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1 – 10 of over 2000
Article
Publication date: 9 March 2015

Fauzia Jabeen, Mohamed Behery and Hossam Abu Elanain

The aim of this study is to examine the impact of the psychological contract, relational psychological contract and transactional psychological contract on organisational…

2784

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to examine the impact of the psychological contract, relational psychological contract and transactional psychological contract on organisational commitment as mediated by transactional leadership in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) context. The paper also explores the contractual status to determine if the theory remains valid, regardless of the fact whether one is employed as a contingent or permanent worker.

Design/methodology/approach

This research made a longitudinal study spanning a 24-week time period. Data were collected using a self-administered structured questionnaire prepared in English and Arabic, at three stages representing three visits to the participating companies in the UAE. Pearson’s correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis were used to examine the research hypotheses.

Findings

The results show that the psychological contracts (transactional and relational) are positively related to transactional leadership. This study categorizes several consequential relationships between transactional leadership and organisational commitment. It also advocates that transactional leadership has only a fractional mediating role in relation to relational psychological contract, transactional psychological contract and organisational commitment.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that practitioners and academics alike should note that the nature of the psychological contract employed will impact upon commitment and retention.

Originality/value

This study makes a significant contribution to the body of literature, being the second part of a longitudinal study that aimed at testing the mediating effect of transactional leadership on organisational commitment within the context of the UAE. In the earlier study, the intent was to analyse the role of transformational leadership as a mediator between the psychological contract and organisational commitment. Typically, transformational leadership has been found to partially mediate the above mentioned relationships. In addition, it also advocates that there may be some value in considering the employees’ contractual status with regard to the psychological contract and its impact on organisational commitment.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 March 2008

Jun Zhao and Lijun Chen

This study seeks to examine the relationship between individual's cultural values of individualism, collectivism, selected personality traits and the psychological

5309

Abstract

Purpose

This study seeks to examine the relationship between individual's cultural values of individualism, collectivism, selected personality traits and the psychological contracts they tend to form.

Design/methodology/approach

Surveys were used to collect data from China and US sample sets. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to explore the impact of selected cultural values and personality traits on individuals' tendency to form transactional contract or relational contract.

Findings

Personality characteristics of equity sensitivity and external locus of control were found to be positively related to transactional contract type for both samples, and conscientiousness was found to be positively related to relational contract, but the relationship was only found for the Chinese sample. The impact of the individualistic cultural value on the type of psychological contract one forms with the employer is uncertain, but the individualism value was found to have a mediator effect between age and transactional contract type for the Chinese sample.

Practical implications

The study contributes evidence that can help explain why employees who face the same job conditions and employment relationships may develop different psychological contracts with their employers. The finding on the mediating effect of individualism between age and transactional contract highlight challenges faced by managers in China's changing economy in terms of motivating and retaining young employees.

Originality/value

The study contributes to research on personality and psychological contracts. In the domain of personality, the study attempts to explore how personality affects organizational behavior. From the perspective of psychological contract, the paper contributes evidence that can help explain why employees who face the same job conditions and employment relationships may develop different psychological contracts with their employers.

Details

Management Research News, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 2007

Carol Atkinson

This paper aims to contribute empirical data to the under‐researched relationship between trust and the psychological contract.

22177

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to contribute empirical data to the under‐researched relationship between trust and the psychological contract.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study approach is used carrying out 41 interviews in three case study firms, adopting a critical incident technique (CIT).

Findings

Trust is present in all psychological contracts and its different bases, cognitive and affective, underpin transactional and relational obligations respectively.

Research limitations/implications

A small‐scale study using CIT which identifies especially salient issues but is not necessarily exhaustive. Provides a base for more detailed study of the relationship.

Practical implications

Demonstrates the impact of the differing bases of trust on the employment relationship. This information could contribute to better managing the employment relationship.

Originality/value

There are few extant empirical data on this relationship and a contribution is made to debates on the role of trust within the psychological contract by providing detailed empirical data.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 September 2012

Sigrid M. Hamilton and Kathryn von Treuer

The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationships between elements of the psychological contract (i.e. type and fulfilment) and an employee's intention to leave…

1725

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationships between elements of the psychological contract (i.e. type and fulfilment) and an employee's intention to leave (ITL) their current organisation. The role of careerism as a potential mediating and moderating variable is also to be explored.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 202 allied health professionals (AHPs) completed a questionnaire containing measures of the psychological contract, careerism and ITL.

