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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2020

Albert Puni, Sam Kris Hilton and Benedicta Quao

While substantial a number of research studies have examined the effect of leadership styles on work-related behaviour, the interaction effect of transactional

Abstract

Purpose

While substantial a number of research studies have examined the effect of leadership styles on work-related behaviour, the interaction effect of transactional-transformational leadership on work-related behaviour has been rarely investigated in a developing context. Thus, this study aims to examine the interaction effect of transactional-transformational leadership on employee commitment in Ghana.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used descriptive and cross-sectional survey designs. Cross-sectional data was obtained from 360 employees in the aviation industry of Ghana and analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation and hierarchical regression techniques.

Findings

Transactional leadership style has a significant positive effect on employee commitment. However, when transformational leadership was added on transactional leadership base, there was no augmentation effect of transformational leadership style in predicting employee commitment. The results further indicate that there was a negative interaction effect of transactional and transformational leadership styles on employee commitment.

Practical implications

The findings imply that organizational leaders can improve employee commitment by purely resorting to transactional leadership behaviours. Leaders can also enhance employee commitment by augmenting transactional leadership behaviours on transformational leadership, as the reverse has no augmentation effect.

Originality/value

This study considerably complements existing leadership literature by establishing how a transformational leadership style can augment and/or interact with transaction leadership style to influence employee commitment in a developing country.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 44 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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Article
Publication date: 27 August 2019

Michael K. Mickson and Alex Anlesinya

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of transformational and transactional leadership behaviours on local government worker’s job satisfaction as well as…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of transformational and transactional leadership behaviours on local government worker’s job satisfaction as well as to determine which one of these two leadership behaviours is a better predictor of job satisfaction among local government servants in Ghana.

Design/methodology/approach

The research used a questionnaire to collect 322 usable data from the respondents, and employed multiple regressions to analyse the data.

Findings

The results showed that both transformational leadership and transactional leadership behaviours have significant positive effects on employee job satisfaction in Ghana’s Local Government service. Surprisingly, critical examination of the results further revealed that transactional leadership behaviour is a better predictor of job satisfaction relative to transformational leadership behaviour in Ghana’s Local Government Service. Moreover, the findings suggested that the influence of both leadership behaviours on job satisfaction may vary by workers’ age, level of education and gender.

Practical implications

These results imply that the more transactional and transformational leadership behaviours are exhibited or demonstrated by leaders, the more satisfaction local government servants will experience with their jobs. It further means that depending on the context or work environment, transactional leadership can surpass transformational leadership in enhancing employee outcomes. It also reinforces the need to ensure equity in employee reward systems as well as treatment of different age, educational and gender groups.

Originality/value

This result has contributed to knowledge by providing empirical evidence to refute the popular claim that transformation leadership produces better outcomes than transactional leadership. Besides, this study highlights the important roles of transformational and transactional styles in ensuring job satisfaction among the local government sub-sector, a generally under-researched sector.

Details

International Journal of Public Leadership, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4929

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Article
Publication date: 15 October 2019

Feng Xu and Xiaohong Wang

The mechanism of leadership’s impact on dynamic capabilities has aroused widespread interest, but few studies focus on transactional leadership, especially empirical…

Abstract

Purpose

The mechanism of leadership’s impact on dynamic capabilities has aroused widespread interest, but few studies focus on transactional leadership, especially empirical research by micro foundations in the R&D departments from collaborative innovation alliances. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the mechanism of transactional leadership affects dynamic capabilities based on the mediating effect of regulatory focus.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to better illustrate the role of transactional leadership on dynamic capabilities, the authors introduced regulatory focus as a mediator based on previous research. A sample of 245 dyads comprised of full-time employees and their immediate supervisors was collected from the innovation teams of industry-university alliances through questionnaires in China and analyzed via hierarchical regression method. Non-response bias and endogeneity testing were also conducted to confirm the validity of the findings.

Findings

Contingency-reward behavior promotes the development of employee sensing and seizing capability. Management-by-exception promotes the development of employee reconfiguration capability. Promotion focus positively mediates the relationship between contingency-reward and sensing-seizing capability. Prevention focus positively mediates the relationship between management-by-exception and sensing-seizing capability. In addition, management-by-exception is also positively related to sensing capability and promotion focus is positively related to reconfiguration capability.

Originality/value

This paper confirmed different dimensions of transactional leadership favor different dimensions of dynamic capabilities based on different dimensions of regulatory focus, which enriches the theory of strategic leadership and dynamic capabilities, and is conducive to the management of collaborative innovation in technological innovation alliances.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 57 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2019

Sarra Berraies and Syrine Zine El Abidine

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of the transformational and transactional leadership styles and its sub-dimensions on exploitative and exploratory…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of the transformational and transactional leadership styles and its sub-dimensions on exploitative and exploratory innovations. The authors deepened the analysis by highlighting the contribution of ambidextrous leadership on ambidextrous innovation.

