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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2010

S. Ghanbarpour, H. Mazaheripour, S.H. Mirmoradi and A. Barari

Self‐compacting concrete (SCC) offers several economic and technical benefits; the use of steel fibers extends its possibilities. Steel fibers bridge cracks, retard their…

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Abstract

Purpose

Self‐compacting concrete (SCC) offers several economic and technical benefits; the use of steel fibers extends its possibilities. Steel fibers bridge cracks, retard their propagation, and improve several characteristics and properties of the SCC. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of type and volume fraction of steel fiber on the compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength and modulus of elasticity of steel fiber reinforced self‐compacting concrete (SFRSCC).

Design/methodology/approach

For this purpose, Micro wire and Wave type steel fibers with l/d ratios of 50 were used. Three different fiber volumes were added to concrete mixes at 0.5, 0.75 and 1 per cent by volume of SCC. Six different SFRSCC mixes were prepared. After 28 days of curing, compressive, split and flexural strength and modulus of elasticity were determined.

Findings

It was found that, inclusion of steel fibers significantly affect the split tensile and flexural strength of SCC accordance with type and vf. Besides, mathematical expressions were developed to estimate the flexural, modulus of elasticity and split tensile strength of SFRSCCs regarding of compressive strength.

Originality/value

It was found that inclusion of steel fibers significantly affected the split tensile and flexural strength of SCC accordance with type and f v.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2021

Wasim Barham, Ammar AL-Maabreh and Omar Latayfeh

The influence of using magnetic water instead of tap water in the mechanical properties of the concrete exposed to elevated temperatures was investigated. Two concrete…

Abstract

Purpose

The influence of using magnetic water instead of tap water in the mechanical properties of the concrete exposed to elevated temperatures was investigated. Two concrete mixes were used and cast with the same ingredients. Tap water was used in the first mix and magnetic water was used in the second mix. A total of 48 specimens were cast and divided as follows: 16 cylinders for the concrete compressive strength test (8 samples for each mix), 16 cylinders for the splitting tensile strength (8 specimens for each mix) and 16 beams to test the influences of magnetized water on the flexural strength of concrete (8 specimens for each mixture). Specimens were exposed to temperatures of (25 °C, 200 °C, 400 °C and 600 °C). The experimental results showed that magnetic water highly affected the mechanical properties of concrete. Specimens cast and curried out with magnetic water show higher compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and flexural strength compared to normal water specimens at all temperatures. The relative strength range between the two types of water used was 110–123% for compressive strength and 110–133% for splitting strength. For the center point loading test, the relative flexural strength range was 118–140%. The use of magnetic water in mixing concrete contribute to a more complete hydration process.

Design/methodology/approach

Experimental study was carried out on two concrete mixes to investigate the effect of magnetic water. Mix#1 used normal water as the mixing water, and Mix#2 used magnetic water instead of normal water. After 28 days, all the samples were taken out of the tank and left to dry for seven days, then they were divided into different groups. Each group was exposed to a different temperature where it was placed in a large oven for two hours. Three different tests were carried out on the samples, these tests were concrete compressive strength, flexural strength and splitting tensile strength.

Findings

Exposure of concrete to high temperatures had a significant influence on concrete mechanical properties. Specimens prepared using magnetic water showed higher compressive strength at all temperature levels. The use of magnetic water in casting and curing concrete can increase the compressive strength by 23%. Specimens prepared using magnetic water show higher splitting tensile strength at all temperatures up to 33%. The use of magnetic water in casting and curing can strengthen and increase concrete resistance to high temperatures, a significant enhancement in flexural strength at all temperatures was found with a value up to 40%.

