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1 – 10 of 53
Article
Publication date: 1 March 2007

Marick F. Masters, Ray Gibney and Thomas J. Zagenczyk

Unions face serious challenges, which raise questions about organizational priorities. An issue important to the recent breakup of the AFLCIO is the priority given…

Abstract

Unions face serious challenges, which raise questions about organizational priorities. An issue important to the recent breakup of the AFLCIO is the priority given political action vis-à-vis organizing. We examine competing theoretical perspectives on the potential relationship between union political action and organizing effectiveness. We present evidence on the scope of union political spending and conduct a preliminary analysis of its correlation with organizing. Our results indicate a negative relationship, but we urge a cautious interpretation. Theory raises substantial doubts about political activity as a motivation for joining a union. We urge more research.

Details

International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2006

Audrey J. Murrell and Thomas J. Zagenczyk

The purpose of this paper is to understand better the gendered nature of role model status within organizations. The paper aims to argue that women require organizational…

1554

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand better the gendered nature of role model status within organizations. The paper aims to argue that women require organizational legitimacy to be perceived as a role model, whereas men rely primarily on the strength of social ties within their friendship networks.

Design/methodology/approach

An empirical study of admissions department employees at a large eastern university within the USA was conducted. Using a social network approach, participants were asked to identify advice, friendship and role model relationships and provide information about awards and recognition received from the organization.

Findings

The results showed that, in order to be perceived as a role model, females needed to give (but not ask for) advice, earn organizational rewards, hold leadership positions in the organization, and maintain strong ties with other employees. Males only had to have a number of friendship or advice ties to be seen as a role model.

Research limitations/implications

The findings are consistent with the idea that females need to establish formal organizational status or legitimacy (e.g. leadership roles, rewards) in order to be perceived as a role model. In addition, balancing advice‐giving versus advice‐seeking is more important for female compared with male role models.

Originality/value

This paper examines the concept of role modeling using a social network analysis, thus providing new insight about the impact of advice and friendship network centrality on role model status in organizations.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 11 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 December 2007

Thomas J. Zagenczyk, Audrey J. Murrell and Ray Gibney

The aim of this article is to examine how office designs influence social capital or the value inherent in relationships. More specifically, this article attempts to…

1596

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this article is to examine how office designs influence social capital or the value inherent in relationships. More specifically, this article attempts to better understand the level to which the value of social capital accrues, either to the individual or to the group.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors review theoretical and empirical research on the physical work environment and social capital to develop propositions that relate the effects of open office environments on the development of group‐ and individual‐level social capital.

Findings

It is argued that an open‐office environment, defined as an office design that attempts to maximize functional communication among organization members by removing physical barriers that hinder the flow of work and communications, can positively affect the development of social capital within an organization. Specifically, it is suggested that open office designs will foster the development of group‐level social capital (i.e. social capital that benefits the group, the result of network closure) but reduce individual‐level social capital (i.e. social capital that benefits individuals who connect otherwise unconnected groups in the network, or structural holes).

Practical implications

By effectively managing the physical work environment, organizations can better control and/or influence the frequency and nature of interactions between employees, which may result in desirable outcomes for both the organization and employees.

Originality/value

The article integrates two streams of literature – social capital and physical work environment – and will be of interest to researchers in both literature groups. In addition, office managers and designers can benefit from the discussion in an effort to foster group level social capital.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Contemporary HRM Issues in the 21st Century
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-457-7

Book part
Publication date: 16 July 2018

Gary W. Florkowski

Three decades of academic and professional discourse on HR technologies (HRTs) have produced continued disagreement over construct definitions and research streams that…

Abstract

Three decades of academic and professional discourse on HR technologies (HRTs) have produced continued disagreement over construct definitions and research streams that are highly fragmented. These realities suggest that greater consistency in meanings is sorely needed if we are to integrate and upgrade knowledge in this area. This chapter draws on the findings of a systematic research review to properly define the content domains of human resource information systems (HRIS), virtual human resources (virtual HR), electronic human resource management (e-HRM), and business-to-employee (B2E) systems. An integrative synthesis was performed on 242 system-level writings that appeared in the literature from 1983 to 2017. The weight of the evidence strongly supports treating HRIS, virtual HR, e-HRM, and B2E systems as independent, complimentary constructs. While the first three comprise a firm’s HRT system, the fourth construct is more appropriately positioned in the business-collaborative system. The sample was further evaluated with an analytic framework to detect patterns of practice in research designs. This revealed that much more attention has been focused on system actions and outcomes than on attitudes and system characteristics. Different units of analysis were well represented aside from trans-organizational studies. Finally, a case is made for better contextualizing HRT research by recognizing differences in assimilation stage, functional penetration, and collective proficiency. These factors are rarely mentioned, let alone studied, raising additional concerns about measurement error. Detailed suggestions are offered on ways to incorporate them. Together, these materials should promote more sophisticated and generalizable assessments of technology, improving our ability to understand its impacts.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-322-3

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 February 2021

A. Thushel Jayaweera, Matthijs Bal, Katharina Chudzikowski and Simon de Jong

This paper contains a meta-analysis of the psychological contract literature published in the last two decades. The aim of this paper was to investigate the moderating…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper contains a meta-analysis of the psychological contract literature published in the last two decades. The aim of this paper was to investigate the moderating role of national culture in the individual-level relationships between psychological contract breach (PCB) and two important work outcomes, namely job performance (in-role and organizational citizenship behaviors) and turnover (actual and intended).

