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Article
Publication date: 28 January 2014

Yanyan Gao, Jianghuai Zheng and Maoliang Bu

– This paper aims to investigate the effect of rural-urban income gap on agricultural growth in China and its dynamics over time and across regions since reform and opening up.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the effect of rural-urban income gap on agricultural growth in China and its dynamics over time and across regions since reform and opening up.

Design/methodology/approach

Two types of indices are constructed to measure the rural-urban income gap: the intra-provincial index and the inter-provincial index. A provincial panel data from 1978 to 2010 and growth accounting method are used to estimate the size of the adverse effect of rural-urban income gap on agricultural growth in China.

Findings

The empirical results show that both indices of rural-urban income gaps are negatively associated with agriculture output, but the inter-provincial rural-urban income gap produces a larger adverse effect than the intra-provincial rural-urban income gap. Growth accounting analysis further shows that such adverse effects are decreasing over time and are larger in the central provinces. The results represent resource diversion effects of rural-urban income gap on agriculture.

Originality/value

This paper bridges the gap in existing literature on the relationship between sectoral income gaps and agricultural growth, which confirms Schultz's argument that agricultural activities are efficient even in developing countries and the rural resources diverted out by income gap are not surplus. The results imply that equalized rural-urban and regional policies are required to maintain sustainable agricultural growth in China.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

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Article
Publication date: 10 October 2016

Madhu Sehrawat and A.K. Giri

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between financial development and rural-urban income inequality (INQ) in South Asian Association for Regional…

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1271

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between financial development and rural-urban income inequality (INQ) in South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) countries using panel data from 1986-2012.

Design/methodology/approach

The stationarity properties are checked by the LLC and IPS panel unit root tests. The paper applied the Pedroni’s panel co-integration test to examine the existence of the long-run relationship and coefficients of co-integration are examined by fully modified ordinary least squares. The short-term and long-run causality is examined by panel Granger causality.

Findings

The results of Pedroni co-integration test indicate that there exists a long-run relationship among the variables. The findings suggest that financial development increases rural-urban inequality whereas trade openness reduces rural-urban inequality. The empirical results of panel Granger causality indicate evidence of short-run causality confirms that economic growth and financial development causes rural-urban INQ.

Research limitations/implications

The present study recommends for appropriate economic and financial reforms focusing on financial inclusion to reduce rural-urban INQ in SAARC countries. Financial policies geared toward agriculture and rural population should be adopted to reduce the prevailing rural-urban INQ in SAARC region.

Originality/value

Till date, there is hardly any study exploring the causal relationship between financial development and rural-urban INQ for SAARC countries by using panel co-integration and causality techniques. So the contribution of the paper is to fill these research gaps in the literature.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 43 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2015

Ranjan Kumar Prusty and Kunal Keshri

– The purpose of this paper is to understand disparities in child immunization and nutritional status among children by migration status in urban India.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand disparities in child immunization and nutritional status among children by migration status in urban India.

Design/methodology/approach

The study utilized third round of National Family Health Survey (NFHS, 2005-2006) data, which is the Indian version of Demographic and Health Survey. Descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression models were used to study the levels and factors associated with child nutrition and immunization by migration status.

Findings

Results suggest that malnutrition and no immunization are very high among children of rural-urban migrants and full immunization is lower than urban non-migrants and urban-urban migrants. More than half of the children from marginalized households suffer from the problem of undernutrition among rural-urban migrants. Multivariate results show economic status, age of the mother, education, caste and media exposure are negatively associated with malnutrition and positively associated with immunization. Children from south, north-east and east are found to have lesser chance of being malnourished than north region of India.

Practical implications

The challenges experienced by rural-urban migrants are reflected over their children and needs a greater attention among policy makers in India.

Originality/value

The finding of this study that children of the rural-urban migrants are in a disadvantageous position in terms of nutrition and immunization. This reflects the precarious condition of rural-urban migrants who initially settles in poor neighbourhoods, which are characterized by lack of adequate sanitation and clean water, poor housing and overcrowding, and difficulty in access to modern health services brought out by many researchers.

Details

International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

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Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2016

Bernadett Csurgó, Imre Kovách and Nicole Mathieu

The chapter focuses on rural-urban food links in the context of governance. We seek to understand a rural-urban innovator mechanism is emerging through the food system and…

Abstract

The chapter focuses on rural-urban food links in the context of governance. We seek to understand a rural-urban innovator mechanism is emerging through the food system and the renewed question of proximity and relative autonomy in the alimentary supply of this type of space and local society. We present case studies from Paris and Budapest metropolitan rural areas exploring institutional and private actors of governance, their power networks, food and related cultural components of rural-urban relations, the function of food links and the way in which they are governed. We have found several differences in governance methods between the Paris and Budapest metropolitan ruralities. The areas surrounding Paris are characterised by multi-level governance methods. However, an isolated form of rural governance of the rural-urban local food link can be identified in Budapest’s rural areas. Understanding the complex and dynamic interaction of food links and related activities within metropolitan areas offers the possibility of a far greater understanding of the complex and multiple links between sustainability, renewal of social interaction and cohesion.