Originality/value

Previous research proved the advantages of using magnetic water for improving the mechanical properties of concrete under normal conditions. The potential of using magnetic water in the concrete industry in the future requires conducting extensive research to study the behavior of magnetized concrete under severe conditions to which concrete structures may be subjected to. These days, there are attempts to obtain stronger concrete with high resistance to harsh environmental conditions without adding new costly ingredients to its main mixture. No research has been carried out to investigate the effect of magnetic water on the mechanical properties of concrete exposed to elevated temperature. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of using magnetic water on the mechanical properties of hardened concrete subjected to elevated temperature.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2019

Eric Asa, Ahmed Shaker Anna and Edmund Baffoe-Twum

This paper aims to discuss the evaluation of the compressive and splitting tensile strength of concrete mixes containing different proportions of up to 20 per cent glass…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to discuss the evaluation of the compressive and splitting tensile strength of concrete mixes containing different proportions of up to 20 per cent glass aggregate. Portions of sand in concretes with and without admixtures were replaced with measurements of glass aggregates.

Design/methodology/approach

“Glascrete” is a term used for concrete in which crushed glass is used as a substitute for all or part of the aggregates. Glass can be recycled many times without changing its properties, making it an ideal material in concrete. Overall, 144 cubes and 144 cylinders of glascretes were prepared with different admixtures and subjected to compressive and splitting tensile strength test.

Findings

A comparison with a 21-day control mix indicated that glass aggregates are replacing sand in concrete ranging from 5 to 20 per cent by volume, resulting in 3.8-10.6 per cent and 3.9-16.4 per cent fall in compressive and tensile strength, respectively. However, the use of mineral admixture improved the properties of the mixes at 3, 7, 14 and 21 days.

Social implications

Cities worldwide are congested, and even those with the best waste-management system would have issues with waste disposal after the year 2030. Consequently, waste management is a current issue for cities all over the world.

Originality/value

This study aims to evaluate the physical properties of mortar mixes that contain different volumes of waste glass as substitutes for fine aggregate with or without additives. Mineral additives are used to improve the mechanical properties of glascrete mixes in addition to its chemical resistance by absorbing the OH ions responsible for the possible alkali-silica reaction (ASR). It also reduces the adverse effects of mix-dimensional stability. Water-reducing admixtures are used to reduce the impact of the ASR by minimizing the amount of moisture in concrete, in effect decreasing the possible expansion of any produced gel. In this research, compressive and splitting tensile strength of concrete mortar containing waste glass of limited substitutions is evaluated.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. 17 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 14 October 2021

Hala Mohamed Elkady, Ola M. Bakr, Mohamed Kohail and Elsayed Abdel Raouf Nasr

This paper presents the second part of the investigation on resistance to elevated temperatures of a proposed hybrid composite concrete (NCSF-Crete) mix. The composite…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper presents the second part of the investigation on resistance to elevated temperatures of a proposed hybrid composite concrete (NCSF-Crete) mix. The composite including nano metakaolin (NC) and steel fibers (SF) in addition to regular concrete components has proven -in the first published part-earlier promoted fresh concrete behavior, and to have reduced loss in compressive strength after exposure to a wide range of elevated temperatures. This presented work evaluates another two critical mechanical characteristics for the proposed composite -namely- splitting and bond strengths.

Design/methodology/approach

A modified formula correlating splitting and compressive strength (28 days) based on experiments results for NCSF is proposed and compared to formulas derived for regular concrete in different design codes. Finally, both spitting and bond strengths are evaluated pre- and post-exposure to elevated temperatures reaching 600 °C for two hours.

Findings

The proposed NCSF-Crete shows remarkable fire endurance, especially in promoting bond strength as after 600 °C heat exposure tests, it maintained strength equivalent to 70% of a regular concrete control mix at room temperature. Improving residual splitting strength was very significant up to 450 °C exposure.

Research limitations/implications

Obvious deterioration is monitored in splitting resistance for all concretes at 600 °C.

Practical implications

This proposed composite improved elevated heats resistance of the most significant concrete mechanical properties.

Social implications

Using a more green and sustainable constituents in the composite.

Originality/value

The proposed composite gathers the merits of using NC and SF, each has been investigated separately as an addition to concrete mixes.

