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The purpose of this paper is to analyze how the audiovisual teaching aids are applied in the modern educational environment and to assess their application efficiency in…
The purpose of this paper is to analyze how the audiovisual teaching aids are applied in the modern educational environment and to assess their application efficiency in the context of the secondary-level vocational education establishments.
A pedagogical experiment was conducted to confirm this hypothesis. At the preparatory stage, the authors have analyzed the teaching and learning process, as well as students learning at the secondary-level vocational education establishment. Statistical sample was 300 people.
Based on the research results, main mistakes made while applying the audiovisual teaching aids were identified, formulated and investigated. These mistakes were related to the insufficient methodological preparation. As these mistakes were eliminated, student achievements and learning skills have increased by 15–20 percent (experiment data). The average marks, obtained by students before and after eliminating the methodological mistakes, were taken in points (from 2 to 5) as achievement and learning skill criteria. Research conclusion is that audiovisual aids application quality can be improved only through the research on students’ educational and creative potential, their perception of various learning materials, and their preferences in the information structure, composition, types and forms.
Applying audiovisual teaching aids in the learning process is a challenge. This paper is driven by the need of new unique methods for applying audiovisual aids related to identifying the optimal temporal lesson structure, as well as the composition and the amount of auxiliary teaching materials, interactive communication level and ways to stimulate the emotional and creative activity of students.
The purpose of the study was to analyse approaches to HIV/AIDS education adopted by the Zambian Ministry of Education (MoE), using a holistic approach and focusing on the…
The purpose of the study was to analyse approaches to HIV/AIDS education adopted by the Zambian Ministry of Education (MoE), using a holistic approach and focusing on the Zambian culture. This chapter reports on an explorative qualitative study involving focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with Ministry of Education and Health officials, pupils, students, and members of the community. Qualitative analysis was applied and themes from ecological theory were used to organise and discuss data. At the macro level, there was inadequate implementation of HIV/AIDS education in schools, very few handbooks, textbooks and learners’ reading materials, and no discussion of the Zambian cultural (sexual) practices in relation to HIV/AIDS education. Inadequate laws and policies on HIV/AIDS prevention, poverty, unemployment, lack of job creation, and lack of social security were blamed for the lack of positive sexual behaviour changes. Communities had strong theological and metaphysical beliefs including witchcraft and sex with a widow, a menstruating woman or a woman who had an abortion as possible causes of HIV and incurable diseases being a curse from God. At the individual level, the knowledge of HIV/AIDS was high with radio and television being sources of information. Respondents viewed sexual cultures in communities not to have significantly changed. A majority of respondents did not use condoms; most adults continued having multiple sexual partners and women were submissive in marriages. This chapter is useful to policy makers, teachers, pupils/students, and the community, and in understanding interactions and influences of cultures on HIV/AIDS education and government's role in creating an enabling environment to sustain desirable changes.
In the absence of a medical vaccine against HIV infection, research shows that educating individuals about actions they can take to protect themselves is the most…
In the absence of a medical vaccine against HIV infection, research shows that educating individuals about actions they can take to protect themselves is the most effective means to control the epidemic. School-based HIV/AIDS education programs are premised on this assumption and are considered the best social vaccine to influence young people's attitudes, behaviors, and knowledge about HIV infection, prevention, and access to treatment and care. Drawing upon a larger ethnographic study, we use a tripartite analytic framework for understanding HIV/AIDS-related education to examine how schools in western Kenya implement HIV/AIDS education programs. Findings reveal that the implementation of these programs is context-driven and contested along patterns of sociocultural beliefs, religious morals, economic challenge, and a wider crisis in education. We argue for de-localization of principals and teachers and that HIV/AIDS education programs should not only be informational, but also empowering and focused on the individual as well as the context within which the individual functions.
