Search results

1 – 10 of over 1000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 21 August 2017

Li Sheng

This theoretical paper aims to illustrate that tourism economies differ substantially with respect to market conditions, such as demand elasticity and industrial…

Abstract

Purpose

This theoretical paper aims to illustrate that tourism economies differ substantially with respect to market conditions, such as demand elasticity and industrial structure, which have a clear effect on the distribution of the tax burden.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper has used partial and general equilibrium frameworks to study the effects of a production tax on the overall welfare of a tourism economy. The two frameworks are linked via the relative price of tourism based on the assumption that it is influenced by a typical tourism economy that is able to enjoy a certain degree of market power in its tourism exports.

Findings

We have discovered that the division of the tax burden is significantly affected by local market conditions, such as demand elasticity and industrial structure. Generally, tourism economies differ with respect to those characteristics, which can be crucial in determining the success of a tourism tax. This line of research has enabled us to determine why different tourism tax rates have been adopted in various markets and to provide a justification for government selection of a particular tax in a given market. The rational criterion for tax choices is to maximize the likelihood of enhancing welfare or to minimize the risk of reducing efficiency.

Originality/value

This paper argues that those conditions are crucial to determining the success or failure of a tourism tax and may thus be able to explain why each tourism economy has adopted a different tax.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 72 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 24 June 2019

Parinaz Sami, Farajollah Rahnavard and Alireza Alavi Tabar

The purpose of this study is to investigate the mediator role of product innovation in the relationship between political and business ties (independent variables) and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the mediator role of product innovation in the relationship between political and business ties (independent variables) and firm performance (dependent variable).

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, research hypotheses were tested using the structural equation modeling method.

Findings

The findings from 267 manufacturing companies in Iran show that business ties have an effect on firm performance through product innovation, while the role of innovation is not proved as a mediating variable in the relationships between political ties and firm performance. In addition, business ties have an effect on product innovation and firm performance, whereas political ties have no such effect.

Practical implications

These results provide useful points for developing economies, theoretically and practically.

Originality/value

Despite the increasing attention to the role of managerial ties (political and business ties) in improving product innovation and firm performance, there is no study conducted on the mediating role of product innovation in the relationship between managerial ties and firm performance.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 9 November 2018

Zebin Yan and Jiangyong Lu

Although the differential roles of political and business ties are recognized in the literature, the interplay between political and business ties remains unclear. This…

Abstract

Purpose

Although the differential roles of political and business ties are recognized in the literature, the interplay between political and business ties remains unclear. This study aims to explore how political ties affect the formation of business ties with unfamiliar partners by analyzing how a buyer’s political ties affect the market-based selection of suppliers, an important channel through which the buyer forms business ties with unfamiliar suppliers.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey of 204 Chinese manufacturing firms was conducted to elucidate the relationship between political ties and the market-based selection of suppliers.

Findings

The findings suggest that buyers with strong political ties are more likely to engage in the market-based selection of suppliers; this positive relationship is diminished when social control is preferred over contractual control in the buyer’s supplier governance and is enhanced when technological uncertainty is high.

Originality/value

First, this study sheds light on the interplay between political and business ties by revealing how the buyer’s political ties affect the formation of business ties with unfamiliar suppliers, as represented by the market-based selection of suppliers. Second, it uncovers the boundary conditions of the effect of political ties by revealing the moderating effect of social control preference and technological uncertainty. Third, it extends the interorganizational governance structure literature from its focus on the complement-substitute debate on social control and contractual control to examine the contingent effect of a hybrid governance structure.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 34 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 May 2003

Wei‐qiang Sun, Jin‐sheng Li and Pei‐lin Hong

Multicasting is a necessity for a broadband metro‐area‐network. Discusses the security problems with current multicast protocols. To make the multicast delivery…

Abstract

Multicasting is a necessity for a broadband metro‐area‐network. Discusses the security problems with current multicast protocols. To make the multicast delivery infrastructure more secure and reliable, a stateful multicast access control mechanism, based on MAPE, is proposed. This mechanism expands the current forwarding procedure of a layer 2 switch so that stateful multicast access control can be carried out at the very edge of the metro area network. The architecture of MAPE is discussed in detail, as well as the states maintained and messages exchanged. Further explains that the scheme is flexible and scalable.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 30 October 2019

Sheng-cai Li and Guo Lin

The purpose of this paper is to study the seismic performance of the energy-saving block and invisible multi-ribbed frame composite walls (EBIMFCW), changing the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the seismic performance of the energy-saving block and invisible multi-ribbed frame composite walls (EBIMFCW), changing the shear-span ratio as the test parameter, the low-cycle reciprocating loading tests of six 1/2 scale wall models were carried out.

