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Article

Joseph F. Hair, Marcelo L.D.S. Gabriel, Dirceu da Silva and Sergio Braga Junior

This paper aims to present the fundamental aspects for the development and validation (D&V) of attitudes’ measurement scale, as well as its practical aspects that are not…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present the fundamental aspects for the development and validation (D&V) of attitudes’ measurement scale, as well as its practical aspects that are not deeply explored in books and manuals. These aspects are the results of a long experience of the authors and arduous learning with errors and mistakes.

Design/methodology/approach

The nature of this paper is methodological and can be very useful for an initial reading on the theme that it rests. This paper presents four D&V stages: literature review or interviews with experts; theoretical or face validation; semantic validation or validation with possible respondents; and statistical validation.

Findings

This is a methodological paper, and its main finding is the usefulness for researchers.

Research limitations/implications

The main implication of this paper is to support researchers on the process of D&V of measurement scales.

Practical implications

Became a step-by-step guide to researchers on the D&V of measurement scales.

Social implications

Support researchers on their data collection and analysis.

Originality/value

This is a practical guide, with tips from seasoned scholars to help researchers on the D&V of measurement scales.

Details

RAUSP Management Journal, vol. 54 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2531-0488

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Article

Jihyun Lee

The purpose of this study is to develop and validate scales measuring two consumer moral preferences: Homo moralis and Homo economicus.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop and validate scales measuring two consumer moral preferences: Homo moralis and Homo economicus.

Design/methodology/approach

This research includes four sequential studies. Before the first study, items were established through a comprehensive literature review and pre-test. Four studies were then conducted to verify the validity and reliability of the scales following the scale validation methodology suggested by Churchill (1979) and Anand and Kaur (2018). Study 1 employed exploratory factor analysis to extract the underlying factor structure of the scale. This led to a two-factor structure with sufficient evidence of internal reliability. Study 2 and Study 3 were conducted to confirm the reliability and the validity of the scale using confirmatory factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha. The final study established the predictive validity of the scale using a structural equation model.

Findings

Finally, seven items were developed measuring consumers' moral preferences for Homo moralis and Homo economicus.

Research limitations/implications

This research has some limitations that should be addressed in future research. First, the scale was only tested in a Korean context. Second, this study was not conducted in the context of a specific industry.

Originality/value

This study extends the range of research to an empirical field by practically verifying how these two preferences are independent, can be generalized and can influence human behavior. This study empirically demonstrates that the preferences affect human behavior such as purchase intention. This study extends the current knowledge on Homo moralis and Homo economicus by providing a scale for empirical validation of the concepts.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article

D.E. Coleby and A.P. Duffy

The comparison of large volumes of complex data resulting from numerical modelling in computational electromagnetics is a demanding task, especially when validating the…

Abstract

Purpose

The comparison of large volumes of complex data resulting from numerical modelling in computational electromagnetics is a demanding task, especially when validating the performance of numerical models against experimental results and testing experimental repeatability. “By‐eye” comparisons can lead to inconsistencies and inherent subjectivity. This paper establishes a “visual” benchmark by which comparisons can be made and therefore used to assist in the development of an algorithmic approach to data comparison.

Design/methodology/approach

This new method presented here is based on the Cooper‐Harper Rating Scale, which is a test pilot's evaluation‐rating instrument. This has been modified through qualitative research. The assertion that the rating scale will leave the group mean response unaltered but will reduce the variance has been statistically tested.

Findings

The proposed rating scale provides a calibration technique by which to benchmark comparisons. The scale also reduces subjectivity by producing an overall quantitative measure of similarity. The paper concludes with an application of the rating scale to assessment of a candidate algorithmic approach against correlation.

Research limitations/implications

The research findings are based on small data sets, which is a limit imposed by the industrial environment in which this scale will be used.

Practical implications

This paper provides a tool to overcome some of the key substantial difficulties in communicating similarity or difference, namely that “similarity” and “difference” have no stand‐alone definition, there is a lack of a shared language for the comparisons and little commonality for a decision‐making framework.

