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Book part
Publication date: 16 July 2018

Gary W. Florkowski

Three decades of academic and professional discourse on HR technologies (HRTs) have produced continued disagreement over construct definitions and research streams that…

Abstract

Three decades of academic and professional discourse on HR technologies (HRTs) have produced continued disagreement over construct definitions and research streams that are highly fragmented. These realities suggest that greater consistency in meanings is sorely needed if we are to integrate and upgrade knowledge in this area. This chapter draws on the findings of a systematic research review to properly define the content domains of human resource information systems (HRIS), virtual human resources (virtual HR), electronic human resource management (e-HRM), and business-to-employee (B2E) systems. An integrative synthesis was performed on 242 system-level writings that appeared in the literature from 1983 to 2017. The weight of the evidence strongly supports treating HRIS, virtual HR, e-HRM, and B2E systems as independent, complimentary constructs. While the first three comprise a firm’s HRT system, the fourth construct is more appropriately positioned in the business-collaborative system. The sample was further evaluated with an analytic framework to detect patterns of practice in research designs. This revealed that much more attention has been focused on system actions and outcomes than on attitudes and system characteristics. Different units of analysis were well represented aside from trans-organizational studies. Finally, a case is made for better contextualizing HRT research by recognizing differences in assimilation stage, functional penetration, and collective proficiency. These factors are rarely mentioned, let alone studied, raising additional concerns about measurement error. Detailed suggestions are offered on ways to incorporate them. Together, these materials should promote more sophisticated and generalizable assessments of technology, improving our ability to understand its impacts.

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Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-322-3

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Book part
Publication date: 9 August 2017

Richard D. Johnson and Kristina Diman

The purpose of this study was to develop and empirically examine a model of cloud-based human resource information systems (HRIS) adoption by small businesses based on the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to develop and empirically examine a model of cloud-based human resource information systems (HRIS) adoption by small businesses based on the technology–organization–environment model (Tornatzky & Fleischer, 1990).

Methodology/approach

This study utilized a survey of 41 small- to medium-sized enterprises in the northeastern United States to examine what HR functions were being supported by cloud-based HRIS and the relationship between three technology factors, three organizational factors, and three environmental factors, and their relationship with the adoption of cloud-based HRIS.

Findings

Findings indicated that small businesses are most likely to implement cloud-based HRIS to support day-to-day HR operations. In addition, the findings indicated that top management support (positive), vendor support (positive), and anticipated growth (negative) were each related to organizational adoption of cloud-based HRIS.

Implications

The study illustrates how the adoption of a cloud-based HRIS is motivated by different factors than those underlying the adoption of other types of information systems. Executives and small business owners will need to adapt their strategy when considering cloud-based HRIS compared to other types of systems.

Social implications

Given that small- to medium-sized organizations are the backbone of most global economies, findings from this study can help support society by helping these businesses better understand how to best consider the factors that will support the implementation of cloud-based HRIS.

Originality/value of the chapter

This chapter represents one of the first to empirically validate a model of the factors affecting adoption of cloud-based HRIS by small businesses.

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Article
Publication date: 29 October 2020

Gary W. Florkowski

Drawing on the HR technology (HRT) and information systems (IS) literatures, this study seeks to identify macro-level factors that influence the performance of HRT systems

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on the HR technology (HRT) and information systems (IS) literatures, this study seeks to identify macro-level factors that influence the performance of HRT systems. A second objective is to assess the relative contribution that HRT goal realization makes to organizational satisfaction with HR services.

Design/methodology/approach

This investigation draws on a web-based survey of 169 US and Canadian firms targeting HR executives as key informants. Structural equation modeling (SEM) tested the roles that organizational support, capabilities and aspects of the environment play in technology goal attainment and collective satisfaction with HR services. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) evaluated the properties of several key scales and supported their usage. Moderated regression analysis further assessed whether HRT age influenced certain relationships.

Findings

As predicted, system goal realization was positively related to the level of support from an HRT champion and an HR innovation climate, while being negatively related to HRT mimetic isomorphism. HR service satisfaction, in turn, was positively related to HRT goal realization, the HR innovation climate and HR environmental munificence. It also was determined that HRT champions had a stronger positive impact on goal realization for younger technology portfolios. This too was expected.