Design/methodology/approach

The test design method and analysis are used for the seismic performance of the EBIMFCW.

Findings

With the increase of shear-span ratio: the walls tend to occur bending failure even more, the initial stiffness of the wall decreases, the overall ductility of the wall is improved and the walls tend to occur bending failure.

Originality/value

The previous studies do not involve the seismic performance of EBIMFCW under different shear-span ratios. Therefore, the paper studies the hysteresis behavior, ductility, stiffness degradation and energy dissipation performance of EBIMFCW under different shear-span ratios.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 4 April 2016

Baoye Song, Zidong Wang and Li Sheng

The purpose of this paper is to consider the smooth path planning problem for a mobile robot based on the genetic algorithm (GA) and the Bezier curve.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to consider the smooth path planning problem for a mobile robot based on the genetic algorithm (GA) and the Bezier curve.

Design/methodology/approach

The workspace of a mobile robot is described by a new grid-based representation that facilitates the operations of the adopted GA. The chromosome of the GA is composed of a sequence of binary numbered grids (i.e. control points of the Bezier curve). Ordinary genetic operators including crossover and mutation are used to search the optimum chromosome where the optimization criterion is the length of a piecewise collision-free Bezier curve path determined by the control points.

Findings

This paper has proposed a new smooth path planning for a mobile robot by resorting to the GA and the Bezier curve. A new grid-based representation of the workspace has been presented, which makes it convenient to perform operations in the GA. The GA has been used to search the optimum control points that determine the Bezier curve-based smooth path. The effectiveness of the proposed approach has been verified by a numerical experiment, and some performances of the obtained method have also been analyzed.

Research limitations/implications

There still remain many interesting topics, for example, how to solve the specific smooth path planning problem by using the GA and how to promote the computational efficiency in the more grids case. These issues deserve further research.

Originality/value

The purpose of this paper is to improve the existing results by making the following three distinctive contributions: a rigorous mathematical formulation of the path planning optimization problem is formulated; a general grid-based representation (2n × 2n) is proposed to describe the workspace of the mobile robots to facilitate the implementation of the GA where n is chosen according to the trade-off between the accuracy and the computational burden; and the control points of the Bezier curve are directly linked to the optimization criteria so that the generated paths are guaranteed to be optimal without any need for smoothing afterwards.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 23 November 2018

Qiang Wei, Sheng Li, Xinyu Gou and Baofeng Huo

The rapid development of e-commerce has caused not only explosive growth of the express delivery industry, but also ever-greater operational pressures. Models from the…

Abstract

Purpose

The rapid development of e-commerce has caused not only explosive growth of the express delivery industry, but also ever-greater operational pressures. Models from the sharing economy may provide new ideas for operational improvement. The purpose of this paper is to consider an optimization method that reduces costs and increases efficiency. The proposed method enables a shared distribution system based on revenue-sharing and cooperative investment contracts.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors design a two-echelon supply chain (SC) of the shared distribution system with one shared distribution company and N express companies. In this SC, the express companies provide only inter-city transportation, and they outsource internal-city transportation to a shared distribution company. This distribution system differs from that of the traditional express delivery industry. The traditional system of delivery requires large numbers of empty trips (with no load to deliver), because the operating mode of urban distribution has been the franchise. To offer greater efficiency and performance, the authors introduce the sharing economy mode of express delivery. The authors examine the potential of a joint optimal decision-making strategy that involves revenue-sharing and cooperative investment contracts based on an order flow proportion (OFP) and a revenue-sharing factor (RSF). In this shared distribution system, the most important innovation is that all of the express companies jointly invest in and establish a shared distribution company based on OFP or RSF principles.

Findings

The profitability of an SC with revenue-sharing contracts based on an OFP system is much higher than that of a decentralized SC, and it is very close to the profitability of a centralized SC. In SCs with revenue-sharing contracts that are based on RSFs, there are many possible combinations of RSFs that can increase the overall profitability. The analyses indicate that the OFP system offers the best solution in designing revenue-sharing contracts based on RSFs.

Practical implications

This study indicates that revenue-sharing contracts based on both OFP and RSF principles can increase overall SC returns by 0.21 to 0.44 percent. In sum total, this improvement could mean a 0.84 to 1.76bn Yuan increase in revenues for the 400+ bn-Yuan express delivery industry.

