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Book part
Publication date: 20 May 2017

Hope Corman, Dhaval M. Dave, Ariel Kalil and Nancy E. Reichman

This study investigates the effects of a broad-based policy change that altered maternal employment, family income, and other family characteristics on drug-related crime…

Abstract

This study investigates the effects of a broad-based policy change that altered maternal employment, family income, and other family characteristics on drug-related crime among youth. Specifically, we exploit differences in the implementation of welfare reform in the United States across states and over time in the attempt to identify causal effects of welfare reform on youth arrests for drug-related crimes between 1990 and 2005, the period during which welfare reform unfolded. We use monthly arrest data from the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Uniform Crime Reports to estimate the effects of welfare reform implementation on drug-related arrests among 15- to 17-year-old teens exposed to welfare reform. The findings, based on numerous different model specifications, suggest that welfare reform had no statistically significant effect on teen drug arrests. Most estimates were positive and suggestive of a small (3%) increase in arrests.

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Human Capital and Health Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-466-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2000

Eleanor Wynn and James Katz

Analyses teen phone behaviour – regarding conversational skills among some boys with girls. Reveals some interesting household co‐ordination and parental supervision…

Abstract

Analyses teen phone behaviour – regarding conversational skills among some boys with girls. Reveals some interesting household co‐ordination and parental supervision issues around the use of the telephone. Concludes that, as there is an advance in technology, more and more services will be used creatively to resolve conflict between social control and monitoring and individual identity.

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info, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6697

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Article
Publication date: 25 November 2020

Rebecca Colina Neri

Nondominant youth faces complex structural inequalities and injustices that have a direct impact on their academic learning outcomes and psychosocial well-being. Research…

Abstract

Purpose

Nondominant youth faces complex structural inequalities and injustices that have a direct impact on their academic learning outcomes and psychosocial well-being. Research suggests that supporting the development of students’ critical consciousness not only improves their educational and career trajectories but also provides students with the tools, language and skills they need to examine, act upon and heal from the sociopolitical realities and injustices they face in their daily lives.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reports findings from a two-year Youth Participatory Action Research (YPAR) study conducted with students in a police-oriented Career and Technical Education program. YPAR was used as pedagogy for nondominant students to explore how to leverage their funds of knowledge (FK) in their learning and future careers as police officers to improve community–police relations.

Findings

This paper reports on one aspect of the findings from the YPAR project that includes: a) the relationship between students’ difficult FK, critical consciousness development and career aspirations; b) how, if left unaddressed, students’ difficult FK could mediate deficit and internally oppressive views of Communities of Color and other nondominant groups; and c) the power of transforming students’ difficult FK into pedagogical assets.

Originality/value

Engaging students’ difficult FK can support critical consciousness development and facilitate students’ ability to navigate and resist oppressive spaces, sustain their well-being and empower themselves and their families and communities.

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Information and Learning Sciences, vol. 121 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-5348

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Book part
Publication date: 20 May 2017

Abstract

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Human Capital and Health Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-466-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

Jane Mounteney

No one knows what the future holds. Not least for substance use and addictions. Few predicted the psychedelic movement in the 1960s, the crack ‘epidemic’ in the 1980s and…

Abstract

No one knows what the future holds. Not least for substance use and addictions. Few predicted the psychedelic movement in the 1960s, the crack ‘epidemic’ in the 1980s and the ‘E’ generation of the 1990s ‐ all of which had a profound influence on our culture, youth and our health. So what of the Naughties, Teenies and Twenties? With increased globalisation, new technologies, increasing spending power and the scope for increased pleasure‐seeking we are destined for more and new addictions. In this groundbreaking article, Jane Mounteney applies the technique of scenario planning to investigate a future dominated by technology, smart and nanodrugs and an ever‐increasing availability of drugs. With the emergence of the super nerd and groovy geek, who will be there to help the fallen?

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Drugs and Alcohol Today, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1745-9265

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2015

Cátia C. A. Magalhães and Karol L. Kumpfer

The purpose of this paper is to compare the outcomes from the Portuguese Strengthening Families Programme (SFP) with those from other countries to see if they are equally…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare the outcomes from the Portuguese Strengthening Families Programme (SFP) with those from other countries to see if they are equally effective despite the new context. SFP was selected for cultural adaptation because comparative effectiveness reviews find that SFP is the most effective parenting and family intervention (Foxcroft et al., 2003, 2012). Standardised cultural adaptations of SFP have resulted in successful outcomes in 35 countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The outcomes for the SFP six to 11 years Portuguese families (n=41) were compared to the SFP six to 11 years international norms (n=1,600) using a quasi-experimental, non-equivalent control two group pre- and post-test design. A 2×2 ANOVA generated the outcome tables including p-values and Cohen’s d effect sizes. Standardised test scales were used and measured 21 parenting, family and child risk and protective factors.

Findings

Statistically significant positive results (p < 0.05) were found for 16 or 76.2 per cent of the 21 outcomes measured for Portuguese families. The Portuguese effect sizes were similar to the SFP international norms for improvements in the five parenting scales (d=0.61 vs 0.65), five family scales (d=0.68 vs 0.70) and seven children’s scales (d=0.48 vs 0.48) despite these norms having larger effect sizes than the USA norms. Hence, the cultural adaptation did not diminish the outcomes and SFP Portuguese families can benefit substantially from SFP participation.

