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Book part
Publication date: 21 November 2015

Eeva Kaisa Hyry-Beihammer and Tina Hascher

This chapter focuses on teaching practices used in multigrade classes and the importance of them being incorporated in teacher education as promising pedagogies for future…

Abstract

This chapter focuses on teaching practices used in multigrade classes and the importance of them being incorporated in teacher education as promising pedagogies for future use. Multigrade classes – defined as classes in which two or more grades are taught together – are common worldwide. Hence, there is a need for teacher candidates to become familiar with how to teach in split grade classrooms. However, research on multigrade teaching as well as its development in teacher education studies has been neglected, even though multigrade teachers need special skills to organize instruction in their heterogeneous classrooms. We argue that in successful multigrade teaching practices, the heterogeneity of students is taken into account and cultivated. Based on content analysis of teacher interviews conducted in Austrian and Finnish primary schools, we recommend teaching practices such as spiral curricula, working plans, and peer learning as promising teacher education pedagogies for future multigrade class teaching. We also suggest that the professional skills required in high-quality teaching practices in multigrade teaching should be further studied by researchers and educators.

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International Teacher Education: Promising Pedagogies (Part C)
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-674-4

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Book part
Publication date: 11 May 2007

Peter Ninnes, T.W. Maxwell, Wangchuck Rabten and Karchung Karchung

The Himalayan Kingdom of Bhutan was a signatory to the Jomtien Education for All agreement. Pursuing EFA in Bhutan presents a number of unique geographical, systemic…

Abstract

The Himalayan Kingdom of Bhutan was a signatory to the Jomtien Education for All agreement. Pursuing EFA in Bhutan presents a number of unique geographical, systemic, linguistic and other challenges, and the Royal Government of Bhutan has adopted multigrade school development as one major strategy in moving towards EFA. This adoption can be considered a form of policy borrowing. In this chapter we explore how multigrade schooling has been enhanced and expanded in Bhutan to achieve EFA goals, and in particular, the conditions under which multigrade teaching has become an accepted and important form of educational delivery in Bhutan. We trace the development of multigrade teaching to a set of partly planned and partly coincidental events and contexts. We review the geographical setting of Bhutan, local and global political events, teacher training issues, teacher upgrade programmes, contemporary discourses of education, development and modernization, and local initiatives to promote and strengthen multigrade teaching as a key strategy in providing access to school for children in remote areas. We also identify a number of challenges facing multigrade teaching, including the linguistic context, local reservations about the desirability of multigrade classes and resource issues.

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Education for All
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1441-6

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2020

Judy Vargas Bongala, Vanessa Baraero Bobis, John Paul Ramos Castillo and Arlyne Canales Marasigan

This paper aims to examine the pedagogical strategies and challenges of selected multigrade (MG) schoolteachers in Albay, Philippines.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the pedagogical strategies and challenges of selected multigrade (MG) schoolteachers in Albay, Philippines.

Design/methodology/approach

This study utilized a case study design using a validated semi-structured instrument with in-depth interviews to ten MG teachers, observation and document analysis. Qualitative data analyses such as content and thematic analyses were used in analyzing the data.

Findings

The results show that MG teachers use a variety of overlapping and supplementary instructional strategies such as (1) teaching one topic to all grades and at varying levels of difficulty using differentiated activity, (2) “jump-jump strategy”/teaching one grade while others work independently and (3) peer teaching or tutoring. However, there are several pedagogical challenges that MG teachers are faced with: (1) conflict between the medium of instructions and grade grouping, (2) problems with lesson planning, (3) unfocused instruction, (4) insufficient learners' materials, (5) absence of training prior to MG teaching and (6) the negative perception of the effectiveness of MG instructions.

Research limitations/implications

The research is limited within the context of the participants and focuses on the pedagogical strategies and challenges in the implementation of MG teaching.

Practical implications

The results of this study can serve as a reference on how to support and strengthen MG instruction.

Originality/value

This study provides a research-based overview of MG schools from the grassroots level and adds to the limited studies of MG education in the Philippines.