Originality/value

The authors find that a combination of equity investment and SC coordination contracts makes the cooperation between SC members much more stable. Through this kind of shared distribution system, the scale of economy can further reduce the costs and increase the efficiency of the express delivery industry.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 119 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 14 December 2018

Wenyi Xia, Kun Wang and Anming Zhang

This chapter reviews three main issues in the interactions between air transport and high-speed rail (HSR) in China, namely the interaction between low-cost carriers…

Abstract

This chapter reviews three main issues in the interactions between air transport and high-speed rail (HSR) in China, namely the interaction between low-cost carriers (LCCs) and HSR, HSR speed effect on airlines, and airline–HSR integration. Studies on these three aspects of airline–HSR interactions have yet been well reviewed, and our chapter aims to fill in this gap. In this chapter, we comprehensively survey literature on the topics, especially studies on Chinese markets that have recently witnessed major HSR developments (and have planned further large-scale HSR expansion in the coming years). Our review shows that, first, compared to full-service carriers, LCCs face fiercer competition from HSR. However, the expansion of HSR network in China can be better coordinated with LCC development. Second, HSR speed exerts two countervailing effects on airline demand and price (the “travel-time” effect and “safety” effect, respectively). Specifically, an HSR speed reduction can have a positive effect on airlines due to longer HSR travel time, but a negative effect on airlines due to improved perception on HSR safety. Third, airline–HSR integration can be implemented through cooperation between airlines and HSR operators and through co-location of airports and HSR stations and can have important implications for intermodal transport and social welfare.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 21 November 2016

Yue-tang Bian, Lu Xu, Jin-Sheng Li and Xia-qun Liu

The purpose of this paper is to explore the evolvement of investors’ behavior in stock market dynamically on the basis of non-cooperative strategy applied by investors in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the evolvement of investors’ behavior in stock market dynamically on the basis of non-cooperative strategy applied by investors in complex networks.

Design/methodology/approach

Using modeling and simulation research method, this study designs and conducts a mathematical modeling and its simulation experiment of financial market behavior according to research’s basic norms of complex system theory and methods. Thus the authors acquire needed and credible experimental data.

Findings

The conclusions drawn in this paper are as follows. The dynamical evolution of investors’ trading behavior is not only affected by the stock market network structure, but also by the risk dominance degree of certain behavior. The dynamics equilibrium of trading behavior’s evolvement is directly influenced by the risk dominance degree of certain behavior, connectivity degree and the heterogeneity of the stock market networks.

Research limitations/implications

This paper focuses on the dynamical evolvement of investors’ behavior on the basis of the hypothesis that common investors prefer to mimic their network neighbors’ behavior through different analysis by the strategy of anti-coordination game in complex network. While the investors’ preference and the beliefs among them are not easy to quantify, that is deterministic or stochastic as the environment changes, and is heterogeneous definitely. Thus, these limitations should be broken through in the future research.

Originality/value

This paper aims to address the dynamical evolvement of investors’ behavior in stock market networks on the principle of non-cooperative represented by anti-coordination game in networks for the first time, considering that investors prefer to mimic their network neighbors’ behavior through different analysis by the strategy of differential choosing in every time step. The methodology designed and used in this study is a pioneering and exploratory experiment.

Details

China Finance Review International, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1398

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 23 November 2017

Palitha Konara and Vikrant Shirodkar

The possibility of institutional distance exerting an asymmetric effect on the entry strategies of multinational enterprises (MNEs) has attracted recent scholarly…

Abstract

The possibility of institutional distance exerting an asymmetric effect on the entry strategies of multinational enterprises (MNEs) has attracted recent scholarly attention. In this context, we re-examine the relationship described by Hernandez and Nieto (2015) on the effect of the direction of regulatory institutional distance on MNEs’ choice of entry mode in host countries. We extend this research by (1) focussing on the context of emerging markets and (2) accounting for a greater variety of MNEs as well as institutions by including both large and small firms, and a larger set of home and host countries. In contrast to Hernandez and Nieto’s study, we find that, in the context of emerging markets, institutionally distant MNEs are more likely to choose the full-ownership mode when they originate from an institutionally stronger country in comparison to the host (emerging) country, and they are more likely to choose the joint-ownership mode when they originate from an institutionally weaker country. We discuss our findings with respect to Hernandez and Nieto’s study, which explores this relationship more generally (i.e. beyond emerging-market contexts), however in the context of small and medium enterprises.

Details

Distance in International Business: Concept, Cost and Value
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-718-0

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 1000