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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 19 December 2022

Gerry Larsson, Malin Mattson Molnar, Helena Tinnerholm Ljungberg and Christina Björklund

The study represents a theory-based leadership approach in exploring the subordinate's perceptions of leadership behaviors in relation to age, gender and type of work…

Abstract

Purpose

The study represents a theory-based leadership approach in exploring the subordinate's perceptions of leadership behaviors in relation to age, gender and type of work environment. The aim was (1) to compare subordinates' ratings of their respective leaders' leadership behaviors based on of the leaders' age and gender, controlling for type of work environment and (2) to analyze the relationship between the subordinates' ratings of their leaders' leadership behaviors and their ratings of the outcome of these leadership behaviors.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected using the Developmental Leadership Questionnaire (DLQ) from a sample of Swedish leadership course participants (n = 10,869) and their respective subordinates (n = 97,943). The DLQ measures leadership behaviors designed to reflect the following leadership styles: developmental leadership, conventional-positive leadership, conventional-negative leadership and destructive leadership.

Findings

Results showed that older leaders (51 years or older) were rated less favorably than younger (29 years or younger) and mid-aged leaders. Female leaders received more positive ratings than male leaders. A 3-way analysis-of-variance showed strong main effects for age, gender, and type of work environment and no significant interaction effects. A significant model with high equivalents of R2 coefficients (Cox and Snell, 1989; Nagelkerke, 1991) was obtained in a logistic regression analysis. Developmental leadership and conventional-positive leadership made significant positive contributions to the subordinates' ratings of the outcome of their leaders' leadership behaviors. Destructive leadership behaviors contributed negatively to the outcome ratings.

Research limitations/implications

Weaknesses include the cross-sectional study design. The large sample size is a strength, and the results have novel implications for leadership theory related to subordinates' view on leadership.

Practical implications

Counter-stereotype age and gender findings may have implications for organizational decisions and processes regarding selection of managers. Development programs are suggested for all categories but for older, male leaders with a focus on reducing their use of leadership behaviors perceived negatively by their subordinates, whereas younger female leaders should be encouraged to continue to develop their positive leadership behaviors.

Originality/value

The theory-based approach on subordinates' perceptions of leadership behaviors with a simultaneous focus on age, gender and type of work environment, based on a large-scale data set, is new.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1994

Dennis J. Adsit, Steven Crom, Dana Jones and Manuel London

Examines the relationships between subordinates′ ratings ofboss‐subordinate relationships and supervisors′ overall performanceratings. Data were collected from 3,232…

1127

Abstract

Examines the relationships between subordinates′ ratings of boss‐subordinate relationships and supervisors′ overall performance ratings. Data were collected from 3,232 managers (499 work groups) in a large North American information systems firm. Shows that supervisor and subordinate performance ratings were significantly, but not highly‐related. Moderators of this relationship included agreement among subordinates, organizational level, and function. The results have implications for the likely value of upward feedback to managers in different units and the need to educate supervisors in broader aspects of subordinate performance.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1994

Mohammed I. At‐Twaijri, Abdelaziz A. Al‐Dukhayyil and Ibrahim A. Al‐Muhaiza

This article reports the results of a field study that aims to investigate the differences, if any, that exist between Saudi Arabian and U.S. supervisors, as perceived by…

Abstract

This article reports the results of a field study that aims to investigate the differences, if any, that exist between Saudi Arabian and U.S. supervisors, as perceived by their subordinates. It is assumed that any differences that exist are culturally bound and have a positive or negative effect on subordinates by making the work environment pleasant or unpleasant. The findings point to the existence of differences between Saudi Arabian and U.S. supervisors with regard to the subordinates' welfare, claiming subordinates' original ideas, performance evaluation, control, knowledge of the job, willingness to explain job duties to subordinates and motivation. Suggestions have been provided to reduce these differences in the work climate.

