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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2013

Michael Brooke

– The purpose of this paper is to provide a commentary on the development of the Secured by Design (SBD) award scheme in the UK.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a commentary on the development of the Secured by Design (SBD) award scheme in the UK.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is an invited opinion piece and comment based upon the specialist experience and viewpoint of the author as a Development Officer at the Association of Chief Police Officers SBD.

Findings

The paper describes the rationale for the development of the SBD award scheme and outlines the key elements which must be achieved to obtain SBD accreditation. The paper refers to the findings from a number of evaluations which have indicated that dwellings built to the SBD standard are less likely to experience crime and disorder compared to dwellings which have not been built to the standard.

Originality/value

The paper provides a historical review of the development of the SBD scheme and outlines current and future areas of work.

Details

Safer Communities, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2001

Paul Cozens, David Hillier and Gwyn Prescott

This paper provides a critical review of “Defensible Space” (Newman, 1973) and traces the development of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) in America…

Abstract

This paper provides a critical review of “Defensible Space” (Newman, 1973) and traces the development of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) in America and Canada, and Secured By Design (SBD) initiatives in the UK. It is argued that various aspects of the theory have avoided consideration and require further investigation and research. It is opined that “defensible space” is the theoretical foundation to both CPTED and SBD and it is posited that a thorough re‐examination of Newman’s ideas will serve to deepen our understanding of the complex relationship between the built environment and crime. British (BS8220) and European (CEN TC/325) Standards relating to urban planning and environmental design and crime reduction are currently receiving detailed deliberation and are based firmly upon Newman’s ideas. The projected need for some 4.4 million new homes in Britain (DOE, 1995) by 2016 and Lord Roger’s call for improvements in urban design to reduce suburban migration from cities (DETR, 1999) reiterates the importance of the subject matter. This paper (the first of two) recognises that design per se does not represent the panacea for reducing criminogeneity, rather, that “defensible space” CPTED and SBD should be considered as crime prevention strategies, which can, in common with all other initiatives, contribute to tackling the problem of residential crime. In conclusion, it is argued that further research concerning how “defensible space” is perceived by various crucial stakeholders in society is the way forward in this regard. A second, forthcoming paper (PM, Vol. 19 No. 3) will present these research findings.

Details

Property Management, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2013

Nick Goldby and Ian Heward

The purpose of this paper is to provide a commentary on the design and development of the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park in preparation for the London 2012 Olympic Games and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a commentary on the design and development of the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park in preparation for the London 2012 Olympic Games and its legacy.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is an invited opinion piece and comment based upon documentation the specialist experience of the authors who were both involved in the planning, design and development of the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park and who continue to be involved with the development through legacy.

Findings

The paper describes the process through which designing out crime was considered throughout the planning, design and development of the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park.

Originality/value

The paper provides comment on the planning, design and development of the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park from individuals who were involved in the planning, design and development of the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park.

Details

Safer Communities, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 October 2000

Abstract

Details

Property Management, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

Keywords

Content available

Abstract

Details

Property Management, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2001

Paul Cozens, David Hillier and Gwyn Prescott

The first paper, entitled “Crime and the design of residential property: exploring the theoretical background” (Property Management, Vol. 19 No. 2), has argued that…

Abstract

The first paper, entitled “Crime and the design of residential property: exploring the theoretical background” (Property Management, Vol. 19 No. 2), has argued that “perceptions” and the “image” of housing designs remain a largely untested avenue of investigation in the design‐effects‐crime debate. Presents and discusses exploratory research into the perception of crime/deviancy, fear of crime and “defensible space”, in relation to a range of characteristic UK housing designs. This investigation concerns the perceptions of planning professionals, convicted burglars and other users and provides both qualitative and quantitative analysis of results from a series of interviews which presented slide representations of terraced, semi‐detached and detached housing designs in addition to low‐rise/walk‐up flats and high‐rise flats. Where possible, two contrasting versions of the same design were presented to probe the influence of “image” in the perception of crime and “defensible space”. The results from this exploratory investigation underpin Newman’s theory of “defensible space” in that a “hierarchy of place” appears to exist with regard to housing designs. However, the “image” of each design is perceived to be a significant contributing factor in relation to the criminogenic capacity of each design presented. Wilson and Kelling’s “Broken Windows” theory is also supported by these research findings.

Details

Property Management, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

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Article
Publication date: 15 July 2011

Leanne Monchuk

Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) aims to make the built environment less vulnerable to crime and disorder through its design. CPTED is applied in…

Abstract

Purpose

Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) aims to make the built environment less vulnerable to crime and disorder through its design. CPTED is applied in practice by Architectural Liaison Officers/Crime Prevention Design Advisors employed within each police force in England and Wales. Their aim is to advise built environment professionals (architects and planners) how opportunities for crime and disorder can be minimised through the design of a development without compromising on the design quality. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of relevant literature and an example of one force's promising, but as yet unevaluated, approach to embedding CPTED early in the planning process.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper takes a case study approach and outlines how Greater Manchester Police Design for Security Consultancy (GMP DFSC) liaise with built environment professionals in an attempt to design out opportunities for crime and disorder to occur at the pre‐planning stage of a development.