Research limitations/implications

External validity would be strengthened by not only increasing sample sizes for the USA and Canada, but also targeting more nations for data collection. The model's explanatory power may also be enhanced by improving the measurement of several predictors (e.g. top management support, absorptive capacity), as well incorporating constructs that focus on users (e.g. group potency, collective efficacy).

Practical implications

These findings underscore the need to proactively screen and structure the surrounding environment to facilitate portfolio success. Greater emphasis must be placed on (1) identifying and empowering HRT champions, (2) fostering an innovation climate in the HR function and (3) conditioning HRT purchases on “mindful” adoption. Doing so should not only increase the prospects of realizing goals, but also elevate satisfaction with HR services.

Originality/value

This is the first study to formally assess the effects that organizational and environmental context have on overall HRT systems performance. Prior research has focused on linking the local conditions of individual users to their perceptions and usage of HR technologies.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 50 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 24 July 2019

Gary Walter Florkowski

Drawing on the job demands-resources and IS literatures, the purpose of this paper is to identify organizational factors that mitigate technostress in the HR department;…

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Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on the job demands-resources and IS literatures, the purpose of this paper is to identify organizational factors that mitigate technostress in the HR department; and to evaluate how technostress and techno-insecurity affect technology’s impact on job satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

This research draws on a web-based survey of 169 US and Canadian firms targeting HR executives as key informants. An HR-context-specific, technostress model was tested with structural equation modeling. Exploratory factor analysis evaluated the structural properties of all multi-item scales and supported their usage. Moderated regression analysis further assessed whether the age and scope of technology portfolios affected certain relationships.

Findings

As predicted, department work stress was less likely to increase when there was HR technology (HRT) governance involvement and top management support for this class of technologies. Heightened techno-insecurity had the opposite effect, another anticipated outcome. HR’s IT-knowledge actually increased technostress, a counterintuitive result. In turn, HRTs were less likely to improve job satisfaction when technostress and techno-insecurity were high. Top management HRT support and an HR innovation climate better enabled portfolios to enhance satisfaction. Moderating influences were detected as well. As hypothesized, techno-insecurity had a stronger negative effect on job-satisfaction impact for younger portfolios, while innovation climate had a weaker relationship with techno-insecurity where portfolios were limited in scope.

Research limitations/implications

External validity would be strengthened by not only increasing sample sizes for the USA and Canada, but also targeting more nations for data collection. In addition, incorporating more user-oriented constructs in the present model (e.g. group potency, collective efficacy) may enhance its explanatory power.

Practical implications

These findings underscore the need to consider HR-staff attitudes in technology rollouts. To the extent HR technologies generate technostress, they at a minimum are impediments to department satisfaction, which may have important ramifications for usage and service. The results further establish that initiatives can be taken to offset this problem, both in terms of the ways portfolios are internally supported and how they are managed.

Originality/value

This is the first study to formally assess how collective work-attitudes in the HR department are affected by HR technologies. Prior research has focused on user-reactions to HRT features or their wider influence on stakeholder perceptions. It is also the first investigation to empirically test potential technostress inhibitors in HR settings.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. 41 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Article
Publication date: 27 May 2014

Carole Tansley, Susan Kirk, Hazel Williams and Harry Barton

The purpose of this paper is to examine and conceptualise the ways in which a balance can be achieved between optimising the efficiency and effectiveness of electronic…

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1535

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine and conceptualise the ways in which a balance can be achieved between optimising the efficiency and effectiveness of electronic human resource management (e-HRM) systems for human resource management (HRM) and enabling innovation to occur during the system implementation.

Design/methodology/approach

An interpretive case study of a UK local authority e-HRM system implementation is examined using the notion of ambidexterity as an analytical device. Ambidexterity relates to how an organisation develops the ability to operate efficiently in the now, while at the same time being able to adapt to environmental changes around and ahead of them in order to grow into the future.

Findings

As an intra-organisational capability, ambidexterity is found to derive from the simultaneous interplay and balancing of dual capabilities: exploitation and exploration. e-HRM exploitation concerned the capability to generate new knowledge with innovatory effects, created through the everyday practices performed by practitioners at all levels in the organisation. e-HRM exploration, rather than being a purposeful act, was found to be an accidental consequence of engaging in exploitation to maintain the status quo.