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Book part
Publication date: 20 July 2011

Topher L. McDougal

Purpose – Rural–urban divides characterize many violent internecine conflicts. The lack of rural development is often cited as an underlying structural cause of this…

Abstract

Purpose – Rural–urban divides characterize many violent internecine conflicts. The lack of rural development is often cited as an underlying structural cause of this phenomenon, and thus strengthening rural–urban linkages is often touted as a way of dismantling the structural conditions for internecine violence. This chapter attempts to identify how both the strength and the form of rural–urban linkages influence the intensity of insurgent violence.

Methodology – Using geographic information systems, this chapter analyzes the intensity of specific violent attacks by rural insurgent groups in Maoist India as a function of rural–urban linkages and transportation network redundancy.

Findings – It finds that the degree of interconnectivity in transportation networks is a more robust determinant of restraint among violent actors than the sheer strength of rural–urban linkages. Production networks characterized by highly networked road systems are more likely to incent restrained behavior among rebel groups, which may be dependent on taxation or extortion through obstruction.

Limitations/implications – The chapter quantitatively analyzes a phenomenon, but does not identify causal mechanisms driving it. The policy implication is that providing transportation infrastructure within rural areas may be a more effective guard against insurgent violence than connecting urban and rural areas.

Originality – The chapter makes a methodologically unique link between the large existing literature on rural–urban linkages, and the growing literature on trade networks in violent conflict.

Details

Ethnic Conflict, Civil War and Cost of Conflict
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-131-2

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 25 February 2021

Qian Sun, Xiaoyun Li and Dil Bahadur Rahut

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of urbanicity on rural–urban migrants' dietary diversity and nutrition intake and whether its effect differs across…

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1696

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of urbanicity on rural–urban migrants' dietary diversity and nutrition intake and whether its effect differs across various urban environments of migrants.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the individual- and time-invariant fixed effects (two-way FE) model and five-year panel data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS), this paper estimates a linear and nonlinear relationship between urbanicity and nutrition. The paper also explores the spatial heterogeneity between rural–urban migrants and rural–suburban migrants. Dietary diversity, total energy intake and the shares of energy obtained from protein and fat, respectively, are used to measure rural–urban migrants' nutrition on both quality and quantity aspects.

Findings

The study shows that rural–urban migrants have experienced access to more diverse, convenient and prepared foods, and the food variety consumed is positively associated with community urbanicity. Energy intake is positively and significantly affected by community urbanicity, and it also varies with per capita household income. The obvious inverse U-shaped relationship reveals that improving community urbanicity promotes an increase in the shares of energy obtained from protein and fat at a decreasing rate, until reaching the urbanicity index threshold of 66.69 and 54.26, respectively.

Originality/value

This paper focuses on the nutritional status of rural–urban migrants, an important pillar for China's development, which is often neglected in the research. It examines the urbanicity and the nutrition of migrants in China, which provides a new perspective to understand the dietary and nutritional intake among migrants in the economic and social development. Moreover, the urbanicity index performs better at measuring urban feathers rather than the traditional rural/urban dichotomous classification.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2020

Cicero Francisco De Lima, Edward Martins Costa, Francisca Zilania Mariano, Wellington Ribeiro Justo and Pablo Urano de Carvalho Castelar

The objective of this work was to analyze the income differential of the rural–urban worker in relation to the rural–rural worker and in relation to the urban–urban worker…

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this work was to analyze the income differential of the rural–urban worker in relation to the rural–rural worker and in relation to the urban–urban worker in the Brazilian labor market. Two databases were used, the 2005 and 2015 PNADs (Pesquisa Nacional Por Amostra de Domicílios).

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology is the decomposition approach proposed by Firpo et al. (2007, 2009). This method adopts estimates of unconditional quantile regressions, based on the concepts of influence function and recentered influence function (RIF).

Findings

Among the main results, income differentials were shown to benefit the urban–urban worker when compared to the rural–urban worker, and income differences to the benefit of the rural–urban workers, when these were compared to the rural–rural workers. The educational variable was relevant in explaining the income disparity and expressing increasing effects in the higher quantiles.