Details

Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-2317

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2021

Peerzada Mudasir and Javed Ahmed Naqash

The aim of this research is to study the role and formation of hydration products particularly crystalline portlandite Ca(OH)2 in MWCNT-reinforced concrete at 28 days…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this research is to study the role and formation of hydration products particularly crystalline portlandite Ca(OH)2 in MWCNT-reinforced concrete at 28 days. Concrete is the largest manufactured building material in world in which cement, sand aggregates and water cement ratio plays governing role. Water–Cement ratio decides it strength, usage, serviceability and durability. As strength of concrete depends on formation of crystalline hydrates; therefore, water–cement ratio can alter formation of hydrates also. Unfortunately, concrete is the most brittle material and to overcome brittleness of conventional concrete is tailored with some fibers. Till now, multiwalled carbon nano tubes are the most tensile and strongest materials discovered. Addition of multiwalled carbon nano tubes changes basic properties of conventional concrete. Therefore, it is important to evaluate formation of crystalline hydrates in multiwalled carbon nano tube–reinforced concrete by micro structure analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

Till now, multiwalled carbon nano tube–reinforced concrete has not been analyzed at micro structure level. To accomplish the objective, four concrete mixes with 0.45, 0.48, 0.50 and 0.55 water–cement ratio having 0.5 and 1% multiwalled carbon nano tubes incorporated by weight of cement, respectively. For hardening property analysis, compressive strength was obtained by crushing cubes; flexural strength was obtained by three-point loading; and split tensile strength was obtained by splitting cylindrical specimens. For analyzing role and formation of crystalline portlandite Ca(OH)2 hydrates, X-ray diffraction test was conducted on 75-µ dust of each mix. Scanning electron microscopy analysis was performed on fractured samples of crushed cubes of multiwalled carbon nano tube–reinforced concrete samples to check aggloremation.

Findings

It was observed multiwalled carbon nano tubes successfully enhanced compressive strength, flexural strength and split tensile strength by 8.89, 5.33 and 28.90%, respectively, in comparison to reference concrete at 0.45 water–cement ratio and 0.5% multiwalled carbon nano tubes by weight of cement. When its content was increased from 0.5 to 1% by weight of cement compressive strength, flexural strength and split tensile strength diminished by 2.04, 0.32 and 1.18%, respectively, at 0.45 water–cement ratio. With the increment of water–cement ratio, overall strength decreased in all mixes, but in multiwalled carbon nano tube–reinforced concrete mixes, strength was more than reference mixes. In reference, concrete at 0.45 water–cement ratio crystalline portlandite Ca(OH)2 crystals are of nano metre size, but in carbon nano tube–reinforced concrete mix having 0.45 water–cement ratio and 0.5% multiwalled carbon nano tubes by weight of cement, its size is much smaller than reference mix, thereby enhancing mechanical strength. In reference, concrete at 0.55 water–cement ratio size of crystalline portladite Ca(OH)2 crystals is large, but with incorporation of multiwalled carbon nano tubes, their size reduced, thereby enhancing mechanical strength of carbon nano tube–reinforced concrete having 0.55 water–cement ratio and 0.5 and 1% multiwalled carbon nano tubes by weight of cement, respectively. Also at 1% multiwalled carbon nano tubes by weight of cement, agglomeration and reduction in formation of crystalline portlandite Ca(OH)2 crystals were observed. Multiwalled carbon nano tubes effectively refine pores and restrict propagation of micro cracks and act as nucleation sites for Calcium-Silicate-Hydrate phase. Geometry of crystalline axis of fracture for portlandite Ca(OH)2 crystals is altered with incorporation of multiwalled carbon nano tubes. Crystalline portlandite Ca(OH)2 crystals and bridging effect of multiwalled carbon nano tubes is governing factor for enhancing strength of multiwalled carbon nano tube reinforced concrete.

Practical implications

Multiwalled carbon nano tube–reinforced concrete can be used to make strain sensing concrete.