Originality/value

This paper provides modellers and experimentalists in computational electromagnetics (particularly electromagnetic compatibility) with a structured approach to quantifying the quality of comparative results.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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Article

Nikhil Kant

This study was conducted with the objective of conducting a primary validation of a newly developed climate strategy proactivity questionnaire (CSPQ) scale for evaluating…

Abstract

Purpose

This study was conducted with the objective of conducting a primary validation of a newly developed climate strategy proactivity questionnaire (CSPQ) scale for evaluating the relationship of climate strategy proactivity displayed by Indian companies with competitive advantage which it intends to attain and sustain through sources of sustained competitive advantage.

Design/methodology/approach

Research design includes an exploratory factor analysis, conducted with a diverse sample of stakeholders of Indian companies, resulting into four internally consistent factors. This was followed by a confirmatory factor analysis with strong model fit estimates which confirmed the initial factor structure and resulted into a new final CSPQ scale. The scale without substituting any existing scale facilitated testing of all but criterion validity.

Findings

Findings mainly comprise the primary validation of the CSPQ scale as psychometrically strong confirming acceptability of all major fit indices.

Research limitations/implications

CSPQ scale designed in the context of Indian companies is expected to make corporations and managers more aware in developing countries to help them draw an extensively enhanced scope of proactive climate strategy while making efforts to attain and sustain competitive advantage. However, the self-reported information collected through a common survey questionnaire might be affected by self-bias. Further, cross-sectional data to validate a new non-substituting scale prevented the researcher from conducting criterion validity test.

Originality/value

Basing the development and validation of the CSPQ scale on the data collected from diverse stakeholders of Indian companies in as diverse a country as India, the scale can demonstrate significant robustness and implicative potential. The scale, by virtue of possessing significant attributes, can add remarkable value to strategic management applicable under any major theoretical perspective. It can serve the requirements of the empirical research and competitive management practices simultaneously.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article

Ruchi Garg, Zillur Rahman and M.N. Qureshi

– The paper aims to measure customer experience in Indian banks. This study examines the 14 factors of customer experience and identifies their impact on customer satisfaction.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to measure customer experience in Indian banks. This study examines the 14 factors of customer experience and identifies their impact on customer satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, psychometric scale development procedure is followed comprising with the steps of item generation and selection, scale refinement and scale validation. A one-way ANOVA test is applied to identify the relationship between 14 experience factors and demographics of respondents.

Findings

The findings of the study present a 41-item 14 factor reliable and valid customer experience scale among which “convenience” appears as the most significant among all the factors.

Research limitations/implications

This study concentrates on a sector-specific scale, whereas a generalized scale that can be applied in other service sectors should be developed. In comparison with previous studies, the results of the current study provide a more absolute coverage and understanding of various touch points used in measuring customer experience in banks.

Practical implications

By this reliable and valid scale, bank managers can identify the current and expected experiences of the customers and can build up effective strategies for the utmost satisfaction of the customers.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors' knowledge, this study represents the foremost studies for developing a validated tool to measure the experiences of banks' customers.

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

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Article

Hartmut Hoehle, John A. Aloysius, Frank Chan and Viswanath Venkatesh

Mobile technologies are increasingly used as a data source to enable big data analytics that enable inventory control and logistics planning for omnichannel businesses…

Abstract

Purpose

Mobile technologies are increasingly used as a data source to enable big data analytics that enable inventory control and logistics planning for omnichannel businesses. The purpose of this paper is to focus on the use of mobile technologies to facilitate customers’ shopping in physical retail stores and associated implementation challenges.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the authors introduce three emerging mobile shopping checkout processes in the retail store. Second, the authors suggest that new validation procedures (i.e. exit inspections) necessary for implementation of mobile-technology-enabled checkout processes may disrupt traditional retail service processes. The authors propose a construct labeled “tolerance for validation” defined as customer reactions to checkout procedures. The authors define and discuss five dimensions – tolerance for: unfair process; changes in validation process; inconvenience; mistrust; and privacy intrusion. The authors develop a measurement scale for the proposed construct and conduct a study among 239 customers.