Findings

As predicted, path analyses conducted via structural equation modelling demonstrated that careerism partially mediates the relationship between contract types and ITL. These findings suggest that employees with transactional contracts are more careerist, resulting in higher ITL, while employees with relational contracts are less careerist, resulting in lower ITL. Contrary to expectation, a hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that careerism failed to moderate the relationship between perceived contract fulfillment and ITL. However, a strong positive association between contract fulfillment and ITL was found.

Research limitations/implications

The data were collected cross‐sectionally, which limits the ability to make causal inferences.

Practical implications

Results were consistent with the proposition that contract type and fulfillment explain employee ITL. It appears that employees with relational contracts are more likely to remain with their organization on a longer‐term basis, compared to employees with transactional contracts, due to differences in career motives. Organizational awareness and understanding of employee psychological contracts and career motives is needed.

Originality/value

This paper provides new theoretical and practical insights on how psychological contracts and careerism can influence ITL among AHPs.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 17 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 April 2018

Shu-Hsien Liao and Chih-Chiang Chen

The purpose of this paper is to test the mediating role of LMX in the relationship between knowledge sharing and employee creativity and the extent to which this mediating…

1638

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test the mediating role of LMX in the relationship between knowledge sharing and employee creativity and the extent to which this mediating role is moderated by transactional psychological contract.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 286 employees working at the theme park in Taiwan and then analyzed using a structuring equation model with SPSS 12.0, LISREL 8.8 and SPSS PROCESS.

Findings

Results suggested that LMX mediated the relationship between knowledge sharing and employee creativity. Also, results suggested that transactional psychological contract moderated this mediating pathway: low transactional psychological contract increases the mediating role of LMX. Furthermore, the study showed that LMX can buffer the negative effects of transactional psychological contract on employee creative performance.

Originality/value

The originality of this study is to explore whether there is a moderated mediation model relationship among research variables and contributed to the LMX literature because there are few studies to discuss how knowledge sharing might stimulate creative outcome through LMX.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 39 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 May 2014

Galit Eilam-Shamir and Erez Yaakobi

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how initial employment experiences of new entrants to the labor market, which results from changes in organizations employment…

1793

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how initial employment experiences of new entrants to the labor market, which results from changes in organizations employment practices affect individuals’ expectations from their future employers (their anticipatory psychological contracts and anticipated job insecurity) and to explore the implications of these effects for theory and practice.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper focussed on four common experiences and tested the hypotheses about their effects using data collected by a relatively large survey among mature college students with work experience (n=1,164).

Findings

Individuals who had been exposed to the experiences of being laid off, witnessing layoffs and having to accept reductions in pay or status held higher transactional and lower relational expectations from their future employers, in comparison with individuals who had not been exposed to such experiences. They also anticipated a higher level of job insecurity in their future employment.

Practical implications

In order to mitigate the potential negative consequences of the phenomenon discovered on employee retention and organizational performance, organizations have to develop and implement specific HR practices to deal with cohorts of new members, who have been exposed to the employment experiences investigated. Of particular importance are orientation and socialization practices that address new recruits’ concerns and expectations, and exposing new members to training and learning experiences that increase their employability outside the organization.

Originality/value

This is one of a few studies that documents empirically the (anecdotally based) claims about the effects of changes in the economic environment on individuals’ employment expectations and perhaps the first study to focus specifically on the effects of initial experiences of entrants to the labor market. It extends psychological contract research by focussing on the antecedants and formation of the psychological contract rather than on its consequences and on the anticipatory contract rather than on employees’ current psychological contracts.

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2006

Mark N.K. Saunders and Adrian Thornhill

To explore the implications for all employees' psychological contracts of a forced change from permanent to temporary employment status for some employees within an organisation.

6731

Abstract

Purpose

To explore the implications for all employees' psychological contracts of a forced change from permanent to temporary employment status for some employees within an organisation.

Design/methodology/approach

A random sample of 30 employees, stratified by employment status was selected. Each employee undertook a structured card sort of possible emotional responses to change followed by an in‐depth interview to explore and explain their categorisation of these responses.

Findings

The nature of psychological contracts and organisational attachments for both permanent employees and forced temporary workers is complex. Permanent employees generally continue to exhibit relational forms of attachment to the organisation. These, they believe, are reciprocated by the organisation. Reactions from forced temporary workers are more varied. After a period of denial, some develop a more calculative approach to their interactions. Others maintain aspects of their previously developed relational attachments. Only some temporary workers appear to recognise that their future direction is no longer a concern of the organisation.