Details

International Journal of Commerce and Management, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1056-9219

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1976

Evert van de Vliert

One of the most important role conflicts with which organization members are concerned is when a supervisor does not agree with a direct subordinate about what the latter…

Abstract

One of the most important role conflicts with which organization members are concerned is when a supervisor does not agree with a direct subordinate about what the latter ought to do. It is therefore surprising that this type of role conflict has seldom been systematically studied. In order to gain insight into and be able to control the role conflict situation, it is important to know which Factors cause the role conflict between supervisor and subordinate and which factors are allowed by the subordinate to determine his role behaviour in such conflict. Empirical data have been collected on both issues, which will be presented after a review of the theoretical basis and the research done.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Article
Publication date: 29 November 2022

Ibeawuchi K. Enwereuzor, Chima Agwu Abel and Leonard I. Ugwu

Given the intensified need to be responsive to change, employees' discretionary and constructive efforts, such as those aimed at effecting workplace functional change…

Abstract

Purpose

Given the intensified need to be responsive to change, employees' discretionary and constructive efforts, such as those aimed at effecting workplace functional change (i.e. taking charge), are required to enhance organizational effectiveness. Therefore, the authors reckon that due to their serving attitude of prioritizing the needs of others above the self and their motivational qualities, the servant leadership approach can enhance the confidence of subordinates' capabilities to perform a range of meaningful activities (i.e. role breadth self-efficacy; RBSE), which in turn should facilitate their engagement in taking charge.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors collected data from 324 leader-subordinate dyads (i.e. academicians) from two federal universities in Nigeria. The authors assessed the measurement and structural models with partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM).

Findings

This study found that servant leadership and RBSE were crucial enablers of subordinates' taking charge. Furthermore, a positive relationship between servant leadership and RBSE was found. Lastly, RBSE was a partial mediating mechanism partly underlying the positive relationship between servant leadership and taking charge.

Practical implications

Selecting and training leaders to practice servant leadership in Nigerian public universities may serve as a springboard for employees to take charge because it also enables them to develop their RBSE.

Originality/value

The current study sheds light on the psychological process through which servant leadership affects subordinates' taking charge by identifying RBSE as a crucial motivational state partly underlying the process.

Details

Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2051-6614

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 26 August 2019

Yan Li, Khalid Mehmood, Xiaoyuan Zhang and Corene M. Crossin

This chapter provides a multilevel perspective on the impact of leaders’ emotional display and control on subordinates’ job satisfaction.

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter provides a multilevel perspective on the impact of leaders’ emotional display and control on subordinates’ job satisfaction.

Design

This multilevel study investigates how the association of employees’ perceived immediate leaders’ servant leadership and their job satisfaction is influenced by leaders’ emotional labor. Participants in this study included 180 employees and 40 immediate leaders from 40 groups across 16 firms. To avoid of common methods of variances, multiple ratings were employed. Servant leadership of immediate team leaders and subordinates’ job satisfaction were rated by subordinates.

Findings

The results showed the positive relationship between perceived team leaders’ creating value for community (one dimension of servant leadership) and team members’ job satisfaction is strengthened by an increase in leaders’ deep-acting of emotions, but is decreased with an increase in leaders’ surface-acting and expression of naturally felt emotions.

Research Implications

This study confirms that a team leader’s emotional labor is likely to affect team members’ job satisfaction, which is also related to employees’ perceived servant leadership. Although how leaders display their emotions in organizations has a significant influence on the association between leaders’ creating value for community and subordinates’ job satisfaction, this study did not identify the explicit mechanisms to explain why this happens.

Practical Implications

These findings will enrich the practice of leaders’ emotional management in organizations.

Originality/Value

This chapter is the first to provide a perspective to understand leaders’ emotional labor from cross-level analysis. This study also extends our understandings of the effects of servant leadership and its relationships with subordinates’ job satisfaction through an exploration of each dimension of servant leadership on job satisfaction rather than relying on an overall measure servant leadership.