Research limitations/implications

The notion of ambidexterity was originally constructed within strategic management and studies in the field have previously been confined to this area. This makes this study theoretically and empirically experimental, making it a challenging research endeavour. Another limitation is that the authors only sought views from the interviewees on how external forces might limit or facilitate their ambidexterity, as opposed to actually studying those forces themselves.

Practical implications

The authors suggest that those in organisations who are responsible for strategic HRM need to consider ways in which “intentional” opportunities for ambidexterity in e-HRM systems implementation can be identified and harnessed to ensure better balances between exploitation and exploration in such endeavours and to guard against innovation only occurring through chance.

Originality/value

There is a lack of detailed investigation of how organisations actually achieve ambidexterity, particularly in three under-researched areas: ambidexterity in the public sector, at human resourcing functional level and e-HRM systems implementation. Bundling these three areas into an integrated examination allows us to both identify how exploitation and exploration play out in the ambidextrous practices of an e-HRM project and also to identify the dimensions of ambidexterity in balancing e-HRM work.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Article
Publication date: 20 June 2016

Spiros Panos and Victoria Bellou

Rapid technological changes have turned electronic-human resource management (e-HRM) into a significant academic and managerial agenda. The purpose of this paper is to…

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2360

Abstract

Purpose

Rapid technological changes have turned electronic-human resource management (e-HRM) into a significant academic and managerial agenda. The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact that different types of e-HRM goals have on distinct types of e-HRM outcomes and an explanatory mechanism, by incorporating HRM role as a mediator and IT users’ acceptance as a moderator.

Design/methodology/approach

HR managers of all organizations that adopt some form of e-HRM systems in Greece were asked to participate in the study. The responses of 80 out of 167 managers were analyzed through various methods, including exploratory factor analysis, cross-tabulations, and bootstrapping.

Findings

Evidently, regarding HRM roles and outcomes interaction, administrative experts tend to achieve primary outcomes whereas change strategists achieve transformational outcomes. Moreover, information technology (IT) users’ acceptance moderates the mediating effect of e-HRM goals on e-HRM outcomes.

Research limitations/implications

The limited sample and the cross-sectional design of the study are its key limitations.

Practical implications

The findings can facilitate HR manager’s effort to make the most out of e-HRM systems introduced, by stressing the influence of HR role adopted and IT users’ acceptance. Prior to e-HRM adoption, HR role and workforce must be prepared to fit, respectively, e-HRM goals and the expected outcomes. Additionally, apparently the outcomes to be realized through the adoption of e-HRM system may significantly differ in type, based on the goals set.

Originality/value

Albeit expected e-HRM outcomes are multiple and crucial for organizations nowadays, extant evidence is scarce. The moderated mediation model indicates that e-HRM outcomes to be realized largely depend upon other HRM role and IT users’ acceptance, rather than e-HRM goals initially set.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 54 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 7 October 2021

Ashutosh Jani, Ashutosh Muduli and Kaushal Kishore

Human resource (HR) transformation research has not studied the role of digital HR technology and HR role in the context of Indian organisations. To address the gap, the…

Abstract

Purpose

Human resource (HR) transformation research has not studied the role of digital HR technology and HR role in the context of Indian organisations. To address the gap, the current research aims to investigate the impact of HR role and digital HR technology on successful HR transformation. Further, the research shall investigate the mediating role of various HR roles (i.e. administrative, employee champion, change agent and strategic partner role) on digital HR technology and business outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

The research used a post-positivist methodology using survey method. Data has been collected from 918 executives representing several sectors of Fortune 500 Indian companies. Validated instrument has been used and the collected data are analysed using AMOS and structural equation modelling.

Findings

HR transformation using Digital human resource technology (HRT) can significantly enhance business outcome of fortune 500 companies of India if it is mediated by different HR role (strategic, employee champion, change agent and administrative expert). The result also proved that just implementation and adaption of the Digital HRT may not guarantee HR Transformation unless HR optimise the specific role as per the need of the hour.