Findings

The results show that customers have higher tolerance for validation under scenarios in which mobile technologies are used in the checkout processes, as compared to the traditional self-service scenario in which no mobile technology is used. In particular, the customers do not show a clear preference for specific mobile shopping scenarios.

Originality/value

These findings contribute to our understanding of a challenge that omnichannel businesses may face as they leverage data from digital technologies to enhance collaborative planning, forecasting, and replenishment processes. The proposed construct and measurement scales can be used in future work on omnichannel retailing.

Details

The International Journal of Logistics Management, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-4093

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Book part

Sebastian P. L. Fourné, Daniel Guessow and Utz Schäffer

We develop and validate measurement instruments for the business partner, watchdog, and scorekeeper roles of controllers. This study addresses calls to enhance the quality…

Abstract

We develop and validate measurement instruments for the business partner, watchdog, and scorekeeper roles of controllers. This study addresses calls to enhance the quality of survey research in management accounting by devoting more attention to scale development and especially to construct validity. By focusing on the activity sets of the controllers’ roles, we provide a theoretically and empirically grounded picture of their current roles. The measurement instruments presented in this study enable systematic research progress on controller roles, their relationships, antecedents, and performance outcomes.

Details

Performance Measurement and Management Control: The Relevance of Performance Measurement and Management Control Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-469-5

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Article

Adilson Mueller, Cláudio Damacena and Cláudio Vaz Torres

The purpose of this paper is to obtain evidence for validity of the consumer xenocentrism scale adapted to wine consumption in Brazil. Xenocentrism is the internalized…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to obtain evidence for validity of the consumer xenocentrism scale adapted to wine consumption in Brazil. Xenocentrism is the internalized belief of the consumer about the inferiority of national products, and a propensity to prefer foreign products when compared to national products for the purposes of social aggrandizement.

Design/methodology/approach

Two samples composed of wine consumers were investigated (online and paper-and-pencil questionnaires), and the scale validation process was carried out in two studies. The sample of the first study was composed of 195 participants, and in the second study, 258 participants were investigated. Data were treated with confirmatory factor analyses and structural equation modeling.

Findings

Main results pointed to the discriminant and predictive validity for the Brazilian version of the scale of consumer xenocentrism adapted to the context of wine consumption.

Originality/value

This study expands on the original one by Balabanis and Diamantopoulus (2016), proposing the validation of the scale with Brazilian consumers. It also expands on the understanding of this behavior to a specific product (domestic wines) and offers evidence of scale validity in a culturally and economically context different from that of the original study, suggesting some evidence that the xenocentrism construct may actually occur in different cultures. An agenda of empirical research is suggested, to the understanding of the antecedents of xenocentric consumption behavior that will help Brazilian wineries to come up with more effective marketing strategies.

Details

International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1062

Keywords

Content available
Article

Špela Orehek and Gregor Petrič

The concept of information security culture, which recently gained increased attention, aims to comprehensively grasp socio-cultural mechanisms that have an impact on…

Abstract

Purpose

The concept of information security culture, which recently gained increased attention, aims to comprehensively grasp socio-cultural mechanisms that have an impact on organizational security. Different measurement instruments have been developed to measure and assess information security culture using survey-based tools. However, the content, breadth and face validity of these scales vary greatly. This study aims to identify and provide an overview of the scales that are used to measure information security culture and to evaluate the rigor of reported scale development and validation procedures.

Design/methodology/approach

Papers that introduce a new or adapt an existing scale of information security culture were systematically reviewed to evaluate scales of information security culture. A standard search strategy was applied to identify 19 relevant scales, which were evaluated based on the framework of 16 criteria pertaining to the rigor of reported operationalization and the reported validity and reliability of the identified scales.

