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Article
Publication date: 22 October 2010

Wayne W. Smith, Stephen W. Litvin, Andrea Canberg and Stacy R. Tomas

The purpose of this paper is to determine how festivals allocated their funds among various expense categories.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine how festivals allocated their funds among various expense categories.

Design/methodology/approach

Festival managers from across North and South Carolina were asked to specify the percentages of their expense budgets allocated to each of the following categories: marketing, administrative, entertainment and operations.

Findings

It was found that “smaller” festivals spend a significantly greater proportion of their budgets on marketing (23 percent) and a far smaller share on administrative expenditures (5 percent) than do their “larger” counterparts that spend only 15 percent on marketing and triple the “smaller” festival's administrative costs (15 percent). The differences related to their spending for entertainment (35 versus 28 percent) and operations (36 versus 41 percent) are not as dramatic in relation to their proportion of total spending. The data herein suggest that festival size plays an important role when it comes to such allocations.

Originality/value

The paper has provided benchmarks that hopefully will assist festival directors' budget‐decision‐making strategies as they allow a measure with which to evaluate those decisions. While the research needs to be interpreted with great care due to its relatively small sample size and broad budgetary categorizations, the findings provide a guide to assist festival organizers as they manage their events for the benefit of their stakeholders and the communities that support them. The paper also provides a starting point for future research in this area, much of which is needed.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2001

Meg Houghton

For many wineries and wine regions the annual wine festival is a strategic tool for encouraging cellar door visitation. Wine festivals offer the opportunity to socialise…

Abstract

For many wineries and wine regions the annual wine festival is a strategic tool for encouraging cellar door visitation. Wine festivals offer the opportunity to socialise, possibly with friends and family, whilst learning about and enjoying a natural, agricultural setting and product. Revenue and recognition is generated for the participating wineries, awareness of the area and its resources is enhanced, and the community at large and outside providers find a new source of customers. Whilst this is a worthy list of benefits for all stakeholders, is there a longer‐term direct benefit to wineries? This study of wine festival participants looks at the propensity of wine festival attendees to be persuaded to revisit the participating wineries as a consequence of their attendance at a wine festival. The paper concludes that there are positive future visitation benefits not just for the wineries staging the festival but also the influence extends and benefits the wider industry.

Details

International Journal of Wine Marketing, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-7541

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Article
Publication date: 6 April 2012

Insun Sunny Lee, Charles Arcodia and Timothy Jeonglyeol Lee

The purpose of this paper is to examine why people visit multicultural festivals, with the overall aim being to better understand the apparent popularity of multicultural…

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2413

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine why people visit multicultural festivals, with the overall aim being to better understand the apparent popularity of multicultural festivals. The paper aims to provide key stakeholders with a platform upon which to better manage and improve multicultural festivals as tourism attractions.

Design/methodology/approach

An on‐site questionnaire survey was administered at one of the multicultural festivals in South Korea in 2010. The reasons for visit were measured using a scale based on existing benefit scales, and literature related to multiculturalism. In total, 17 items were analyzed as visitor reasons for their visit. Demographic questions included age, nationality, the reason for living in South Korea if not a Korean, and gender. Out of 203 collected questionnaires, 183 were considered usable.

Findings

In total, five factors were identified as the reasons for attending a multicultural festival – family togetherness, escape, cultural exploration, socialization, and curiosity. The cultural exploration proved to be the most common reason for attending a multicultural festival for visitors.

Practical implications

The findings of this study will help all key stakeholders to more fully understand what visitors want, and guide festival management to organize sustainable festivals as a niche tourism attraction. Due to the desire for cultural exploration, festivals should offer multicultural themed activities. Sport competitions can be good for socialization between migrants and South Koreans, or migrants themselves.

Originality/value

Although multicultural festivals are held in many countries, there appears to be little research into the multicultural festivals in a country like South Korea, in transit from being ethnically homogeneous to becoming a multicultural society. This paper is a pioneer study in that particular discipline.

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Article
Publication date: 31 May 2013

Stephen Litvin, Bing Pan and Wayne Smith

The accurate measure of the economic contribution of festivals and special events is a challenge. Using a case study, the purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a…

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2173

Abstract

Purpose

The accurate measure of the economic contribution of festivals and special events is a challenge. Using a case study, the purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a previously un‐captured economic contribution from increased hotel rates during the period of festival or event; the “rising tide” effect.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses a case study on Charleston's hotel occupancy changes, and how the changes coincide with the occurrence of festivals and events in the community, to demonstrate the increased tourism income due to rising accommodation prices during festivals and events.

Findings

The study validates the increased tourism income due to rising accommodation prices during festivals and events, which can provide a significant boost to the economy of a local community.

