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Article
Publication date: 31 August 2012

Colette Fagan and Helen Norman

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether the social divisions in maternal employment patterns post‐childbirth, recorded by earlier studies have persisted for a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether the social divisions in maternal employment patterns post‐childbirth, recorded by earlier studies have persisted for a later cohort of mothers that had a pregnancy in the early 2000s, in the context of an expansion of childcare and other improvements in reconciliation measures.

Design/methodology/approach

Longitudinal data from the UK's Millennium Cohort Study are analysed using logistic regression.

Findings

It was found that mothers are more likely to be employed, and employed full‐time, when their child is aged three if they were employed during the pregnancy and resumed employment within nine months of the birth. The mothers' occupational class, ethnicity, household composition and the working hours of a partner also have independent associations with the probability of maternal employment once the child is aged three.

Research limitations/implications

The authors would expect these results to be modified – but not overturned – in a different national setting, for example where childcare services are more extensive or part‐time employment is less common.

Originality/value

These new longitudinal survey results for a recent cohort of mothers in the UK demonstrate that resumption of employment following maternity leave is pivotal for women's subsequent employment integration. Yet maternal employment trajectories remain shaped by social inequalities. Both results are important for informing debates about reconciliation policy for the pre‐school years, including monitoring the impact of the recession on the employment integration of women following childbirth.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 32 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1995

Julian Barling

Despite widespread agreement that work and family roles areinterdependent, there is little consensus as to how work affects familyfunctioning. Presents a framework to…

Abstract

Despite widespread agreement that work and family roles are interdependent, there is little consensus as to how work affects family functioning. Presents a framework to account for this. First, articulates two hypotheses critical to this framework. It is the quality of the employment experience, and not employment status nor the quantity of employment, that is critical to understanding the effects of work on the family. Thus, the traditional assumption that employment is uniformly beneficial for men and detrimental for women is of little explanatory value. Work exerts an indirect effect on family functioning, and the variables that link work and family are pivotal in understanding the inter‐dependence of work and family. Presents research conducted explicitly to test this framework. Identifies conceptual ramifications and implications for organizational interventions and personal counselling.

Details

Employee Councelling Today, vol. 7 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-8217

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Book part
Publication date: 29 October 2018

Abstract

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The Work-Family Interface: Spillover, Complications, and Challenges
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-112-4

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Article
Publication date: 5 November 2020

Sasitara Nuampa, Pharuhas Chanprapaph, Fongcum Tilokskulchai and Metpapha Sudphet

The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of adolescent mothers who wean their babies from breastfeeding before the first six months from the perspective of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of adolescent mothers who wean their babies from breastfeeding before the first six months from the perspective of a psychosocial aspect in the Thai context.

Design/methodology/approach

A descriptive qualitative design was applied to this study to obtain meaningful data. The adolescent mothers for the primary study and nine supplementary participants were recruited from the largest university hospital in Bangkok, Thailand. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 adolescent mothers. Descriptive statistics and content analysis were used for data analysis.

Findings

The average breastfeeding duration was 3.1 months while breastfeeding exclusively lasted 1.3 months. More than half of the adolescent mothers encountered breastfeeding problems at hospitalization including sore/cracked nipples (63.6%), one side breastfeeding (27.3%) and exhaustion (9.1%). According to the content analysis, (1) breastfeeding obstacles concealed by the adolescents' dependence and (2) repetitive emotional mistakes encountered were the two main themes that emerged.

Originality/value

The influence of key family members plays a vital role in breastfeeding and psychological outcomes. Therefore, family-adolescent support programs including support from the adolescents' mothers and grandmothers may improve breastfeeding outcomes, yield positive emotions and enhance maternal attachment. Moreover, healthcare professions are important mediators to convince adolescent mothers' key family members to reach an agreement and provide suitable support.

Details

Journal of Health Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0857-4421

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Book part
Publication date: 6 February 2013

Catharine H. Warner and Melissa A. Milkie

Purpose – We seek to understand how gender shapes the practice of concerted cultivation in connection to other key social locations of race and…

Abstract

Purpose – We seek to understand how gender shapes the practice of concerted cultivation in connection to other key social locations of race and class.Design/methodology/approach – This quantitative research paper uses multi-level modeling to provide an intersectional analysis of parenting practices across diverse social and institutional settings.Findings – We find gender matters: across three aspects of “concerted cultivation” (involvement in schooling, extracurricular activities, and cultural outings), parents invest more time and resources in girls compared to boys. More importantly, using an intersectional approach, we find distinct racial/ethnic differences in engendering concerted cultivation. Gender differences occur among Black and Hispanic but not white parents’ involvement in their child's schooling. Additionally, parents cultivate girls’ participation in certain kinds of extracurricular activities more so than for boys, but this difference is greatest at the highest socioeconomic levels.Social and practical implications – The ways in which parents’ shape young children's activities and experiences in daily life vary greatly across gender, race, and class statuses.Originality/value – Gender shapes access and exclusion to various social settings across the life course; this paper adds to literature on socialization, incorporating other social statuses into understandings of processes of the social reproduction of inequality. These results are of value to parents, schools, and social scientists.

