on the Y generation, it is understood that they do not favor the classical management approach based on the command-command relationship. The sense of loyalty of the Y generation is low compared to other generations and their organizational commitment levels are weak. There are determinations that they attach importance to flexible working style and want to do business using digital technologies. They are highly motivated in setting vision and participating in strategic decisions in organizations. These features differ significantly from the X-generation managers who adopt the traditional management approach.

Originality/value

Both emotional and cognitive characteristics influence decision-making behavior. The generation gap which shows common personality structures in a certain period is an important predictor of decision-making strategy. Research results and related studies significantly affect the decision strategies of the generation gap. No research has been found comparing the old and new Y generations. In this respect, it is thought that the research will contribute to theory, practice and method.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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Article
Publication date: 18 October 2021

Ying Wu, Fang Wang, Wen Mao, Shuangyu Xu, Shuangyu Xu and Jintong Tang

Regarding research on authenticity perception, this paper aims to pose the following questions: In different cultural regions, what are the different authenticity elements…

Abstract

Purpose

Regarding research on authenticity perception, this paper aims to pose the following questions: In different cultural regions, what are the different authenticity elements of old towns from a tourist perspective? What is the difference in authenticity perception in different cultural regions? How does the authenticity perception of old towns change in the tourismification process?

Design/methodology/approach

Combining eight cultural regions in China, this study focuses on 155 old towns to discuss the differences between authenticity perception of various old towns in different cultural regions and how the interactions between tourists and local places influence the perception of authenticity, with 11,387 user-generated photographs applied to interpret authenticity perception.

Findings

The study shows that the authenticity perceived by tourists varies greatly between farming and pastoral cultural regions; after authenticity loss, old towns with a long history of tourismification regain authenticity in tourists’ perception.

Originality/value

The findings could serve as a reference for tourism development and authenticity protection of old towns. Furthermore, the study explores a creative research method and theoretical framework for regional authenticity studies, which is significant in a global context. In the process of globalization, the implications of this study, including differences in authenticity perception within various cultural regions, will also be significant globally.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

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Article
Publication date: 11 October 2021

Christine M. Kowalczyk and Natalie A. Mitchell

This paper aims to investigate how consumers perceive the value of luxury brands and the antecedents to these perceptions, including consumer knowledge, reference group…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate how consumers perceive the value of luxury brands and the antecedents to these perceptions, including consumer knowledge, reference group influence and accessibility. Prior studies focused less on the salience of consumer knowledge and sources of luxury information, in addition to their accessibility to luxury. Hence, a more nuanced luxury conceptualization is needed to reflect luxury’s conceptual fluidity, consumers’ different lived experiences, accessibility levels and persistent retail marketing changes.

Design/methodology/approach

In a survey involving 475 US respondents, five hypotheses were tested and analyzed with structural equations modeling, examining the relationships among knowledge and accessibility of luxury brands, as well as reference group influence and its impact on consumer value perceptions of luxury brands and consumer behaviors.

Findings

Significant relationships were found for all five hypotheses and demonstrated that knowledge, reference group influence and accessibility have strong relationships with consumers’ personal value perceptions of luxury brands and behavioral measures, including purchase intentions, willingness to recommend to a friend and willingness to pay a price premium.

Originality/value

This conceptualization recognizes that consumers must have luxury brand awareness prior to reference group influence, developing individual luxury value perceptions and entering the buying process. This research contributes to the literature by highlighting consumers’ views of the luxury category, which induce perceptions and potential outcomes. It also expands the understanding of consumer’s accessibility to luxury products, which impacts purchase intentions. While it was conducted in the USA, it yields broader consumer perspectives.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 7 October 2021

Gulsan Ara Parvin, Nina Takashino, Md. Shahidul Islam, Md. Habibur Rahman, Md. Anwarul Abedin and Mrittika Basu

This study aims to explore whether socio-economic factors determine the level of menstrual knowledge and perceptions of schoolgirls in Bangladesh. The aim of this study is…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore whether socio-economic factors determine the level of menstrual knowledge and perceptions of schoolgirls in Bangladesh. The aim of this study is to understand how knowledge and perceptions vary with variations in the different socio-economic factors in a schoolgirl’s life such as place of residence, religion, age, grade, parents’ education, parents’ occupation, family income and even family size.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from four schools (two in urban areas and two in rural areas). A total of 450 schoolgirls from grades V–X were interviewed to examine how knowledge and perceptions varied with different socio-economic aspects. Multiple logistic regression models were used to measure the associations between various socio-economic variables and perceptions of and knowledge about menstruation.

Findings

Respondents from urban areas were 4.75 times more likely and those 14–16 years old were two times more likely to report higher levels of knowledge about menstruation compared to their counterparts. Based on the father’s occupation, respondents whose father was engaged in a professional occupation were 1.983 times more likely to have a higher level of knowledge on menstruation compared to those whose fathers were in an unskilled profession. Similarly, the odds of positive perceptions on menstruation were 1.456 and 1.987 times higher, respectively, among respondents living in urban areas and those 14–16 years old, compared to their counterparts.

Originality/value

This study provides evidence that different socio-economic and even demographic factors are important in the development of menstrual knowledge and perceptions. Policy formulation and development actions related to adolescent girls’ physical and reproductive health development need to consider these factors in Bangladesh and in other developing countries, where poor knowledge and perception related to menstruation are hindering girls’ mental and physical development. This is expected that better knowledge and perception will facilitate girls’ right to have better health and social lives.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

Keywords

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