Design/methodology/approach

The conceptual model defined through a thorough review of the literature is tested empirically on a sample of 265 senior managers working in Tunisian knowledge-intensive firms (KIFs). A quantitative analysis is performed via a questionnaire. The analysis of the data collected is carried out using the partial least squares method.

Findings

Results show that exploratory innovation is linked to transformational leadership and in particular to individualized consideration, intellectual stimulation and inspirational motivation. Moreover, exploitative innovation is promoted by transformational and transactional leadership styles and particularly by attributed idealized influence and contingent rewards. Also, ambidextrous leadership affects positively ambidextrous innovation.

Originality/value

While little studies have investigated how the transformational and transactional leadership styles as constructs of second-order influence differently exploitative innovation and exploratory innovation, this research deepens the analysis by focusing on sub-dimensions of leadership styles that promote each type of innovation within KIFs. It also pioneers the investigation of the effect of ambidextrous leadership on ambidextrous innovation that has never been explored. This research provides important insights for leaders of KIFs and sheds the light on the key aspects of leadership that boost ambidextrous innovation.

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2015

Fauzia Jabeen, Mohamed Behery and Hossam Abu Elanain

The aim of this study is to examine the impact of the psychological contract, relational psychological contract and transactional psychological contract on organisational…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to examine the impact of the psychological contract, relational psychological contract and transactional psychological contract on organisational commitment as mediated by transactional leadership in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) context. The paper also explores the contractual status to determine if the theory remains valid, regardless of the fact whether one is employed as a contingent or permanent worker.

Design/methodology/approach

This research made a longitudinal study spanning a 24-week time period. Data were collected using a self-administered structured questionnaire prepared in English and Arabic, at three stages representing three visits to the participating companies in the UAE. Pearson’s correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis were used to examine the research hypotheses.

Findings

The results show that the psychological contracts (transactional and relational) are positively related to transactional leadership. This study categorizes several consequential relationships between transactional leadership and organisational commitment. It also advocates that transactional leadership has only a fractional mediating role in relation to relational psychological contract, transactional psychological contract and organisational commitment.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that practitioners and academics alike should note that the nature of the psychological contract employed will impact upon commitment and retention.

Originality/value

This study makes a significant contribution to the body of literature, being the second part of a longitudinal study that aimed at testing the mediating effect of transactional leadership on organisational commitment within the context of the UAE. In the earlier study, the intent was to analyse the role of transformational leadership as a mediator between the psychological contract and organisational commitment. Typically, transformational leadership has been found to partially mediate the above mentioned relationships. In addition, it also advocates that there may be some value in considering the employees’ contractual status with regard to the psychological contract and its impact on organisational commitment.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Aminu Sanda and Nana Ama Dodua Arthur

The purpose of this paper is to explore how authentic leadership and transactional leadership styles in Ghanaian telecom firms influence employees’ creativity, and the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how authentic leadership and transactional leadership styles in Ghanaian telecom firms influence employees’ creativity, and the effect that climate for innovation and work-related flow have on such influencing relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Guided by the implicit theory of leadership, and using questionnaires, data were collected from 335 employees in five mining firms and analyzed descriptively and inferentially.

Findings

It was found that managers in the telecom firms use transactional leadership styles and authentic leadership styles to enhance employees’ creativity. The work climate fostered employees’ creativity and encouraged their innovation. The prevalence of work-related flow enhanced employees’ job performances. The innovative climate mediated the effect of authentic leadership on employees’ creativity, but moderated the effect of transactional leadership on the employees’ creativity. Work-related flow also moderated the effects of both authentic and transactional leadership styles on employee creativity. It is concluded that managers in telecom firms influence their followers’ creativity by altering their leadership styles in accordance with the given situation to achieve organizational goals.

Research limitations/implications

The study sample was drawn from a single sub-sector of the Ghanaian economy. This represents a limitation, for which the findings cannot be generalized. Replications and extensions of the study in different industrial sectors will help test the robustness and generalizability of the findings.

Originality/value

This study has shown that managers of telecom firms in Ghana can cultivate and nurture the creativities of their employees toward increased performances by creating conducive psychosocial work climate that supports innovativeness, and use the requisite authentic and transactional leadership skills in the conduct of their managerial functions.