Originality/value

A Portuguese culturally adapted version of SFP had never been developed or evaluated; hence, this paper reports original findings.

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Journal of Children's Services, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-6660

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Book part
Publication date: 21 December 2013

Sara Towe Horsfall

Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to develop a framework for understanding deviant genres of music. Although it seems destructive, deviant music…

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to develop a framework for understanding deviant genres of music. Although it seems destructive, deviant music has positive effects, and can encourage greater socialization into the larger society.

Design/methodology/approach – By looking at deviant music of the past, it is possible to see more clearly why such music was created, and what functions it has in society. Three main functions were identified: social criticism, spreading the news, and public catharsis of outstanding events.

Findings – These three functions are found in deviant music today. But there are differences. Heavy metal, a counter culture, uses offensive language and images to repel unwanted outsiders and thus avoids commercialization. Grunge, music of a drop out culture, became popular and lost some of its alternative identity. Rap started as a legitimate African American youth art form but was hijacked by the music industry and has expanded beyond a meaningful art world. This has left both artists and listeners vulnerable to a distorted image.

Originality – The real value of deviant music is its historical record of the inner world of subcultures.

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Article
Publication date: 19 September 2016

William B. Hansen and Jared L. Hansen

The purpose of this paper is to present a strategy for estimating an individual’s risk of alcohol, cigarette and cannabis use that relies on an assessment of an…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a strategy for estimating an individual’s risk of alcohol, cigarette and cannabis use that relies on an assessment of an adolescent’s age, gender and attitude.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors assembled surveys from 35,987 11-17 year-olds from 36 databases to examine the relationship between attitude and behaviour.

Findings

Attitudes were strongly correlated with concurrent use of alcohol, drunkenness, smoking and cannabis, with correlations of −0.555, −0.517, −0.552 and −0.476, respectively. Logistic regression provided a means for using age, gender and attitudes to estimate an individual’s risk of engaging in substance use behaviour. Developmental changes in attitudes were estimated by analysing changes in scores associated with percentile rankings for each age and gender group. Projected year-to-year changes in attitude were used as a heuristic for estimating future risk.

Research limitations/implications

Analyses relied on cross-sectional panel data. Analyses would benefit from longitudinal data in which age-related changes in attitudes could be more precisely modelled.

Practical implications

Information about estimated current and future risk may prove useful for motivating the adoption and implementation of effective prevention approaches by parents and care providers.

Originality/value

The authors present a novel method for estimating an individual’s risk of substance use knowing attitude, age and gender.

Details

Journal of Children's Services, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-6660

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Article
Publication date: 12 May 2020

Marcio Pereira Basilio and Valdecy Pereira

Because that the crime in a wide way impacts the life of the people in the big metropolis, researchers have treated the question from several angles. The purpose of the…

Abstract

Purpose

Because that the crime in a wide way impacts the life of the people in the big metropolis, researchers have treated the question from several angles. The purpose of the paper, under the umbrella of operational research, is to develop a model of the ordering of police strategies, in the fight against crime in general, according to a certain criminal demand.

Design/methodology/approach

For the construction of the impact matrix of the strategies under the reduction of crime rates, considering a portfolio of crimes, a questionnaire applied to specialists was used. In a second moment, defined the criteria and strategies to be ordered, the multicriteria ELECTRE IV method was used, which with the help of the J-Electre software emulated the systematized data in the impact matrix and produced the final ordering of the most efficient strategies, in the fight against crime, in the perception of decision-makers.

Findings

As a result, the research revealed that policing strategies directed at solving specific crimes are the most effective in the perception of decision-makers after the emulation of data with the ELECTRE IV method.

Research limitations/implications

As research implications, it can be inferred that the use of multicriteria methods in the modeling of problems in the area of public security can contribute to rationalization of the use of the means available in the fight against crime in large cities. The research showed that it is possible to use customized policing strategies to a certain reality.

Practical implications

The method presented in this research is directly related to the major strategies: problem-oriented policing and hot spot policing. This method allows public safety managers to consider the possibility of combining different law enforcement strategies in each context. In this sense, the use of the multiple-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) (ELECTRE IV) method allows the evaluation of a large set of alternatives according to a set of established criteria, speeding up the process and reducing subjectivity, allowing the manager to analyze several scenarios with greater clarity and impartiality and choosing an alternative that best solves the proposed problem. The expected result is the rationalization of the available means applied in the search for the reduction of crime rates.

Social implications

The customization of policing strategies, according to criminal demands, implies the efficient way to reduce criminal charges. Reducing criminal rates enables the development of the local economy, tourism and the quality of life of people by exercising their freedom to the full.

Originality/value

The originality lies in filling a gap in the literature with the elaboration of the impact matrix of policing strategies in reducing criminal indices, and in their associated use in ordering strategies through a multicriteria method.

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2003

David Clover

Abstract

Details

Reference Reviews, vol. 17 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0950-4125

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