Details

International Journal of Comparative Education and Development, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2396-7404

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Book part
Publication date: 26 October 2015

Peter Wallet

The UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) is mandated by the international community to collect, analyse and disseminate internationally comparable statistics on…

Abstract

The UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) is mandated by the international community to collect, analyse and disseminate internationally comparable statistics on education, including those on and related to teachers. Based within a framework that emphasises quantity and quality issues for teachers, this chapter describes the current UIS international collection of teacher data, the policy options they intend to inform, as well as key limitations and challenges of the present data. In reaction to this, the chapter also presents UIS’s on-going developmental work related to the global data collection and statistics on primary and secondary teachers ranging from the measurement of current shortages, particularly in developing countries aiming to achieve universal primary education (UPE), to the expansion of an international framework that sheds additional light on teacher and teaching quality.

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Promoting and Sustaining a Quality Teacher Workforce
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-016-2

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Article
Publication date: 17 November 2021

Fozia Ahmed Baloch, Shaik Abdul Malik Mohamed Ismail and Nazir Ahmed Jogezai

This study aimed to know principals' intentions of implementing nutrition education (NE) and explore the challenges they may anticipate while implementing NE in their…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aimed to know principals' intentions of implementing nutrition education (NE) and explore the challenges they may anticipate while implementing NE in their respective schools.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employed a sequential mixed-method design using a questionnaire and interviews to collect data. The quantitative data were collected from 378 secondary school principals, while 16 school principals were interviewed.

Findings

The study found principals with positive intentions towards implementing NE. The results also highlighted challenges related to capacity building, resources (both human and physical), policies and plans, roles, and responsibilities of the implementers (teachers and principals), support from higher authorities, community participation and teachers' unions. This study concludes that principals' intentions remain central to the implementation of NE in schools. However, it is necessary to overcome those challenges before its implementation.

Research limitations/implications

The study sought to ascertain principals' intentions rather than their actual behaviour of NE implementation and hence remains limited in this area, which future research may consider. Furthermore, the research is limited to the principals' opinions on the anticipated challenges associated with NE implementation. The study did not solicit the opinions of other stakeholders, such as education managers, policymakers, teachers and communities.

Originality/value

The article is significant in terms of NE being implemented in schools to improve students' physical and academic wellbeing. The critical role of principals has been investigated by determining their intentions and the anticipated challenges associated with implementing NE. The authors declare the originality of the data.

Details

Health Education, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

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Book part
Publication date: 21 November 2015

Cheryl J. Craig and Lily Orland-Barak

This scholarly work analyzes the previous 17 chapters in the International Teacher Education: Promising Pedagogies (Part C) volume. The purpose of the analysis is to…

Abstract

This scholarly work analyzes the previous 17 chapters in the International Teacher Education: Promising Pedagogies (Part C) volume. The purpose of the analysis is to distill the essence of what constitutes promising international teacher education pedagogies and how those pedagogies can best be shared. The chapters are reviewed according to the sections in which they appeared: pedagogies of working with multimodalities; pedagogies of partnerships and communities; pedagogies of teacher assessment; and vehicles for teacher education research, and dissemination. Key knowledge contributions from each chapter are emphasized. Similarities between the featured pedagogies are also highlighted. Finally, overarching themes are pinpointed.

Details

International Teacher Education: Promising Pedagogies (Part C)
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-674-4

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Article
Publication date: 13 January 2012

Saadia Tayyaba

Recent educational research has demonstrated rural‐urban gaps in achievement and schooling conditions. Evidence from developing countries is still sparse. This study seeks…

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Abstract

Purpose

Recent educational research has demonstrated rural‐urban gaps in achievement and schooling conditions. Evidence from developing countries is still sparse. This study seeks to report rural‐urban disparities in achievement, student, teacher, and school characteristics based on a nationally representative sample of grade four students from four provinces of Pakistan. The study aims to take into account the limitations of previous research, mainly the issues of non‐representative samples and inadequate sampling techniques, by using proportionally adequate sample to address the potential differences in achievement of rural and urban students and how schooling, students and teacher‐related factors account for gap in achievement.

