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Book part
Publication date: 11 August 2017

Maria Adelaide Pedrosa da Silva Duarte and Marta Cristina Nunes Simões

European Union (EU) central and eastern economies have gone through a process of structural change since 1989, when the post-communist transition started. This process was…

Abstract

European Union (EU) central and eastern economies have gone through a process of structural change since 1989, when the post-communist transition started. This process was afterwards reinforced by the three EU enlargement waves that took place in 2004, 2007 and 2013. Though exhibiting low levels of aggregate productivity, this group of countries joined the EU with higher levels of human capital than the southern member states, an advantage that should have accelerated real convergence towards the EU15. However, evidence to date suggests that the convergence process came to a halt in 2007–2008 when massive capital inflows stopped, highlighting the fragilities of the growth strategies implemented so far. In these peripheral countries, structural change has been characterised by an expanding services sector alongside growing income inequality. The two strands of literature on these issues highlight that: (a) an expanding services sector may not be detrimental for growth, quite the opposite, depending on services composition and on the capacity of services sub-sectors to incorporate information and communication technologies (ICTs); and (b) inequality is negatively related to growth through the fiscal policy, socio-political instability, borrowing constraints to investment in education and endogenous fertility channels and positively through the savings channel and incentives. We analyse the nexus between structural change, inequality and growth in this group of countries highlighting income inequality as a potential mechanism that connects the other two variables. We provide a descriptive quantitative analysis of the profiles of structural change and income inequality in our sample and apply dynamic panel methods to investigate the existence of causality among services sector expansion, inequality and aggregate productivity considering a maximum period between 1980 and 2010.

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Core-Periphery Patterns Across the European Union
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-495-8

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Article
Publication date: 13 September 2011

George Tsekouras, Efthimios Poulis and Konstantinos Poulis

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the types and the nature of innovations developed by small companies in a traditional service sector, as well as the ways that…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the types and the nature of innovations developed by small companies in a traditional service sector, as well as the ways that innovations impact their strategic capabilities.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper provides evidence from three case studies captured through a number of interviews with senior managers within the companies. The paper adopted a comparative analysis, selecting two cases that have managed this process with great success and one showing evidently less success.

Findings

Organisational and process innovations are critical aspects of a dynamic strategy in small service companies. Although a successful innovation strategy does not require the development of technological systems and knowledge intensive services, it does necessitate their sophisticated usage. Innovation enables the firms to access new markets and the reconfiguration of strategic capabilities in the long term.

Research limitations/implications

The paper identifies the existence of strong linkages between organisational and process innovation and dynamic capabilities in the small companies in a traditional service sector. The research has used qualitative methods and a case study methodology. Further research (e.g. other service industries) and ideally statistical evidence are required to generalise these findings into the wider service sector.

Practical implications

This work calls for managers in small companies in a traditional service sector which wish to grow to pay more attention to their active involvement in organisational and process innovations and the sophisticated usage (or development) of knowledge intensive services.

Originality/value

The paper brings together a number of concepts from the innovation studies and the strategic management literature to investigate management practices and strategies of small companies in a traditional service sector, the tramp shipping sector.

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Article
Publication date: 27 July 2012

Ramzi El‐Haddadeh and Vishanth Weerakkody

For many years, proponents of new public management (NPM) have been presenting it as a formula for improving the public sector through making the public sector more…

Abstract

Purpose

For many years, proponents of new public management (NPM) have been presenting it as a formula for improving the public sector through making the public sector more businesslike. However, reforms based on NPM have failed to prove that they deliver more efficient, effective and quality services for citizens. The purpose of this paper is to describe to evaluate the effect that alternative socially innovative service initiatives have in facilitating social cohesion.

Design/methodology/approach

The ALLIANCE project is designed to be conducted in two main phases. Phase one concentrates on conceptualising the concept (social cohesion and new public management) and ends with a quantitative empirical survey to comparatively measure key performance indicators for pre and post NPM initiatives. Phase two, on the other hand, is focused on identifying and simulating alternative scenarios for service delivery and qualitatively evaluating them.

Findings

This research note demonstrates the need for an empirical investigation to measure the impact of pre and post NPM initiatives on improving social cohesion.

Originality/value

Using the principles of social entrepreneurs, ALLIANCE will help to establish a better understanding of alternative socially innovative service initiatives to instil social cohesion within the diverse European societies. In this respect, ALLIANCE will facilitate the development of a key performance indicator matrix for measuring social cohesion; and improve stakeholder participation in defining and shaping alternative socially innovative service initiatives for the public sector.

Details

Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6166

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2015

Annukka Näyhä, Päivi Pelli and Lauri Hetemäki

The purpose of this paper is to analyze and provide a synthesis of how services are understood, how they are likely to develop and how future development can be studied…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze and provide a synthesis of how services are understood, how they are likely to develop and how future development can be studied more closely in the forest-based sector (FBS). Services are likely to have an increasing role in the FBS in the future.