Book part
Publication date: 17 October 2016

Melissa K. Carsten, Mary Uhl-Bien and Tracy L. Griggs

Building upon relational leadership theory, we develop a theoretical model examining the association between leader-follower congruence in follower role orientation and…

Abstract

Building upon relational leadership theory, we develop a theoretical model examining the association between leader-follower congruence in follower role orientation and manager and subordinate relational and well-being outcomes. Follower role orientation represents individuals’ beliefs regarding the best way to enact a follower role. We predict that managers and subordinates who share similar role orientations will experience higher quality leader-member exchange (LMX) relationships and greater eustress than those who differ in their follower role orientations. Propositions are presented for direct effects between congruence and stress and indirect effects through LMX. Our theoretical model contributes to nascent research on followership by offering greater understanding of manager and subordinate beliefs regarding how followers should enact their roles, and the importance of considering leader (i.e., manager) as well as follower outcomes in the workplace. It also extends current thinking about stress as an important outcome of leader-follower relationships.

Details

The Role of Leadership in Occupational Stress
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-061-9

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 17 January 2022

Hongguo Wei, Shaobing Li and Yunxia Zhu

Purpose: Although there has been increasing scholarly attention regarding the unethical concerns of prosocial behavior at work, scarce research has been done to…

Abstract

Purpose: Although there has been increasing scholarly attention regarding the unethical concerns of prosocial behavior at work, scarce research has been done to conceptualize this type of compassionate behavior. To address this research gap, we identify the unethical concerns of a supervisor's compassion and address how this compassion, when combined with unethical implications, impacts subordinates' unethical behavior. Study Design/Methodology/Approach: We drew on sensemaking theory to develop a theoretical model and a four-quadrant taxonomy explaining how subordinate's interpretation of the context and supervisors' actions affected their unethical behavior through emotional responses and shared moral identity with supervisors. Findings: Our propositions suggest that subordinates' different roles in supervisors' compassionate process – the sufferer (receiver) or bystander (witness), and supervisors' unethical behavior at the domain of private or public activities impact their interpretations of meaning and shape their corresponding emotional responses, moral identity, and unethical behavior. Originality/Value: Our theoretical model contributes to a wholistic understanding of compassion at work by identifying the unethical implications of compassion appraisal. It depicts the complex process of how leaders' contradictory information shapes employees' unethical behavior. Research Limitations: The theoretical model and propositions lack the support of empirical data.

Book part
Publication date: 18 April 2012

Yan Liu and Raymond Loi

Research has demonstrated that ethical leadership helps to limit subordinates' workplace deviance. In this chapter, we draw on social cognitive theory of moral thought and…

Abstract

Research has demonstrated that ethical leadership helps to limit subordinates' workplace deviance. In this chapter, we draw on social cognitive theory of moral thought and action to further understand why ethical leadership has a preventing impact on workplace deviance. We propose that the key mechanism between ethical leadership and deviance is moral disengagement, which refers to the process of making unethical behavior morally or socially acceptable. Specifically, subordinates learn cognitively and emotionally from ethical leaders to minimize the adoption of moral disengagement. When they decrease the use of moral disengagement, subordinates are less likely to display deviant behavior.

Details

Advances in Global Leadership
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-002-5

Book part
Publication date: 2 May 2012

Thomas Diefenbach and John A.A. Sillince

Within hierarchical relationships, subordinates are expected to obey the existing order and to function well. Their deviance or organisational misbehaviour is usually…

Abstract

Within hierarchical relationships, subordinates are expected to obey the existing order and to function well. Their deviance or organisational misbehaviour is usually regarded negatively and as a threat to the system. However, there seems to be a paradox: Subordinates' deviance and (occasional) misbehaviour does not threaten organisational hierarchy but often re-establishes or even strengthens hierarchical order even though it challenges it. In itself, this phenomenon is quite self-evident. What is less clear is when exactly subordinates' deviance might contribute to the (further) stabilisation, continuation and persistence of the hierarchical social order and when it might be indeed system threatening. For interrogating the specific conditions and consequences of subordinates' deviance within organisational settings, the concept of crossing of boundaries will be introduced and differentiated into weak, medium and strong crossings. The concept will then be applied to subordinates' deviance in the realms of social action, interests, identity and norms and values.

Details

Reinventing Hierarchy and Bureaucracy – from the Bureau to Network Organizations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-783-3

Keywords

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