Design/methodology/approach

The primary data source for the study was the 2006 national assessment survey of year four students in government school across four provinces in four core subjects. The sample design included a two‐stage stratified random sample, where the major strata of national interest were student and school gender, geographical location and region. First stage involved selecting schools and in the second stage students were selected from schools. The procedure of estimation involved computing the average of each group's achievement scores and attached standard errors, the gap of standard errors and statistical significance of standard errors at 0.05 level.

Findings

The results show that rural and urban students had comparable levels of achievement in some of the tested learning areas. In Balochistan province, rural students outperformed their urban counterparts in three out of the four tested subjects. In Punjab and Sindh, urban students performed significantly better in social studies and language tests; scores on social studies and language did not differ significantly across location in the North West. The differences appeared to be partly explained by variation in schooling conditions, students' home background, and teachers' characteristics. Teachers' training turned out to be decisive in determining students' achievement, whereas availability of resources and multi‐grade teaching was less important.

Originality/value

Recent educational research from around the world has demonstrated rural‐urban gaps in achievement and schooling conditions. Evidence from developing countries is still sparse. This study is the first attempt to report rural‐urban disparities in academic achievement, student, teacher, and school characteristics based on a nationally representative sample. The study has employed an appropriate sampling strategy and proportionally adequate sample to address the potential differences in achievement of rural and urban students in four provinces. The findings could therefore be used to guide policy interventions in areas of curriculum differences, schooling conditions, teachers' training and multi‐grade teaching across provinces.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Book part
Publication date: 22 August 2014

Radhika Iyengar, Matthew A. Witenstein and Erik Byker

This discussion essay provides an overview of teacher preparation programs in South Asia, detailing current innovative practices, challenges and trends regarding teacher…

Abstract

This discussion essay provides an overview of teacher preparation programs in South Asia, detailing current innovative practices, challenges and trends regarding teacher education in the region. The chapter presents initiatives in several South Asian countries in terms of the design and implementation of in-service teacher trainings, pre-service teacher education programs, and distance education programs in South Asia. The main concept of the essay is to provide a comparative perspective to learn from field-based initiatives with the aim of improving the quality of the programs. It also highlights new trends such as the English education programs and ICT-based teacher training programs. It acknowledges that culture and context form a large part of the success for any education initiative. While doing so, a more holistic approach to improving teacher quality is emphasized. Finally, the essay concludes by sharing some ideas on developing conducive teaching–learning environments in the schools to support teachers. This essay should benefit policy makers and practitioners to: (a) obtain an overview of teacher quality programs in South Asia; and (b) comparatively learn from the experiences of countries in South Asia that have both numerous similarities and some differences.

Details

Annual Review of Comparative and International Education 2014
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-453-4

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Article
Publication date: 11 June 2021

Ali Nawab, Kerry Bissaker and Al Karim Datoo

Whereas the achievement of students has closely been linked with the quality of teachers and there is a bulk of literature supporting the need of teachers' preparation in…

Abstract

Purpose

Whereas the achievement of students has closely been linked with the quality of teachers and there is a bulk of literature supporting the need of teachers' preparation in enhancing their quality, professional development (PD) of teachers has been a central focus of reform initiatives in education across the globe. This paper aims at analysing the existing literature on PD of teachers to reflect on the models and characteristics of effective PD, and to highlight the importance of context in PD of teachers.

Design/methodology/approach

To respond to the aim of the paper, a search in the field of pedagogy in Education Resource Information Centre (ERIC) was undertaken. The search strings used were “models of teachers' professional development”, “characteristics of teachers professional development” and “context in professional development” restricted to time period from 2000 to 2020.

Findings

The major argument this paper presents is that the models and characteristics of PD are relative and there is no uniform model to be implemented across contexts. Instead of debating the models and characteristics of effective PD, academics and practitioners have to be watchful to the context and the real needs of teachers in a particular context.

Originality/value

The paper critiques the generalisation of Western generated PD models to the developing world especially Pakistan which the existing research and literature is silent about.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 35 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Abstract

Details

Historical Development of Teacher Education in Chile
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-529-1

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