Practical implications

Festival organizations, as well as hoteliers and other beneficiaries of tourist spending during festivals and events, should note how this additional contribution benefits them and their communities.

Originality/value

Many economic contributions of festivals/events overstate their values. The current study first demonstrates a previously un‐captured economic contribution using a case study approach.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

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Article
Publication date: 16 September 2021

Sonja Bakić, Macarena Cuenca-Amigo and Jaime Cuenca

The purpose of this paper is to explore the jazz festival experience at the Heineken Jazzaldia Festival in San Sebastian, Spain. It focuses especially on the relationship…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the jazz festival experience at the Heineken Jazzaldia Festival in San Sebastian, Spain. It focuses especially on the relationship between participants’ area of residence and their experience of the festival, concert expectations, preference for different festival settings and perception of the best aspects of the festival.

Design/methodology/approach

This study modifies and applies the Audience Experience Survey (Radbourne et al., 2009) to the Heineken Jazzaldia Festival in San Sebastian, Spain. A total of 406 valid questionnaires were obtained. A quantitative analysis technique was used for the area of residence, on the one hand, and for concert expectations, audience experience and venue setting, on the other. A qualitative approach was applied for identifying the best aspects of the festival.

Findings

The results suggest that the audiences’ festival preferences differed according to their area of residence. Audience members who lived in Spain outside of the Basque Country were more motivated to attend the festival, had higher concert expectations and greater indoor venue concert attendance, and considered music diversity to be one of the most important aspects of the festival. Local participants were more likely not to have expectations prior to concerts, had higher outdoor venue concert attendance rates and preferred ambience compared with residents from outside of the Basque Country.

Practical implications

Findings could be relevant to festivals’ organisers for management and marketing purposes in terms of their audiences’ needs and preferences. One of the main results obtained is that local residents were more likely not to have expectations prior to concerts. They also equalised music diversity, artists, stages and atmosphere as the best Festival’s aspects while participants from outside of the Basque Country prioritised music diversity aspect.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the literature regarding residents’ behaviour in the Spanish music festival context. Our findings add to the body of knowledge around local audiences’ and non-local audience’s experience in jazz festivals.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2021

Robin Ryan, Jasmin Williams and Alison Simpson

The purpose is to review the formation, event management, performance development and consumption of South East Australia’s inaugural 2018 Giiyong Festival with emphasis…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose is to review the formation, event management, performance development and consumption of South East Australia’s inaugural 2018 Giiyong Festival with emphasis on the sociocultural imaginary and political positionings of its shared theatre of arts.

Design/methodology/approach

A trialogue between a musicologist, festival director and Indigenous stakeholder accrues qualitative ethnographic findings for discussion and analysis of the organic growth and productive functioning of the festival.

Findings

As an unprecedented moment of large-scale unity between First and non-First Nations Peoples in South East Australia, Giiyong Festival elevated the value of Indigenous business, culture and society in the regional marketplace. The performing arts, coupled with linguistic and visual idioms, worked to invigorate the Yuin cultural landscape.

Research limitations/implications

Additional research was curtailed as COVID-19 shutdowns forced the cancellation of Giiyong Festival (2020). Opportunities for regional Indigenous arts to subsist as a source for live cultural expression are scoped.

Practical implications

Music and dance are renewable cultural resources, and when performed live within festival contexts they work to sustain Indigenous identities. When aligned with Indigenous knowledge and languages, they impart central agency to First Nations Peoples in Australia.

Social implications

The marketing of First Nations arts contributes broadly to high political stakes surrounding the overdue Constitutional Recognition of Australia's Indigenous Peoples.

Originality/value

The inclusive voices of a festival director and Indigenous manager augment a scholarly study of SE Australia's first large Aboriginal cultural festival that supplements pre-existing findings on Northern Australian festivals.

Details

Arts and the Market, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4945

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2021

Annamarie D. Sisson

The relationship between leadership style and employee outcomes is well established. However, organizational management research lacks an understanding of the dyadic…

Abstract

Purpose

The relationship between leadership style and employee outcomes is well established. However, organizational management research lacks an understanding of the dyadic relationship between supervisors and employees and volunteers at music festivals. This study examines a mediation model in which leader–member exchange (LMX) affects leadership style and organizational citizenship behavior. Additionally, the study examines a moderating model in which dependence on the leader moderates relationships between leadership style and leader–member exchange.

Design/methodology/approach

Confirmatory factor analysis, structural equation modeling and conditional process analysis were employed to test the model using data collected from 97 supervisors, volunteers and employees who worked at an annual large-scale music festival staged in Costa Rica.

