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Book part
Publication date: 21 September 2017

Emily Keener, Clare M. Mehta and Kimberly E. Smirles

This chapter uses Sandra Bem’s scholarship to demonstrate the intersections between developmental and social psychological approaches to understanding masculinity and femininity.

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter uses Sandra Bem’s scholarship to demonstrate the intersections between developmental and social psychological approaches to understanding masculinity and femininity.

Methodology/approach

To highlight Sandra Bem’s contributions, we examined masculinity and femininity, broadly defined, from a socio-developmental theoretical perspective, conceptualizing gender development as embedded within a socio-historical context.

Findings

Our review of the literature illustrates that both age and social contextual features influence femininity and masculinity and more specifically that in childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood, femininity and masculinity vary depending on the sex (same- vs. other-sex) of those in the social context. Along with demonstrating the current utility and extensions of Sandra Bem’s research, we also emphasize the feminist and social justice applications of her body of work.

Research limitations

Weaknesses in the existing methodology where instruments are designed based on the assumption that masculinity and femininity are stable traits rather than characteristics that vary are discussed. Limitations to research focused on either social or developmental perspectives are highlighted and suggestions for a more integrative approach are provided.

Originality/value

Similar to how Sandra Bem’s work showed that sex and gender need not be linked, research and theory on the developmental and contextual specificity of gender also demonstrate that there is freedom in the expression of gender.

Details

Discourses on Gender and Sexual Inequality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-197-3

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Book part
Publication date: 29 September 2016

Premalatha Karupiah

This chapter explores how traditional femininity as a form of emphasized femininity influences single mothers’ decisions to be involved in romantic relationships. It…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter explores how traditional femininity as a form of emphasized femininity influences single mothers’ decisions to be involved in romantic relationships. It explores how women negotiate the boundaries of emphasized femininity in making their choices related to involvement in romantic relationships.

Methodology/approach

The data for this study were collected by conducting in-depth interviews with 30 Malaysian Tamil women. They were selected using a purposive sampling method. The main criterion of selection was that participants were Malaysian Indian single mothers identifying Tamil as their mother tongue. Latent and manifest content analyses were used to scrutinize the interviews.

Findings

Single mothers identified their responsibilities qua mothers as the most important part of their life. Many have remained single because they were concerned about the well-being of their children. Other than that, many single mothers chose not to be involved in a romantic relationship because it may be stigmatized by their family or community. Involvement in a romantic relationship is seen as a transgression from the notion of traditional femininity, which is a form of emphasized femininity in Tamil society. Motherhood and karpu (chastity) are seen as central to the traditional notion of femininity in Tamil society.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the understanding of how emphasized femininity in a minority group in Malaysia influences single mothers’ decisions about romantic relationships. Furthermore, there are very few studies in Malaysia focusing on the experiences of single mothers from minority ethnic communities.

Details

Divorce, Separation, and Remarriage: The Transformation of Family
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-229-3

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Book part
Publication date: 1 October 2021

Charlotte Dann

Abstract

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Navigating Tattooed Women's Bodies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-830-7

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2015

Gary N. Powell and D. Anthony Butterfield

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of psychological androgyny, a construct that represents a combination of masculinity and femininity, in explaining changes…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of psychological androgyny, a construct that represents a combination of masculinity and femininity, in explaining changes in descriptions of a good manager over time.

Design/methodology/approach

Samples of the same two populations were surveyed at four different points in time spanning four decades (N = 1,818).

Findings

Good-manager descriptions became increasingly similar in masculinity and femininity over time, or increasingly androgynous according to the balance conceptualization of androgyny. However, both good-manager masculinity and good-manager femininity declined over time, with masculinity declining to a greater extent, which accounted for the greater similarity in these scores. As a result, according to the high masculinity/high femininity conceptualization of androgyny, good-manager descriptions actually became decreasingly androgynous and more “undifferentiated”. Overall, the trend in leader prototypes over time was toward less emphasis on traits associated with members of either sex.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations of two alternative methods of analyses and the survey instrument are acknowledged. What constituted a good manager may have depended on the context. Further scholarly attention to the concept of an undifferentiated leadership style is recommended.

Practical implications

People may be moving beyond leader prototypes based on the simple application of gender stereotypes. Changes in leader prototypes over the past four decades may contribute to enhancements in women’s societal status.

Social implications

Leader prototypes may disadvantage women less than in the past.

Originality/value

Results suggest that the role of androgyny in leader prototypes is declining according to the high masculinity/high femininity conceptualization.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 9 February 2015

Theo Lieven, Bianca Grohmann, Andreas Herrmann, Jan R. Landwehr and Miriam van Tilburg

This research aims to examine the impact of brand design elements (logo shape, brand name, type font and color) on brand masculinity and femininity perceptions, consumer…

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Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to examine the impact of brand design elements (logo shape, brand name, type font and color) on brand masculinity and femininity perceptions, consumer preferences and brand equity.