Originality/value

Change in geometry and size of axis of fracture of crystalline portladite Ca(OH)2 crystals with incorporation of multiwalled carbon nano tubes.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 18 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2019

Ashok Kumar Sahani, Amiya K. Samanta and Dilip K. Singharoy

Present study focuses on scope of developing sustainable heat resistant concrete by adding steel fibre (Sf) and polypropylene fibre (PPf) along with partially replacement…

Abstract

Purpose

Present study focuses on scope of developing sustainable heat resistant concrete by adding steel fibre (Sf) and polypropylene fibre (PPf) along with partially replacement of ordinary portland cement (OPC) and natural fine aggregate with fly ash (FA) and granular blast furnace slag (GBFS). Replacement percentages of FA and GBFS were 40% and 50%, whereas Sf and PPf for fibre-added mixes were 1% by volume of concrete and 0.25% by weight of cement, respectively.

Design/methodology/approach

An experimental work had been carried out to make comparison between control mix (CM), fibre-added sustainable mix (SCMF) and fibre-added control mix (CMF) with reference to weight loss, mechanical strength (compressive, split and flexure) after exposed to room temperature (27°C) to 1000°C at the interval of 200°C for 4 h of heat curing followed by furnace cooling and then natural cooling. Furthermore, microstructural analysis was executed at 27°C, 400°C and 800°C, respectively.

Findings

Colour change and hair line cracks were started to appear at 600°C. Fibre-added control mix and sustainable mix did not exhibit any significant cracks as compared to control mix even at 1000°C. Major losses were occurred at temperature higher than 600°C, loss in compressive strength was about 70% in control mix, while 60% in fibre-added mixes. SCMF exhibited the highest retention of strength with respect to all cases of mechanical strength.

Research limitations/implications

Present study is based on the slow heating condition followed by longer duration of heat curing at target temperature.

Practical implications

Present work can be helpful for the design engineer for assessing the fire deterioration of concrete structure existing near the fire establishment such as furnace and ovens. Building fire (high temperature for short duration) might be the further scope of work.

Originality/value

Concept of incorporating pozzolanic binder and calcareous fine aggregate was adopted to take the advantage pozzolanacity and fire resistivity. To the best of author’s knowledge, there is a scope for fill the research gap in this area.

Details

Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-2317

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Article
Publication date: 15 January 2020

Virendra Kumar, Amit Kumar and Brajkishor Prasad

This paper aims to present an experimental investigation on the performances of alkali-activated slag (AAS) concrete and Portland slag cement (PSC) concrete under the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present an experimental investigation on the performances of alkali-activated slag (AAS) concrete and Portland slag cement (PSC) concrete under the influence of elevated temperature. In the present study, the alkali-activated binder contains 85% of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) and 15% of powder blended as chemical activators.

Design/methodology/approach

For the purpose, standard size of cube, cylinder and prism have been cast for a designed mix of concrete. The AAS concrete specimens were kept for water as well as air curing. After attaining the maturity of 28 days, the samples were first exposed to different elevated temperatures, i.e. 100°C, 200°C, 300°C, 400°C, 500°C, 600°C, 700°C and 800°C. Later on, the tests were conducted on these samples to find the change in weight and the residual strength of the concrete.

Findings

After 500°C exposure, a considerable amount of the strength loss has been observed for AAS concrete. It has been evaluated that the performance of AAS concrete is better than that of the PSC concrete at elevated temperature.

Research limitations/implications

The present research work is being applied on the material for which the experimental result has been obtained.

Practical implications

The author has tried to develop a new type of binder by using steel industry waste material and then tested at elevated temperature to sustain at high temperatures.

Social implications

This research may give a social impact for developing mass housing project with a lower cost than that of using a conventional binder, i.e. cement.

Originality/value

A new type of binder material is being developed.

Details

Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-2317

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Article
Publication date: 20 February 2020

Daniel Paul Thanaraj, Anand N. and Prince Arulraj

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of standard fire on the strength and microstructure properties of concrete with different strength grades.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of standard fire on the strength and microstructure properties of concrete with different strength grades.