Originality/value

HR transformation research has not studied the role of digital HR technology and HR role in the context of fortune 500 Indian organisations.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Book part
Publication date: 9 August 2017

Kathleen McDonald, Sandra Fisher and Catherine E. Connelly

As e-HRM systems move into the ‘smart’ technology realm, expectations and capabilities for both the automational and informational features of e-HRM systems are…

Abstract

Purpose

As e-HRM systems move into the ‘smart’ technology realm, expectations and capabilities for both the automational and informational features of e-HRM systems are increasing. This chapter uses the well-established DeLone and McLean (D&M) model from the information systems literature to analyze how a smart workforce management system can create value for an organization.

Methodology/approach

The chapter is based on an exploratory case study conducted with a North American industrial products firm. We review three systems-level predictors of success from the D&M model (system quality, information quality, and service quality) and evaluate the company’s systems on these attributes.

Findings

The company’s e-HRM systems fall short on the information quality dimension, which limits potential for overall system success related to smart workforce management.

Research limitations/implications

The e-HRM literature focuses on individual-level factors of system success, while the D&M model uses more macro factors. Blending these may help researchers and practitioners develop a more complete view of e-HRM systems. Conclusions from this chapter are limited due to the use of a single, exploratory case study.

Practical implications

Companies must pay attention to all three predictors of system quality when developing smart workforce management systems. In particular, implementation of a data governance program could help companies improve information quality of their systems.

Originality/value

This chapter adds to the literature on smart workforce management by using a model from the information systems literature and a practical example to explore how such a system could add value.

Details

Electronic HRM in the Smart Era
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-315-9

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Article
Publication date: 25 March 2020

The purpose of this study is to examine the role of HR function in supporting supervisors to implement FWA policy.

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715

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the role of HR function in supporting supervisors to implement FWA policy.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study was carried out in an Australian private sector insurance company where FWA policies had been in place for five years. Data was gathered from semi –structured and in-depth interviews with forty seven HR staff, managers and supervisors from four divisions within the organization covering a range of differing work roles. In addition seven corporate documents relating to flexible working were analyzed.

Findings

Five factors are identified as having an influence on the ability of managers to support FWAs through the meta-features of distinctiveness, consistency and consensus: policy alignment (strategic and operational), HR structure which provides support at senior and supervisory levels, influencing skills of HR staff, manager training and education on FWAs and supportive technology.

Practical implications

To improve practice organizations should consider both vertical and horizontal alignment of HR practices, give attention to operational alignment of HR practice, give training and support to supervisors and build direct access to expert advice into the HR structure.

Originality/value

This paper has an original approach in explaining how the HR function supports and constrain managers in implementing FWAs.

Details

Human Resource Management International Digest , vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-0734

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Article
Publication date: 27 May 2014

Ralf Burbach and Tony Royle

Drawing on institutional theory and existing international business practice transfer and e-HRM models this paper develops an e-HRM diffusion model to ascertain the…

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2523

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on institutional theory and existing international business practice transfer and e-HRM models this paper develops an e-HRM diffusion model to ascertain the institutional factors that determine the successful diffusion of e-HRM practices in multinational corporations (MNC). The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The research is based on the analysis of 25 semi-structured interviews with 15 key stakeholders in the German and Irish subsidiaries of a single US-based MNC as well as two interviews with a senior manager in one of its main competitors.

Findings

The findings suggest that the successful transfer of e-HRM is mediated by an interchange of various institutional-level factors (external, relational, organizational and individual) within the corporation and its subsidiaries. Successful implementation of e-HRM is synonymous with the successful integration and institutionalization of e-HRM practices in the subsidiaries.

Research limitations/implications

As this analysis is founded upon a single case study, it is difficult to make assumptions concerning the broad population of all MNC and their subsidiaries. Further research may be required to test the model and the findings presented in this paper.

Practical implications

The findings and the model presented in this paper demonstrate the impact of the institutional context and of key success factors of technology implementation on e-HRM diffusion success. These findings may be of particular relevance to organizations and practitioners who are embarking on an e-HRM installation in an international context.

Originality/value

This paper enriches the e-HRM and international management debate by identifying the key institutional factors impacting the diffusion of e-HRM practices in the subsidiaries of an MNC. In addition, the model put forward in the paper shows how these factors interact and how successful e-HRM diffusion can be characterized.

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