Details

African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-0705

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Article
Publication date: 24 May 2011

Jun Liu, Xiaoyu Liu and Xianju Zeng

Drawing on the contingency perspective of leadership, the purpose of this paper is to examine the relation between transactional leadership and team innovativeness by…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on the contingency perspective of leadership, the purpose of this paper is to examine the relation between transactional leadership and team innovativeness by focusing on the moderating role of emotional labor and the mediating role of team efficacy. The authors propose and empirically test the hypothesis that the relation between transactional leadership and team innovativeness is negative when the level of emotional labor is high whereas the relation is positive when the level of emotional labor is low. The authors further examine the process mechanism of this interactive effect by testing the mediating role of team efficacy.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 90 Chinese work teams, comprising 462 members and 90 team leaders, were surveyed. Hierarchical regression analyses were performed and moderated causal steps approach applied to test the authors' mediated moderation model.

Findings

As predicted, transactional leadership was negatively associated with team innovativeness when emotional labor was high whereas the association was positive when emotional labor was low. Team efficacy mediated the interactive effects of transactional leadership and emotional labor on team innovativeness.

Research limitations/implications

The paper contributes to the contingency perspective on transactional leadership and team innovativeness by identifying emotional labor as an important moderator and team efficacy as a critical mediator, yet methodological limitations do exist in the study. Although data were collected from multiple sources to avoid common method variance, the design was cross‐sectional, which limits the authors' ability to make robust inferences of causality.

Originality/value

By examining both the moderating and mediating effects, the paper contributes to uncovering the black box in which transactional leadership exerts an influence on team innovativeness.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2015

Kwasi Dartey-Baah

This paper aims to bring to bear the resemblance between the current resilient leadership theory and the transformational–transactional leadership theories. It does this…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to bring to bear the resemblance between the current resilient leadership theory and the transformational–transactional leadership theories. It does this with the view of re-focusing discussions of leadership on an effective mix of the transformational–transactional leadership theories to achieve the desired organisational performance, rather than a new look at leadership from the resilient leadership perspective – which is quite the same.

Design/methodology/approach

It achieves this purpose by reviewing literature on the three leadership styles; and further goes on to draw a conceptual link among them to buttress the point that resilient leadership is a repetition of the ideas underlying the two already existing theories – transformational and transactional.

Findings

A review of the three leadership theories in literature showed that qualities such as strategic thinking, emotional intelligence, adaptation/change orientation, learning, performance orientation and collective leadership as captured under the resilient leadership theory are already considered under the transformational–transactional leadership theories, and thus, constitutes a repetition not needed in the search for the best leadership approach.

Originality/value

The current volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguous environment calls for a new leadership thinking/approach – one that is known and empirically tested to yield best results. In this regard, the present study advocates for a consideration of the transformational–transactional approaches, which have been proven to yield best results, to focus the discussion on leadership.

Details

Journal of Global Responsibility, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2041-2568

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Article
Publication date: 15 August 2016

Bhaskar Prasad and Paulina Junni

Organizational innovation is critical for firm competitive advantage. Yet, we do not know enough about the relationship between leadership and organizational innovation…

Abstract

Purpose

Organizational innovation is critical for firm competitive advantage. Yet, we do not know enough about the relationship between leadership and organizational innovation. The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of chief executive officer (CEO) transformational and transactional leadership on organizational innovation. The authors examine the moderating role of environmental dynamism.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors collected survey-based data from top management team members in 163 companies in services, construction, manufacturing and other industries in the USA. The authors used multiple regression analyses to test the study hypotheses.

Findings

The empirical findings indicate that CEO transformational and transactional leadership behaviors positively influence organizational innovation. However, organizations benefit more from transformational leadership in dynamic environments.

Originality/value

This study highlights the role of CEO leadership behavior in the pursuit of organizational innovation. Significantly, the study shows that both transformational and transactional leadership can enhance organizational innovation. However, their effectiveness is contingent on environmental dynamism. This contributes to the firm innovation literature by clarifying how specific types of CEO leadership influence organizational innovation in different environmental conditions.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 54 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1997

Patreese D. Ingram

Reveals the results of a study which investigated the principal’s leadership behaviour in schools which educate moderately and severely disabled students in regular…

Abstract

Reveals the results of a study which investigated the principal’s leadership behaviour in schools which educate moderately and severely disabled students in regular education classrooms on a full‐time basis. More specifically, notes that the purposes of this study were to determine whether the leadership behaviours of principals, as perceived by teachers, tended to be more transformational or more transactional; and whether there was a difference in the leadership behaviours of principals and the extent to which principals motivated teachers to exert effort beyond the ordinary. Forty‐four teachers from five school districts responded to the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) developed by Bass (1985). The independent variable was leadership behaviours of principals, defined as varying degrees of transformational and transactional leadership. The dependent variable was defined as principals’ ability to affect teacher motivation. Shows that the results of the study indicated that principals were perceived by teachers to exhibit more transformational leadership behaviours than they exhibited transactional leadership behaviours. Also, teachers tended to be more highly motivated under the leadership of principals who they perceived to be more transformational than transactional.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 35 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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