Findings

Results reveal that leadership style relates positively to LMX and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). Simultaneously, the mediating effect of LMX and moderating effect of dependence on the leader was not significant on the leadership style and OCB.

Research limitations/implications

Given the small sample size and accessibility to one music festival, caution should be taken in drawing causal conclusions from the results.

Practical implications

The study contributes to the knowledge of event and festival management with recommendations for leadership training initiatives for supervisors and employees/volunteers.

Originality/value

This study is among the first to examine the mediating role of LMX between leadership style and OCB, moderating the role of dependence on leadership style and LMX with music festival supervisors and employees/volunteers.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2021

Giulia Rossetti

This paper examines the under-investigated well-being outcomes of literary festival attendance. It is an exploratory study into how a festival contributes to attendees'…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper examines the under-investigated well-being outcomes of literary festival attendance. It is an exploratory study into how a festival contributes to attendees' overall well-being. Drawing from the literature on well-being and festival studies, this paper seeks to understand the well-being dimensions generated by festival attendance and the factors that promote attendees' health and well-being.

Design/methodology/approach

This exploratory study adopts an inductive and interpretivist approach. Observations, 45 on-site interviews and 17 follow-up interviews were undertaken at one literary festival in Ireland. Thematic analysis was used to analyse data and identify key themes.

Findings

The findings reveal that attendees perceived a sense of well-being that included five interconnected dimensions: social, mental, emotional, spiritual and physical. Results also show that five factors generated attendees' overall well-being: festival programme, social environment, place, weather conditions and attendees' background.

Originality/value

This paper presents a new comprehensive model that shows that festival attendance has the potential to generate five interconnected dimensions of attendees' well-being. The model also captures the five main factors that can promote attendees' health and well-being. The model is proposed to guide further research on attendees' overall well-being is associated with festival attendance.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 27 July 2021

Dev Jani and John R. Philemon Mwakyusa

The purpose of the paper is to test the perceived economic, socio-cultural and environmental impacts on the satisfaction of local residents with the Zanzibar International…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to test the perceived economic, socio-cultural and environmental impacts on the satisfaction of local residents with the Zanzibar International Film Festival.

Design/methodology/approach

Structured questionnaires were administered to 299 local Zanzibaris, to obtain the data necessary for hypotheses testing using Structural Equation Modelling through Smart PLS 3.0.

Findings

The findings reveal that locals' perceptions related to economic, cultural, environmental and pride impacts of the festival had greater positive significant effects on the level of satisfaction of local residents compared to image, entertainment and social impacts.

Research limitations/implications

The findings uphold the utility of Social Exchange Theory in explaining local residents' perceptions of the festival. The results contribute to the existing literature on festivals by affirming the multidimensional nature of their social consequences.

Practical implications

Managerially, the results shed light on possible areas to be improved by festival promoters from both the public and private sectors in enhancing the positive perceptions held by local residents as well as improving festivals in the area or similar context.

Originality/value

The study expands the Triple Bottom Line dimensions of sustainability in the festival context by adding pride, entertainment and image perceived value.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 9 July 2021

Valsaraj Payini, Kartikeya Bolar, Jyothi Mallya and Vasanth Kamath

This study aims to identify and validate the different clusters of wine festival visitors based on their hedonic motivation. Further, this study also sought how identified…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to identify and validate the different clusters of wine festival visitors based on their hedonic motivation. Further, this study also sought how identified clusters were different in terms of perceived value, satisfaction and loyalty to the wine festival.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was conducted during the International Beach Wine Festival held in Karnataka, India, to collect primary data from 400 visitors. Data were subjected to a two-step cluster analysis. Further, cluster segmentation based on visitors’ demographics, perceived value, satisfaction and loyalty was conducted. Decision tree analysis based on recursive partitioning algorithm was used to validate the clusters.

Findings

A two-step cluster analysis identified two distinct segments and named those as elite and informal visitors based on hedonic motivation. The cluster scores show that the elite group had the best ratings on social status, socialization and family harmony. On the other hand, the informal group had top scores for wine tasting, enjoyment, change from routine and the festival atmosphere. Decision tree analysis results indicate that social status enjoyment and taste motives differentiate an informal group from the elite group.

Research limitations/implications

This study was conducted in a wine festival held in a single location. To assess the strength of the results, case studies in other regions will be of importance.

Originality/value

This study extended the knowledge of the wine festival by adapting hedonic motivation as a basis for wine festival segmentation. Besides, this study’s empirical findings would greatly benefit wine festival organizers to formulate an appropriate marketing strategy to target each wine festival visitors’ cluster based on the differentiating factors obtained from the decision tree modelling.

Details

International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1062

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