Design/methodology/approach

The findings are based on a literature review of FBS outlook studies, strategies and programs and services-related studies in FBS and general services literature. Three case examples of services businesses in FBS companies are presented, and possible foresight approaches related to them are discussed. Foresight methods used in parallel sectors are also discussed.

Findings

The study provides the first systematic introduction, classification and review of FBS services to include both industry- and non-industry-related services. The paper also points out the need for foresight studies and suggests various approaches for an analysis of the potential of FBS services in the future bioeconomy.

Practical implications

The study shows that the role of services in FBS research has been understood too narrowly. As a result, services research has been rather lacking and the future potential of services in the FBS has not been fully acknowledged. The study argues for and points toward the need to use foresight approaches to update FBS strategies, business models and policies to fully benefit from the future potential of services.

Originality/value

The study is a novel introduction, review and discussion of the role of services in the FBS and their future outlook.

Details

Foresight, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6689

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2000

Simon Forge

Are we now entering the era of a new type of economy, with new rules? What we perceive is more than just an addition to today’s economics. By removing the effects of…

Abstract

Are we now entering the era of a new type of economy, with new rules? What we perceive is more than just an addition to today’s economics. By removing the effects of distance, and giving more equal access across nations and classes, networks will effectively reengineer our basic economic equations. Electronic networks can provide access to skills, work and commerce at much lower cost, via electronic markets in jobs, products, services and education. At the same time, they introduce new economic behaviour, as a large enough quantitative change becomes a qualitative change. Electronics and optics enable the networking of human capital, expanding its application and accelerating its enrichment via education. So knowledge‐based operations may slowly replace traditional capital‐based assets. Consequently, the conventional process for the creation of wealth with its prerequisites for capital investment is revised:economic value in traditional fixed assets is replaced by “electronic assets”. At the same time, the network effect pushes the market mechanism to its limits, through a step‐change in breadth of access, reduced costs of entry and pace of trading. National differences and national markets, all the trappings and devices of commercial locality, are challenged. In this first of two articles, the initial conditions and the evidence for change are examined and the emergence of a new form of economy, or “tele‐economy”, is reviewed. Following from this, a view of the form of capitalism driving the economic environment – “electronic capitalism” – is put forward. The second article, to be published in a forthcoming issue of foresight, examines the consequences and conclusions on assets, wealth accumulation, national players and the benefits and dangers of a tele‐economy.

Details

Foresight, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6689

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2016

Zerayehu Sime Eshete and Peter Kiko Kimuyu

The Ethiopian economy is characterized by erratic and poor performance with negative growth rates, seven times over the period 1981-2010. This trapped per capita income at…

Abstract

Purpose

The Ethiopian economy is characterized by erratic and poor performance with negative growth rates, seven times over the period 1981-2010. This trapped per capita income at 358 USD in 2010 staying far away from middle-income country status. A lot of unsolved debates regarding perpetual growth, structural change and sectoral allocation of resource emerged overtime. The purpose of this paper is to examine the alternative effects of induced sectoral total factor productivity and makes comparisons of various sectoral growth options.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium model based on neoclassical-structuralist thought. It also calibrates coefficients that capture the impacts of openness, imported capital and liberalization on sectoral total factor productivity growth using a model of vector auto-regressive with exogenous variables.

Findings

Future economic growth rate is expected to grow at a declining trend and to be dominated by the service sector. If it keeps growing on the current path it will expose the economy to a severe structural change burden problem. Openness induced agricultural total factor productivity highly improves the welfare of households while imported capital goods induced industrial total factor productivity is also better in fostering structural change of the economy. The broad-based growth option that combines the induced total factor productivity of all sectors also enables the economy to achieve more sustainable growth, rapid structural change and welfare gain at the same time.

Originality/value

There are intensive and charged debates regarding alternative sectoral growth options. However, the debate does not derive from a rigorous analysis and holistic economy-wide approach. It is rather affiliated with politics. Therefore, the paper is original and investigates these issues meticulously.

Details

African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-0705

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2013

Sarah-Anne Munoz

Current policy context in the UK promotes the “co-production” of health and care services – with service users and providers working in partnership. However, the…

Abstract

Purpose

Current policy context in the UK promotes the “co-production” of health and care services – with service users and providers working in partnership. However, the assumption that all individuals and communities have the personal resources, skills and willingness to get involved in co-produced services may have implications for social and geographical equity of access to health and care services. The paper presents the results of a nine-month action research project with a remote and rural community in Scotland to discuss the implications of co-produced health and care services for remote and rural community members – particularly those with ageing populations.