Design/methodology/approach

After an extensive literature search, 134 studies were found which matched the authors’ aim. The authors then incorporated national cultural scores based on the GLOBE study to include country-level scores to identify how the PCB relationships with these four outcomes vary across cultures.

Findings

The findings indicate that national cultural practices moderated the associations between PCB and the four outcomes, yet, no significant moderations for uncertainty avoidance practices.

Originality/value

While existing research has examined the impact of the breach on work outcomes such as job performance and turnover, there are few empirical studies that examine how national cultural practices influence the relationships between psychological contract breach and job performance and turnover. The authors address this need by investigating and creating a deeper insight into how cultural practices such as institutional collectivism, performance-orientation, power-distance, future orientation and gender egalitarianism moderate the relationships between PCB and job performance and turnover.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 16 August 2021

Abstract

Details

Intercultural Management in Practice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-827-0

Article
Publication date: 22 November 2019

Andrea M. Scheetz and Timothy J. Fogarty

Based on exchange theory and the generalized norm of reciprocity, psychological contracts perceived by employees are believed to have dysfunctional consequences for…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on exchange theory and the generalized norm of reciprocity, psychological contracts perceived by employees are believed to have dysfunctional consequences for organizations if breached. This paper aims to study the willingness of employees to report fraud, as such is an important aspect of internal control for organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

A 2 × 2 between-subjects experiment was conducted in which 99 participants with diverse accounting backgrounds were first asked questions about their preconceived beliefs (psychological contract) regarding how reports of unethical conduct would be managed, and their reaction if these beliefs were broken (psychological contract violation). Participants were given a hypothetical situation of fraud and then asked to indicate their likelihood of reporting fraud to a supervisor.

Findings

The main hypotheses are that employees will be less likely to report fraud when the organization fails to signal the presence of a positive ethical environment or when management reacts weakly to previous reports of unethical activity. The data and findings support these hypotheses. Additional testing also reveals that a psychological contract violation mediates the relationship between the outcome of previous reports and the intention to report fraud.

Research limitations/implications

As with any experimental study, this study’s results come with limitations. Reading an overly simplistic scenario that omits real world details and providing intention to report is very different from actually reporting fraud in one’s own place of employment. Therefore, reporting intentions may vary from actual reporting behavior. Further, reporting motivation (self-defense, altruism, etc.) and concern over retaliation are not measured.

Practical implications

Employees have expectations surrounding ethical corporate environments. Psychological contract violations occur as a result of broken expectations and are common in the workforce. In this study, a breakdown in the internal control environment because of a poor ethical culture, caused an even greater breakdown in internal controls because of employees’ decreased reporting intentions.

Social implications

Psychological contract violations impact employees’ intention to report fraud. These violations need to be understood so that additional measures and safeguards can be instituted when employees are not acting as a fraud defense or detection mechanism. During such times when there is a breakdown in this type of internal control (that is, when employees might be hesitant to report fraud), extra safeguards against fraud, additional procedures to detect fraud, and enhanced employee training encouraging reporting of suspected unethical conduct, become even more important.

Originality/value

Strong experimental methods provide a rigorous way to evaluate a problem of our day: job insecurity caused by rampant organizational turbulence. The hidden cost is expressed in terms of how less can be expected of employees as a first line of defense against fraud.

Details

Journal of Accounting & Organizational Change, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1832-5912

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 17 October 2016

Seth M. Spain, P. D. Harms and Dustin Wood

The role of dark side personality characteristics in the workplace has received increasing attention in the organizational sciences and from leadership researchers in…

Abstract

The role of dark side personality characteristics in the workplace has received increasing attention in the organizational sciences and from leadership researchers in particular. We provide a review of this area, mapping out the key frameworks for assessing the dark side. We pay particular attention to the roles that the dark side plays in leadership processes and career dynamics, with special attention given to destructive leadership. Further, we examine the role that stress plays in the emergence of leaders and how the dark side plays into that process. We additionally provide discussion of the possible roles that leaders can play in producing stress experiences for their followers. We finally illustrate a dynamic model of the interplay of dark leadership, social relationships, and stress in managerial derailment. Throughout, we emphasize a functionalist account of these personality characteristics, placing particular focus on the motives and emotional capabilities of the individuals under discussion.

Details

The Role of Leadership in Occupational Stress
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-061-9

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 August 2020

Dirk De Clercq, Muhammad Umer Azeem and Inam Ul Haq

This study investigates the connection between employees' dissatisfaction with the organizational status quo and their job performance, with a particular focus on the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates the connection between employees' dissatisfaction with the organizational status quo and their job performance, with a particular focus on the mediating role of their problem-focused voice behavior – through which they pinpoint possible causes of organizational problem situations – and the moderating role of their Machiavellianism.

Design/methodology/approach

Three-wave survey data were collected from employees and their supervisors in Pakistani organizations.

Findings

An important reason that employees' beliefs about organizational underperformance spur their own performance, as rated by supervisors, is that they spend significant energy expressing their concerns about shortcomings. The mediating role of such constructive voice behaviors is mitigated though, to the extent that employees have stronger Machiavellian tendencies.

Practical implications

For human resource managers, the findings reveal problem-focused voice as a key mechanism by which employees' negative perceptions about how well their organization fares can be channeled into higher job performance. They also elucidate how this process is less likely among employees who are self-centered and less concerned about their organization' well-being, such that they hold back pertinent information about organizational failures from others.

Originality/value

The study pinpoints problem-focused voice as an unexplored behavioral response by which employees' beliefs about organizational underperformance can enhance their job performance. It also details how the tendency of Machiavellian employees to stay away from such voice activities may backfire in the form of lower performance evaluations.

1 – 10 of 53