Findings

The results show that the rigor with which scales of information security culture are validated varies greatly and that none of the scales meet all the evaluation criteria. Moreover, most of the studies provide somewhat limited evidence of the validation of scales, indicating room for further improvement. Particularly, critical issues seem to be the lack of evidence regarding discriminant and criterion validity and incomplete documentation of the operationalization process.

Research limitations/implications

Researchers focusing on the human factor in information security need to reach a certain level of agreement on the essential elements of the concept of information security culture. Future studies need to build on existing scales, address their limitations and gain further evidence regarding the validity of scales of information security culture. Further research should also investigate the quality of definitions and make expert assessments of the content fit between concepts and items.

Practical implications

Organizations that aim to assess the level of information security culture among employees can use the results of this systematic review to support the selection of an adequate measurement scale. However, caution is needed for scales that provide limited evidence of validation.

Originality/value

This is the first study that offers a critical evaluation of existing scales of information security culture. The results have decision-making value for researchers who intend to conduct survey-based examinations of information security culture.

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Article

Eva Mulero Mendigorri, Teresa García Valderrama and Vanesa Rodríguez Cornejo

The purpose of this paper is to validate empirically a measurement scale of the effectiveness of R & D activities, starting from previous work in which the content…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to validate empirically a measurement scale of the effectiveness of R & D activities, starting from previous work in which the content was validated.

Design/methodology/approach

Following psychometric standards the authors have addressed the analysis phases of construct dimensionality, reliability and validity (convergent, discriminant and nomologic), and the scale criteria are shown to be valid in their three temporal manifestations (retrospective, concurrent and predictive). The empirical evidence was drawn from a sample of 85 companies belonging to the Spanish pharmaceutical sector.

Findings

Globally the authors provide evidence of reliability, validity of construct and validity of criterion in their diverse manifestations, for the scale designed and validated, on effectiveness in R & D. The authors divide the results into two groups: one for content of the scale and the other for relationships of the scale with other variables. With respect to the first, it is notable that, although in general the variables analyzed coincide with the previous broad and multidisciplinary theory on the success factors of R & D activities, what the authors provide is empirical evidence of the most important factors and variables for effectiveness in R & D; the authors emphasize that the results of the sample analyzed indicate that the most important factor is the close integration of the R & D activities with the corporate strategy, followed by the proper planning of these activities, and the achievement of financial results for the company. With respect to the relationship of the scale with other variables, the authors have found positive and significant relationships between the effectiveness in R & D and the following financial variables: net turnover and earnings after taxes. The authors have also found positive and significant relationships between different characteristics of the company and the achievement of success in R & D activities. Thus, being a company of larger size, the existence of an R & D department, the existence of specific incentive systems for the R & D personnel, the adoption of new management techniques in the R & D department, and the patents policy of the company are all factors that have a positive influence.

Research limitations/implications

There are three main limitations of the study: the size of the sample; the decision to use a very particular highly innovatory sector, the pharmaceutical industry; and conducting the study in only one specific country, Spain. The results should be interpreted taking into account these limitations. Another limitation is the absence of previously validated scales. This meant that the authors were unable to do any comparative analyses.

Practical implications

The authors have contributed by summarizing and testing the existing theories on the factors of success in R & D. This should give R & D managers a more comprehensive and useful picture of the variables that have been considered more important, and should enable them to choose from among the range of variables proposed those that may be considered most relevant for inclusion in their own balanced scorecard. More generally, the results should help them in the management of their activity. For researchers the authors make available an already validated scale with which to work in various different samples and settings.

Originality/value

The originality of the work resides in two aspects. First, a very wide set of variables proposed in the literature is analyzed, with the object of establishing the relationships and the ranking of these variables, which would not be clear if the variables were analyzed in isolation. Second, there is originality in the methodology employed for measuring the result of activities with a high level of uncertainty and risk, specifically R & D activities in the highly innovative companies of the pharmaceutical industry. It is original because, to date, the scale has only been validated theoretically – there is no work in the literature validating it empirically.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 54 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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