Mr J. Longden, Head of the Engineering Department at Mid‐Warwickshire College of Further Education, describes the machinery for controlling and improving teaching methods…
Mr J. Longden, Head of the Engineering Department at Mid‐Warwickshire College of Further Education, describes the machinery for controlling and improving teaching methods used by serving technical teachers and instructors in Russia. The teaching facilities and equipment they use are also illustrated and discussed. In his final article next month Mr Longden will sum up this series on Craft and Technician Training in the USSR
Auditing textbooks include summary level coverage of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) Code of Professional Conduct, but textbook coverage is…
Auditing textbooks include summary level coverage of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) Code of Professional Conduct, but textbook coverage is too brief to support a strong understanding of auditor independence. Independence rules have the force of professional law for the independent auditor (PCAOB, 2015). Threats to firm independence can arise from events and circumstances such as investments in the client, loans from the client, past-due fees, contingent fees, deposits in the client, gifts and job offers. Student test results from a five-year rotation of alternative auditor independence lecture support materials demonstrate that using the actual AICPA Code of Professional Conduct reduces student performance. However, this drag on student performance was mostly offset by the positive impacts of simultaneous use of an independence decision tree developed for this chapter and tested as a teaching material for classrooms use.
Recent educational research has demonstrated rural‐urban gaps in achievement and schooling conditions. Evidence from developing countries is still sparse. This study seeks…
Recent educational research has demonstrated rural‐urban gaps in achievement and schooling conditions. Evidence from developing countries is still sparse. This study seeks to report rural‐urban disparities in achievement, student, teacher, and school characteristics based on a nationally representative sample of grade four students from four provinces of Pakistan. The study aims to take into account the limitations of previous research, mainly the issues of non‐representative samples and inadequate sampling techniques, by using proportionally adequate sample to address the potential differences in achievement of rural and urban students and how schooling, students and teacher‐related factors account for gap in achievement.
The primary data source for the study was the 2006 national assessment survey of year four students in government school across four provinces in four core subjects. The sample design included a two‐stage stratified random sample, where the major strata of national interest were student and school gender, geographical location and region. First stage involved selecting schools and in the second stage students were selected from schools. The procedure of estimation involved computing the average of each group's achievement scores and attached standard errors, the gap of standard errors and statistical significance of standard errors at 0.05 level.
The results show that rural and urban students had comparable levels of achievement in some of the tested learning areas. In Balochistan province, rural students outperformed their urban counterparts in three out of the four tested subjects. In Punjab and Sindh, urban students performed significantly better in social studies and language tests; scores on social studies and language did not differ significantly across location in the North West. The differences appeared to be partly explained by variation in schooling conditions, students' home background, and teachers' characteristics. Teachers' training turned out to be decisive in determining students' achievement, whereas availability of resources and multi‐grade teaching was less important.
Recent educational research from around the world has demonstrated rural‐urban gaps in achievement and schooling conditions. Evidence from developing countries is still sparse. This study is the first attempt to report rural‐urban disparities in academic achievement, student, teacher, and school characteristics based on a nationally representative sample. The study has employed an appropriate sampling strategy and proportionally adequate sample to address the potential differences in achievement of rural and urban students in four provinces. The findings could therefore be used to guide policy interventions in areas of curriculum differences, schooling conditions, teachers' training and multi‐grade teaching across provinces.
Describes the training model employed to train trainers for the UK‐based ATLS (Advanced Trauma Life Support) programme. A questionnaire evaluation of the course reveals…
Describes the training model employed to train trainers for the UK‐based ATLS (Advanced Trauma Life Support) programme. A questionnaire evaluation of the course reveals the effectiveness of the training model when compared to other training provision in postgraduate medical education. The course is seen to be very effective in raising the confidence of instructors who have little previous training in instructional methods. Identifies and discusses the successful characteristics of the course which include a high tutor:student ratio, extensive use of interactive learning strategies, continuous assessment, a focus on problem‐based learning and the use of self and peer group critiquing strategies.