Findings

The findings suggest that the process and delivery of CPTED by GMP DFSC is unique when compared to the delivery of CPTED across other areas of England and Wales. Using the Crime Impact Statement (CIS), GMP DFSC are consulted on a range of proposed planning applications prior to the application being submitted to the local planning authority, opposed to later in the planning and development process, where the opportunities to “design out crime” become limited. The staff employed by GMP DFSC have previously worked within the built environment and are not warranted or retired police officers. GMP DFSC also charge a fee for the service which they provide.

Originality/value

This paper should be of interest to built environment professionals seeking to incorporate and embed the principles of CPTED into the design and pre‐planning stages of proposed developments.

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

Paul Michael Cozens, Greg Saville and David Hillier

The purpose of this paper is to critically review the core findings from recently published place‐based crime prevention research. The paper aims to critically evaluate…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to critically review the core findings from recently published place‐based crime prevention research. The paper aims to critically evaluate the available evidence on the contribution of crime prevention through environmental design as a crime prevention strategy.

Design/methodology/approach

Large‐scale evaluations of crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) are reviewed with a view to clarifying current knowledge on the evidence of crime prevention through environmental design.

Findings

The review concludes that there is a growing body of research that supports the assertion that crime prevention through environmental design is effective in reducing both crime and fear of crime in the community.

Research limitations/implications

Although the paper may not review all the evaluations of CPTED, it nonetheless provides a detailed compilation and overview of the most significant research in the area, including an extensive and modern bibliography on the subject. Research implications will be the subject of a forthcoming paper.

Practical implications

CPTED is an increasingly fashionable approach and is being implemented on a global scale. Additionally, individual components such as territoriality, surveillance, maintenance, access control, activity support and target‐hardening are being widely deployed. However, the evidence currently available is inconclusive and much criticised, which effectively prevents widespread intervention and investment by central government. The paper details the difficulties associated with demonstrating the effectiveness of CPTED.

Originality/value

The paper concludes that although empirical proof has not been definitively demonstrated, there is a large and growing body of research, which supports the assertion that crime prevention through environmental design is a pragmatic and effective crime prevention tool. This review provides an extensive bibliography of contemporary crime prevention through environmental design and a follow‐up paper will discuss the future research priorities for it.

Details

Property Management, vol. 23 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2003

Kate Moss

In December 2001 the then Department of Transport, Local Government and the Regions (DTLR but now currently the Office for the Deputy Prime Minister, hereafter referred to…

Abstract

In December 2001 the then Department of Transport, Local Government and the Regions (DTLR but now currently the Office for the Deputy Prime Minister, hereafter referred to as ODPM) issued the tender document it had promised for the review and update of 5/94 Planning Out Crime (Home Office, 1994) The specification was for good practice guidance on planning out crime to be written within 6 months. Notwithstanding this exercise, the writer contends that in the face of the research, literature, legislation and expertise in relation to designing out crime, papers issued by ODPM and the form of the tender document itself demonstrate that it remains uncommitted to many of the accepted principles of design‐against‐crime and to the cross‐cutting crime reduction obligations of the police and local authorities under the 1998 Crime and Disorder Act. The author anticipates that this lack of commitment may be evident in the forthcoming revised planning out crime guidance and suggests possible approaches to this potentially influential document.

Details

Safer Communities, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

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Article
Publication date: 17 October 2008

Paul Cozens, Michael Thorn and David Hillier

The purpose of this paper is to present developments in designing out crime policy in Western Australia (WA) as a case study example, discussing the innovative designing

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present developments in designing out crime policy in Western Australia (WA) as a case study example, discussing the innovative designing out crime strategy, a systematic attempt at embedding such ideas within government policy.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reports on the systems approach adopted by the WA Government, which draws together three key themes of designing out crime, namely: the design of the built environment, the ongoing management of the built environment and the use of product design to reduce opportunities for crime. The systems perspective is underpinned by an evidence‐based approach across these three areas.

Findings

Many existing international approaches to designing out crime are arguably limited, piecemeal and largely uncoordinated. This strategy represents a comprehensive and holistic policy commitment to designing out crime.

Research limitations/implications

The effectiveness of this strategy is as yet unknown, but it arguably represents a comprehensive approach to embedding designing out crime within public policy frameworks. The future will ultimately judge the success or failure of this policy and key performance indicators are presented as part of the strategy.

Practical implications

It will be challenging to monitor the progress of this vision and whether adequate resources are made available to appropriate agencies to deliver the desired outcomes from the various actions identified within the strategy.

Originality/value

No national or state jurisdiction has attempted to develop designing out crime policy in such a comprehensive manner and WA's designing out crime strategy arguably represents a truly proactive policy framework and a comprehensive vision and plan for action to reduce opportunities for crime in the design, planning, development and maintenance of the built form and in the design of products.

Details

Property Management, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

Keywords

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