Design/methodology/approach

The research project worked with community members, health care providers and commissioners to develop a community social enterprise model for home care delivery. Textual resources collected during this action research process were subject to thematic analysis in order to explore community perceptions and experiences of service co-production development in the remote and rural context.

Findings

The qualitative analysis showed that community members identified some positive aspects of being involved in service co-production relating to sense of community, empowerment and personal satisfaction. However, negative impacts included increased feelings of pressure, strain and frustration among those who took part in the co-production process. Overall, the community was reluctant to engage with “transformative” co-production and traditional provider-user dynamics were maintained.

Originality/value

The example is used to demonstrate the types of resources that rural individuals and communities draw on in order to create social enterprises and how the potentially negative impacts of co-produced services for different types of social and geographical community may be overlooked in contemporary policy and practice.

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Article
Publication date: 20 November 2017

Jing Tian, Julio Lumbreras, Celio Andrade and Hua Liao

This paper aims to identify key sectors in carbon footprint responsibility, an introduced concept depicting CO2 responsibilities allocated through the supply chain…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to identify key sectors in carbon footprint responsibility, an introduced concept depicting CO2 responsibilities allocated through the supply chain containing sectoral activities and interactions. In detail, various key sectors could be identified according to comparative advantages in trade, sectoral linkage and sectoral synergy within the supply chain.

Design/methodology/approach

A semi-closed input–output model is used to make the household income–expenditure relationship endogenous through the supply chain where sectoral CO2 emissions are calculated, and the production-based responsibility (PR) principle is evaluated. Thus, according to “carbon footprint responsibility”, modified hypothetical extraction method is applied to decompose sectoral CO2 in terms of comparative advantages in trade, sectoral linkage and synergy. Finally, key sectors are identified via sectoral shares and associated decompositions in carbon footprint responsibility.

Findings

Compared to 2005, in 2012, the PR principle failed to track sectoral CO2 flow, and embodied CO2 in import and interprovincial export increased, with manufacturing contributing the most; manufacturing should take more carbon responsibilities in the internal linkage, and tertiary sectors in the net forward and backward linkage, with sectors enjoying low carbonization in the mixed linkage; inward net CO2 flows of manufacturing and service sectors were more complicated than their outward ones in terms of involved sectors and economic drivers; and residential effects on CO2 emissions of traditional sectors increased, urban effects remained larger than rural ones and manufacturing and tertiary sectors received the largest residential effects.

Originality/value

The value of this paper is as follows: the household income–expenditure relationship got endogenous in intermediate supply and demand, corresponding to the rapid urbanization in megacities; key sectors were observed to change flexibly according to real sectoral activities and interaction; and the evaluation of the PR principle was completed ahead of using a certain CO2 accounting principle at the city level.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 9 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2004

M'Hamed Dif

During the last decade the telecommunications sector has undergone an accelerated structural change in work organisation, qualification profiles and the mode of…

Abstract

During the last decade the telecommunications sector has undergone an accelerated structural change in work organisation, qualification profiles and the mode of socialisation at work. Telecommunications is taking the lead when it comes to the dynamics of vocational identity transformation. Classical models of vocational identities are declining in favour of a new “negotiator‐network/mobility” mode of socialisation at work. The latter is mainly taken in charge by a new generation of telecom employees who are mobile, flexible and proactive in constructing their own work identities and project‐based work activities. This paper examines the key findings of the FAME project investigation in the telecommunications sector in France, Germany and the UK. The first section focuses on the employers' perception of the contextual background for change. The second section examines employees' responses to these structural changes and new modes of socialisation at work. The concluding section highlights some overall trends and implications.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2017

Richard Grabowski

The purpose of the paper is to determine why premature deindustrialization is occurring in many developing countries.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to determine why premature deindustrialization is occurring in many developing countries.

Design/methodology/approach

A theoretical structure for explaining premature deindustrialization is utilized. Then the comparative experiences of a number of developing countries are used to illustrate the operation of the theory.

Findings

The results indicate that increasing inequality among a number of developing countries has reduced the domestic market for labor intensive manufactured goods, resulting in stagnation in manufacturing. Also, the increasing inequality in developed countries has reduced international demand for labor intensive manufacturing. Thus developing countries have fewer opportunities to export labor intensive manufacturing.

Research limitations/implications

Data on inequality is limited and it is very difficult to determine causality. However, intuition indicates that causality is most likely bi-directional.

Practical implications

Strategies of economic development must concern themselves with the effects that increasing inequality will likely have on the development of labor intensive manufacturing.

Social implications

Social programs that bolster the purchasing power of poor families are likely to be important (social safety net). Broad-based agricultural growth will provide a basis for labor intensive manufacturing.

Originality/value

The originality stems from the linking of deindustrialization with rising inequality.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 44 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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