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Notions of Family: Intersectional Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-535-7

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1981

This register of current research in social economics has been compiled by the International Institute of Social Economics. The register does not claim to be comprehensive…

Abstract

This register of current research in social economics has been compiled by the International Institute of Social Economics. The register does not claim to be comprehensive but is merely an aid for research workers and institutions interested in social economics. The register will be updated and made more comprehensive in the future but this is largely dependent on the inflow of information from researchers in social economics. In order to facilitate this process a standardised form is to be found on the last page of this register. Completed forms, with attached sheets as necessary, should be returned to the compiler: Dr Barrie O. Pettman, Director, International Institute of Social Economics, Enholmes Hall, Patrington, Hull, N. Humberside, England, HU12 OPR. Any other comments on the register will also be welcome.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Book part
Publication date: 25 February 2016

Martha H. Stinson and Peter Gottschalk

We investigate the question of whether investing in a child’s development by having a parent stay at home when the child is young is correlated with the child’s adult…

Abstract

We investigate the question of whether investing in a child’s development by having a parent stay at home when the child is young is correlated with the child’s adult outcomes. Specifically, do children with stay-at-home mothers have higher adult earnings than children raised in households with a working mother? The major contribution of our study is that, unlike previous studies, we have access to rich longitudinal data that allows us to measure both the parental earnings when the child is very young and the adult earnings of the child. Our findings are consistent with previous studies that show insignificant differences between children raised by stay-at-home mothers during their early years and children with mothers working in the market. We find no impact of maternal employment during the first five years of a child’s life on earnings, employment, or mobility measures of either sons or daughters. We do find, however, that maternal employment during children’s high school years is correlated with a higher probability of employment as adults for daughters and a higher correlation between parent and daughter earnings ranks.

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Inequality: Causes and Consequences
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-810-0

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1999

Jacqueline Scott

Uses data from 1994 International Social Survey Programme to examine how attitudes to maternal employment at different stages of child rearing vary across and within eight…

Abstract

Uses data from 1994 International Social Survey Programme to examine how attitudes to maternal employment at different stages of child rearing vary across and within eight nations in the European Union, UK, Germany, Austria, the Netherlands, Sweden, Ireland, Italy and Spain. Considers whether a mismatch exists between belief in a women’s right to work and the “traditional” family ideology. Highlights a north/south divide in attitude and differing welfare policies and gender‐role beliefs.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 19 no. 9/10/11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Book part
Publication date: 29 October 2018

Kei Nomaguchi and Marshal Neal Fettro

Past studies suggest that full-time maternal employment may be negatively related to children’s cognitive development. Most studies measure maternal employment at one time…

Abstract

Past studies suggest that full-time maternal employment may be negatively related to children’s cognitive development. Most studies measure maternal employment at one time point, while mothers’ work hours may not be stable during early childrearing years. Using data from the 2001 Early Childhood Longitudinal Study – Birth Cohort (N ≈ 6,500), the authors examine stability in mothers’ work hours across four waves when children are 9 and 24 months old, in preschool, and in kindergarten, mothers’ background characteristics associated to it, and its link to child cognitive development. Results show that the majority of mothers change work hours across the four waves. Analysis using multinomial logistic regression models suggests that mothers’ older age, fewer children, and higher household income are related to working full time at all four waves compared to varying work hours across the waves; more children and less than high school completion are related to staying home at all four waves; and mothers’ older age, being White, no change in partnership status, and holding a college degree are related to working part time at all four waves. Compared to mothers’ changing work hours, mothers’ stable work hours, full time or part time, at all four waves is related to children’s better reading, math, and cognitive scores in kindergarten, whereas mothers’ staying home at all four waves is negatively related to these scores. These associations disappear when background characteristics are controlled for in ordinary least squares regression models. These findings underscore the role of background characteristics in shaping both mothers’ stable employment and children’s cognitive development.

Details

The Work-Family Interface: Spillover, Complications, and Challenges
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-112-4

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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2017

Anna Kurowska

The purpose of this paper is to solve the puzzle of the disproportionately lower employment rate of mothers of toddlers with relation to the employment rate of mothers of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to solve the puzzle of the disproportionately lower employment rate of mothers of toddlers with relation to the employment rate of mothers of preschool and school-age children in Estonia.

Design/methodology/approach

The research is based on the Most Similar System Design and compares Estonia with Lithuania. The applied methods include inferential statistics and microsimulation techniques, employing the OECD Benefits and Wages Calculator, the OECD Family Support Calculator and EUROMOD – the European tax-benefit microsimulation model.

Findings

The comparison revealed that the overwhelming majority of the crucial aspects of socio-cultural, economic and institutional conditions were more favourable for maternal employment in Estonia than in Lithuania. This explains the higher maternal employment rates both for mothers of pre-schoolers and school-age children in Estonia. However, one particular element of the institutional context targeted to the mothers of toddlers – the unconditional parental benefit – had an entirely opposite character. This particular feature of the parental leave scheme was the only factor that could explain why the employment rate of mothers of toddlers is disproportionately lower than the employment rate of mothers of older children in Estonia and much lower than the employment of mothers of toddlers in Lithuania.

Originality/value

This study complements previous research by providing evidence on the relative importance of universal parental benefit schemes in the context of other country-specific conditions for maternal employment, including the availability of institutional childcare. Furthermore, the results presented show that childcare regime typologies, at least those that characterise Eastern European countries, should be more sensitive to children’s age.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 37 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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