Design/methodology/approach

This research empirically tests the relation between brand design elements, brand masculinity and femininity and brand preferences/equity in four studies involving fictitious and real brands.

Findings

Brand design elements consistently influenced brand masculinity and femininity perceptions. These, in turn, significantly related to consumer preferences and brand equity. Brand masculinity and femininity perceptions successfully predicted brand equity above and beyond other brand personality dimensions.

Research limitations/implications

Although this research used a wide range of brand design elements, the interactive effects of various design elements warrant further research.

Practical implications

This research demonstrates how markers of masculinity and femininity that are discussed in the evolutionary psychology literature can be applied to the brand design of new and existing brands.

Originality/value

This research considers the impact of multiple brand design elements (logo shape, brand name, type font and color) and involves a wide range of brands and product categories.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 49 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 9 February 2015

Amelie Guevremont and Bianca Grohmann

– This paper examines to what extent consonants in brand names influence consumers’ perceptions of feminine and masculine brand personality.

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2374

Abstract

Purpose

This paper examines to what extent consonants in brand names influence consumers’ perceptions of feminine and masculine brand personality.

Design/methodology/approach

Four experiments empirically test the influence of consonants on feminine and masculine brand personality. The experiments involve different sets of new brand names, variations regarding the consonants tested (the stops k and t, the fricatives f and s), as well as different locations of the focal consonant in the brand name.

Findings

Consonants influence consumers’ brand perceptions: brand masculinity is enhanced by stops (rather than fricatives), and brand femininity is enhanced by fricatives (rather than stops). Consonants specifically affect feminine and masculine brand personality, but not other brand personality dimensions. Consumers’ responses to brand names and resulting brand gender perceptions (i.e. likelihood to recommend) were moderated by salience of masculinity or femininity as a desirable brand attribute.

Practical implications

This research has implications for brand name selection: consonants are effective in creating a specifically masculine or a feminine brand personality.

Originality/value

This research is the first to specifically link consonants and feminine/masculine brand personality. By specifically examining consonants, this research extends the marketing literature on sound symbolism that is characterized by a focus on vowels effects. This research is also the first to address whether the position of the focal phoneme in the brand name matters.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 49 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 27 May 2014

Sarlaksha Ganesh and Mangadu Paramasivam Ganesh

The purpose of this paper was to attempt to understand the effects of gender, masculinity-femininity and social support from three sources (supervisor, co-worker and…

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3543

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to attempt to understand the effects of gender, masculinity-femininity and social support from three sources (supervisor, co-worker and family) on the quality of work life (QWL) of an employee. In addition, the paper tried to explore the moderating effects of gender and social support in the relationship between masculinity-femininity and QWL. Relevant background variables such as age, marital status, parental status and sector have been included as control variables in the study.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from a sample of 307 bank employees in India (208 males and 99 females) working in private and public sector banks using the purposive sampling technique. Prior permission was obtained from the relevant authorities. To test the hypotheses, t-tests and hierarchical regression analyses were performed. In addition, the Baron and Kenny (1986) approach was used to test the moderating effects of gender and social support in the relationship between masculinity-femininity and QWL.

Findings

Masculinity-femininity was not found to be significant predictor of QWL, while gender emerged as a significant predictor of QWL. Also, gender moderated the relationship between masculinity-femininity and QWL. All three sources of social support significantly predicted QWL. Results of t-test showed that female employees experienced better QWL than male employees. Furthermore, supervisory category employees and parent employees reported significantly better QWL than non-supervisory and non-parent employees.

Practical implications

The key implication for organisations is that employees with both masculine and feminine tendencies are required to strike a balance between goal orientation and people orientation within the company. Also, employees should understand that their gender as well as their individual orientations towards masculinity or femininity will affect the dynamics of any interaction. Hence, being aware of the tendencies that are typical of their gender role orientations both while dealing with themselves as well as while dealing with customers, colleagues or supervisors would help in improving the quality of their work, as well as their QWL, especially in customer service professions.

Originality/value

This is one of the few studies that have tried to answer the “why” part of gender differences in QWL. In addition, this study contributes to an understanding of the relative importance of different sources of social support in improving an employee's QWL. Finally, this is the first study to understand the relationship between masculinity-femininity, social support, gender and QWL in the Indian context, where the overall cultural orientation towards gender roles is currently changing.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2016

Diana M. Hechavarria and Amy E. Ingram

This paper aims to examine the interplay among forms of entrepreneurship and the gendered entrepreneurial divide. Using data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM…

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3037

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the interplay among forms of entrepreneurship and the gendered entrepreneurial divide. Using data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) and the World Values Survey (WVS), the authors investigate the likelihood that females will venture in the commercial entrepreneurial ventures versus social entrepreneurial ventures. The authors draw on the theoretical concept of hegemonic masculinity and emphasized femininity to explain gender variance in the organizational forms of commercial and social entrepreneurship. Specifically, the authors investigate whether pursuing an opportunity in a society that highly values ideologies of hegemonic masculinity and emphasized femininity impacts the probability of venturing in either of these kinds of organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

To test the hypotheses, the authors use GEM data from 2009 (n = 14,399) for nascent entrepreneurs and baby businesses owners in 55 counties. They also use the WVS to measure the ideologies of hegemonic masculinity and emphasized femininity at the country level. The authors estimate a logistic multilevel model to identify the drivers of social venturing over commercial venturing. Data are nested by countries, and the authors allow random intercepts by countries with a variance components covariance structure.