Research limitations/implications

Although only based upon one organisation, the findings suggest that the process of psychological contract adjustment is likely to emerge through gradual re‐interpretation, rather than through re‐negotiation.

Practical implications

Management actions need to be recognised as important in re‐defining the nature of psychological contracts. The transitional nature of this process may be prolonged where management imposes transactional contracts and where communication and negotiation to create clear expectations is lacking.

Originality/value

The findings provide new insights into the implications of forcing employees from permanent to temporary contracts for their, and remaining permanent employees', psychological contracts.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 28 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 July 2014

Byoung Kwon Choi, Hyoung Koo Moon, Wook Ko and Kyoung Min Kim

The purpose of this paper is to test the mediating effect of organizational identification (OI) in the relationship between organizational justice and organizational…

2066

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test the mediating effect of organizational identification (OI) in the relationship between organizational justice and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), and also to examine the moderating effects of transactional and relational contracts in the relationship between OI and OCB.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from employees working for ten companies in South Korea. The participants were asked with a self-reported survey, and 284 questionnaires were used in the analyses.

Findings

Among the three types of organizational justice, the effects of distributive and interactional justice on OCB were mediated by OI. The authors also found that the positive relationship between OI and OCB was stronger for both a low level of transactional and a high level of relational contract. In addition, the moderated mediation analyses confirmed that the indirect relationships between distributive, interactional justice and OCB through OI were valid for both high and low level of transactional contract, and only for low level of relational contract.

Practical implications

To facilitate employees’ OCB, organizations have to pay adequate attention to distributive justice which is rather neglected, and also must understand what types of psychological contract employees have.

Originality/value

This study intensively explored the internal mechanism as to how the different types of organizational justice lead to OCB by identifying the mediating effect of OI and moderating roles of psychological contracts.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 35 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 November 2018

Jatinder Kumar Jha, Jatin Pandey and Biju Varkkey

This paper aims to examine the relationship between perceived investments in employees’ development (PIED) on work engagement and the moderating effects of psychological

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the relationship between perceived investments in employees’ development (PIED) on work engagement and the moderating effects of psychological capital on this relationship for liquid knowledge workers, employed in the Indian cutting and polishing of diamond industry (CPD).

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire composed of established scales was administered to 134 liquid knowledge workers. Having established convergent and discriminant validity using structural equation modelling, the model was further analysed using the Process macro to check for direct and moderating effects.

Findings

The research findings suggest that the perceived investment in employee development and psychological contract enhancement (relational and transactional) made by CPD units for liquid knowledge workers positively influenced their work engagement level. The study also finds that relational contract (not transactional contract) positively moderates the relationship between perceived investment in employee development and work engagement.

Research limitations/implications

This is a cross-sectional single source study; future studies could look at longitudinal and multisource perspective.

Practical implications

The study presents a “star matrix of engagement” that guides the application of the two strategies of perceived employee development and psychological contract enhancement for liquid knowledge workers. This has implications for design and implementation of human resource management practices and policies for employee management.

Originality/value

The study makes significant contributions to existing literature on antecedents of work engagement of liquid knowledge workers by examining the direct and moderating influences.

Article
Publication date: 18 September 2019

Carol Atkinson and Els Pareit

The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature of psychological contracts of international business travellers (IBTs), a new form of expatriate that has arisen from…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature of psychological contracts of international business travellers (IBTs), a new form of expatriate that has arisen from the growing need for alternative forms of internationally mobile talent. The research is conducted in Belgium, a country recognised as a global hub in which international assignments are essential to economic success.

Design/methodology/approach

Research in respect of IBTs is limited and semi-structured interviews are used to explore Belgian employee perspectives.

Findings

The contract is more relational in nature than might be expected with an idiosyncratic mix of relational and transactional obligations.

Research limitations/implications

The research is small-scale and qualitative and not widely generalisable. Further it presents only employee perspectives. Nevertheless it generates rich insights into a phenomena about which little is known.

Practical implications

The findings develop understanding of how to manage the valuable strategic resource that is the IBT.

Originality/value

First, the research is of value to the International Human Resource Management field in developing understanding of a newly emerging form of international employee, the IBT. Second, it contributes to psychological contract research in both developing understanding the transactional/relational balance and in generating much-needed rich and nuanced qualitative data.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 48 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

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