Design/methodology/approach

Different strength grades of concrete used for the investigation are M20, M30, M40 and M50. An electrical bogie hearth furnace was developed to simulate the International Standards Organization 834 standard fire curve.Concrete samples were subjected to high temperatures of 925, 1,029, 1,090 and 1,133°C for the duration of 1, 2, 3 and 4 h, respectively, as per standard fire curve. Compressive strength, tensile strength, thermal crack pattern and spalling of heated concrete specimens were evaluated by experimental investigation. Scanning electron microscopy and thermo-gravimetric analysis were performed to investigate the microstructure properties of heated concrete specimens.

Findings

Test results indicated reduction in the strength and changes in the microstructure properties of concrete exposed to elevated temperature. The degree of weight and the strength loss were found to be higher for concrete with higher grades. An empirical relation is proposed to determine the residual strength of concrete with different strength grade using regression analysis.

Social implications

Results of this research will be useful for the design engineers to understand the behavior of concrete exposed to elevated temperature as per standard fire.

Originality/value

When concrete is exposed to elevated temperature, its internal microstructure changes, thereby strength and durability of concrete deteriorates. The performance of concrete with different strength grade exposed to standard fire is well understood. This research’s findings will be useful for the designers to understand more about fire resistance of concrete. A simple relationship is proposed to determine the residual strength of concrete exposed to various durations of heating.

Details

Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-2317

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Article
Publication date: 11 June 2018

Shubham Raj, Amrendra Kumar Rai and Vasant G. Havanagi

Industrial wastes such as copper slag and fly ash are being generated in tons every year and disposed mainly by land fillings, resulting in wastage of useful land. Copper…

Abstract

Purpose

Industrial wastes such as copper slag and fly ash are being generated in tons every year and disposed mainly by land fillings, resulting in wastage of useful land. Copper slag in itself is a granular cohesionless sand-like material, while fly ash is highly pozzolanic. The purpose of this paper is to investigate copper slag and fly ash mixes with cement as stabilizer for their proper use in road construction.

Design/methodology/approach

Different trial mixes of copper slag and fly ash were tested for obtaining the optimum mix having maximum dry density. Cylindrical specimens were prepared using optimum mix with different proportion of cement (3, 6 and 9 per cent) and cured for period of 7, 14 and 28 days in desiccator. Several tests such as proctor test, unconfined compressive strength test, splitting tensile strength test and soaked CBR test were carried out.

Findings

After analyzing the variation of test results with varying cement content and curing period, maximum compressive strength of 10 MPa and maximum tensile strength of 1.5 MPa was found for specimen having 9 per cent cement content cured for a period of 28 days. It was concluded that copper slag and fly ash when mixed in optimum proportion and stabilized with 6 and 9 per cent cement can be effectively used as granular material in sub base and base layer of road pavement.

Originality/value

A typical flexible pavement section was designed and checked using IITPAVE software which gave desired results. This paper may add value in the areas of pavement design, waste utilization, etc.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 3 October 2016

Nur Khaida Baharuddin, Fadzli Mohamed Nazri, Ramadhansyah Putra Jaya and Badorul Hisyam Abu Bakar

This study aims to investigate and compare the interfacial bond characteristics between fire-damaged normal concrete substrate and ultra-high-performance fiber-reinforced…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate and compare the interfacial bond characteristics between fire-damaged normal concrete substrate and ultra-high-performance fiber-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) as a repair material.

Design/methodology/approach

First, fire-damaged normal concrete was prepared. Then, with a cast surface, the substrate was subjected to different surface moisture conditions. Three types of moisture conditions were set, namely, air dry, saturated surface dry (SSD) and wet. Slant shear and splitting cylinder tests were conducted to determine the interfacial bond strength of the composite.

Findings

In general, results indicate that surface moisture conditions significantly influence bond strength. The substrate under SSD condition exhibited the highest bond strength. The findings suggest that UHPFRC is a promising material for the repair and reuse of fire-damaged concrete structures.

Originality/value

This study compares the bond strength between fire-damaged normal concrete and UHPRC.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 13 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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