Originality/value

The methodology used in this work is considered recent in the literature as it is based on the RIF regression (Firpo et al., 2007, 2009). The main advantage of this method is the possibility of assigning a “composition effect” and a “wage structure effect” for each variable that determines the level of income at different points of the income distribution.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 47 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 18 January 2013

Aviral Kumar Tiwari, Muhammad Shahbaz and Faridul Islam

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of financial development on the rural‐urban income inequality in India using annual data from 1965 to 2008.

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2173

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of financial development on the rural‐urban income inequality in India using annual data from 1965 to 2008.

Design/methodology/approach

The Ng‐Perron unit root test is utilised to check for the order of integration of the variables. The long run relation is examined by implementing the ARDL bounds testing approach to cointegration.

Findings

The results confirm a relation among the variables. Evidence suggest that financial development, economic growth and consumer prices aggravate rural‐urban income inequality in the long run.

Research limitations/implications

The present study offers fresh insights to policy makers on crafting appropriate policies that reduce rural‐urban income inequality in India.

Originality/value

The contribution of this paper is lies in extending the literature in the context of India towards an extensively researched area of rural‐urban divide but in time series framework and utilization of a better approach of time series approach, i.e. ARDL. Specifically, to the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first empirical study to test poverty‐finance nexus using the basic principles of the GJ hypothesis and provide evidence of short‐ and long‐run dynamics on the postulated relation for India.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 40 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 26 March 2021

Ransford Kwaku Afeadie

The health challenges that characterise most of the migrants' urban slums raises a lot of concern for their well-being. Health-seeking behaviour becomes an important step…

Abstract

Purpose

The health challenges that characterise most of the migrants' urban slums raises a lot of concern for their well-being. Health-seeking behaviour becomes an important step towards maintaining a healthy life. The importance of contextual issues is necessary to help meet specific community health needs and programmes. Therefore, this study aims to bridge the knowledge gap by investigating health-seeking behaviour disparity among rural–urban labour migrant's slum dwellers before and after migration to the urban slums of Madina in the Greater Accra Region, Ghana.

Design/methodology/approach

The author used explanatory sequential approach of research investigation. Questionnaire and interview guides were used to collect data from the respondents however, in the absence of an existing reliable sampling frame, the various communities were selected by the use of cluster sampling proportional to size. At the second stage, a simple random sampling was used to select the various household heads. A total of 241 questionnaires were retrieved from the respondents representing a response rate of 100%. The author used purposive sampling technique to conduct eight in-depth interviews and six key informants' interviews.

Findings

The author found various discrepancies in many of the activities that could fulfil substantial health-seeking behaviour in the slum as compared to migrant's places of origin. The reason for coming to the slum amidst many settlements needs and low education background are the factors that accounted for this. This study, therefore, contradicts the proposition held by the health belief model. It is, therefore, important to note that contextual issues are key, in this case, rural–urban migrant slums present a different dynamic that must be taken into account when designing health programmes for such settings.

Originality/value

Many, if not all the, studies on health-seeking behaviour have focused on urban slums without taking into account urban migrants' slums. Such a failure to take into account the variations of the health needs of migrants' urban slum settings can eventually lead to a mismatch of health programmes meant to address their challenges. Therefore, this study brings to the fore such variations that must be taken into account when designing health programmes. The study also indicates that even with the same people, there were disparities in terms of health-seeking behaviour in the slum and at places of origin.

Details

Health Education, vol. 121 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

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Article
Publication date: 17 June 2020

Samuel Ampaw, Edward Nketiah-Amponsah, Frank Agyire-Tettey and Bernardin Senadza

Equity in access to and use of healthcare resources is a global development agenda. Policymakers’ knowledge of the sources of differences in household healthcare spending…

Abstract

Purpose

Equity in access to and use of healthcare resources is a global development agenda. Policymakers’ knowledge of the sources of differences in household healthcare spending is crucial for effective policy. This paper aims to investigate the differences in the determinants of household healthcare expenditure across space and along selected quantiles of healthcare expenditure in Ghana. The determinants of rural-urban healthcare expenditure gap are also explored.

Design/methodology/approach

Data was obtained from the sixth round of the Ghana Living Standards Survey (GLSS 6) conducted in 2013. An unconditional quantile regression (UQR) and a decomposition technique based on UQR, adjusted for sample selection bias, were applied.

Findings

The results indicate that differences in the determinants of household healthcare expenditure across space and along quantiles are driven by individual-level variables. Besides, the rural-urban health expenditure gap is greatest among households in the lower quantiles and this gap is largely driven by differences in household income per capita and percentage of household members enrolled on health insurance policies.

Originality/value

The findings show that there are differences in the determinants of household health expenditure along with the income distribution, as well as between rural and urban localities, which would call for targeted policies to address these inequalities.

Details

International Journal of Development Issues, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1446-8956

Keywords

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