Findings

The findings demonstrate that there is a divide in entrepreneurial activity, as women entrepreneurs are more likely to start social ventures than commercial ventures. They also find that hegemonic masculinity decreases the incidence of social entrepreneurship, whereas emphasized femininity increases the incidence of social entrepreneurship. Moreover, the authors find evidence that women in societies with a strong view on hegemonic masculinity are less likely to pursue social organizational forms than male entrepreneurs are. Furthermore, in societies with strong views of emphasized femininity, the probability increases that female founders will pursue social organizational forms. The findings highlight the considerable impact of the gender ideologies on entrepreneurship.

Research limitations/implications

Although the authors use the terms “gender” and “sex” in this paper interchangeably, they recognize that these two terms are not equivalent. For the purposes of this manuscript, the authors use a gender analysis approach activity based on biological sex to investigate empirical differences in entrepreneurial. The findings suggest that women ultimately, and unintentionally, are consenting to the practices and norms that reiterate the masculinity of entrepreneurship. In this way, the patriarchal ideologies of hegemonic masculinity and masculinization of entrepreneurship ultimately leave women unable to fully take up the identity of “woman” alongside that of “entrepreneur”. Future research can build upon our findings by applying a more nuanced view of gender via constructivist approaches.

Originality/value

The findings empirically demonstrate the gendered nature of entrepreneurial activity, leading to specific stereotypical female social organizational forms and male commercial organizational forms. Furthermore, the authors are able to provide theoretical explanations based on hegemonic masculinity and emphasized femininity to understand why social entrepreneurship appeals to women.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

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Book part
Publication date: 15 October 2018

Charlotte Dann

Over the last decade, there has been a substantial rise in the popularity of tattooing in the UK, and a subsequent increase in tattooed female bodies. As explored by…

Abstract

Over the last decade, there has been a substantial rise in the popularity of tattooing in the UK, and a subsequent increase in tattooed female bodies. As explored by Walter (2010), key for the women of today is that they have a choice, to conform to stereotypical constructions of femininity, or resist them. However, tension lies in the ways that these choices are already constrained by socially imposed boundaries. In exploring constructions of tattooed female bodies, a stratified sample of 14 tattooed women were interviewed, with the transcripts being analysed using a discursive–narrative approach. Reflexivity forms a key part of the analysis, as I research a tattooed woman, with some of the insider–outsider intersections informing the analysis. Here, the discourse of unwritten rules and social norms is explored, with a specific focus on how tattooed women construct ‘right’ and ‘wrong’ choices in respect to the tattoos they and others get, the expectation and the normalisation of the pain of getting and having a tattoo, and finally, the generational difference in respect to how tattoos are accepted and understood.

Details

Subcultures, Bodies and Spaces: Essays on Alternativity and Marginalization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-512-8

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Book part
Publication date: 2 July 2010

Desiré J.M. Anastasia

Purpose – The goal of my study is to investigate women's tattooing in a phenomenological way, and to go in-depth into a “handful” of cases with the purpose of discussing…

Abstract

Purpose – The goal of my study is to investigate women's tattooing in a phenomenological way, and to go in-depth into a “handful” of cases with the purpose of discussing tattooed women's daily lives and experiences. The main purpose of this study is to contribute to the scholarly literature on the sociology of the body, and particularly to women and tattoos.

Methodology/approach – Open-ended conversational interviews and feminist phenomenological methods together shed light on the possible connection between gendered attitudes about women's bodies and tattoos and tattooed women's personal feelings of beauty and femininity.

Findings – In this particular chapter, I describe the connections between women's tattoos: (1) personal or individual beauty and (2) femininity. Findings show that although women tend to think that tattooing goes against current societal beauty norms and ideas of femininity, many women feel that their tattoos make them more beautiful.

Originality/value of chapter – This study offers important insights into the social experiences of extensively tattooed women and, therefore, contributes to a more sociological and gender-specific glimpse of women's lives and tattooing. My discussion of and findings on tattooed women's lived experiences, however partial, should promote wider conceptualizations of the tattooing phenomenon, allow a wealth of tattoo meanings and experiences to come into the spotlight, and point to new ways to study tattoos and gendered bodies in the future.

Details

Interactions and Intersections of Gendered Bodies at Work, at Home, and at Play
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-944-2

1 – 10 of over 3000