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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2003

Kate Moss

In December 2001 the then Department of Transport, Local Government and the Regions (DTLR but now currently the Office for the Deputy Prime Minister, hereafter referred to…

Abstract

In December 2001 the then Department of Transport, Local Government and the Regions (DTLR but now currently the Office for the Deputy Prime Minister, hereafter referred to as ODPM) issued the tender document it had promised for the review and update of 5/94 Planning Out Crime (Home Office, 1994) The specification was for good practice guidance on planning out crime to be written within 6 months. Notwithstanding this exercise, the writer contends that in the face of the research, literature, legislation and expertise in relation to designing out crime, papers issued by ODPM and the form of the tender document itself demonstrate that it remains uncommitted to many of the accepted principles of design‐against‐crime and to the cross‐cutting crime reduction obligations of the police and local authorities under the 1998 Crime and Disorder Act. The author anticipates that this lack of commitment may be evident in the forthcoming revised planning out crime guidance and suggests possible approaches to this potentially influential document.

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Safer Communities, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

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Article
Publication date: 17 October 2008

Paul Cozens, Michael Thorn and David Hillier

The purpose of this paper is to present developments in designing out crime policy in Western Australia (WA) as a case study example, discussing the innovative designing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present developments in designing out crime policy in Western Australia (WA) as a case study example, discussing the innovative designing out crime strategy, a systematic attempt at embedding such ideas within government policy.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reports on the systems approach adopted by the WA Government, which draws together three key themes of designing out crime, namely: the design of the built environment, the ongoing management of the built environment and the use of product design to reduce opportunities for crime. The systems perspective is underpinned by an evidence‐based approach across these three areas.

Findings

Many existing international approaches to designing out crime are arguably limited, piecemeal and largely uncoordinated. This strategy represents a comprehensive and holistic policy commitment to designing out crime.

Research limitations/implications

The effectiveness of this strategy is as yet unknown, but it arguably represents a comprehensive approach to embedding designing out crime within public policy frameworks. The future will ultimately judge the success or failure of this policy and key performance indicators are presented as part of the strategy.

Practical implications

It will be challenging to monitor the progress of this vision and whether adequate resources are made available to appropriate agencies to deliver the desired outcomes from the various actions identified within the strategy.

Originality/value

No national or state jurisdiction has attempted to develop designing out crime policy in such a comprehensive manner and WA's designing out crime strategy arguably represents a truly proactive policy framework and a comprehensive vision and plan for action to reduce opportunities for crime in the design, planning, development and maintenance of the built form and in the design of products.

Details

Property Management, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

Caroline L. Davey and Andrew B. Wootton

This paper aims to understand the delivery of crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) across Europe – from European-wide procedures through national schemes…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to understand the delivery of crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) across Europe – from European-wide procedures through national schemes to effective local strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

The findings come from a review of published literature and reports, case studies and site visits conducted primarily during COST Action TU1203 (2013-2016).

Findings

Innovative approaches and methods to integrate crime prevention into urban design, planning and management have been generated by multi-agency partnerships and collaborations at European, national and city levels. Methods and procedures developed by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Working Group on “Crime Prevention through Urban Planning and Building Design” are pioneering. However, findings show that implementation is best achieved at a local level using methods and procedures tailored to the specific context.

Research limitations/implications

In-depth research is required to appreciate subtle differences between local approaches and conceptual models developed to better understand approaches and methods.

Practical implications

Practitioners and academics working to prevent crime benefit from participation in focused, multi-agency collaborations that, importantly, facilitate visits to urban developments, discussions with local stakeholders responsible for delivery “on the ground” and structured and sustained exploration of innovations and challenges.

Originality/value

The authors hope that this paper will contribute to developing a new direction for CPTED practice and research that builds on significant progress in creating safer environments over previous decades.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

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Article
Publication date: 20 June 2016

Paul Cozens and Marc Tarca

The purpose of this paper is to investigate “image management” as an important element within the concept to the Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED)…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate “image management” as an important element within the concept to the Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED). Globally, guidance tends to focus on promoting surveillance and few studies have explored how vacant poorly maintained housing might affect perceptions of crime and CPTED.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper contrasts the perceptions of 168 members of the public and 12 built environment professionals with regards to a detached property in Perth, Western Australia. Using two photographs to elicit responses (one poorly maintained and one well-maintained) respondents were asked about their perceptions of crime, and the extent to which CPTED features were perceived to be present. These results are contrasted with a site audit of the CPTED qualities visible in both images.

Findings

The CPTED audit recorded significantly higher scores for the well-maintained property than for the poorly maintained dwelling. Most respondents indicated they felt less safe, perceived more crime and lower levels of CPTED in relation to the poorly maintained house. The findings provide support that there is a link between poorly maintained housing and the perceptions of CPTED, crime and the fear of crime.

Originality/value

This innovative study utilised two photographic images of the same property to probe “image management”, perceptions of crime and CPTED qualities. It highlights the need to consider these issues throughout the different stages of the development process and presents idea of the “cradle to the grave” life-cycle of criminal opportunities.

Details

Property Management, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2003

Peter Knowles

The principles of the housing planning guidance known as New Urbanism give little recognition to those that promote crime reduction contained in Secured by Design and the…

Abstract

The principles of the housing planning guidance known as New Urbanism give little recognition to those that promote crime reduction contained in Secured by Design and the requirements of the Crime and Disorder Act 1998. Experience and research indicates that there will be consequences for significantly increased crime and disorder. The consequences of New Urbanism are estimated in terms of increased crime, demands for policing and the resource implications.

Details

Safer Communities, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

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Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 October 2001

Paul Cozens

Abstract

Details

Property Management, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

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Article
Publication date: 28 April 2010

Robert Greaves

Purchasers of new or newly refurbished dwellings may think that the home they are buying or renting could be expected to offer a defined level of resistance to entry by…

Abstract

Purchasers of new or newly refurbished dwellings may think that the home they are buying or renting could be expected to offer a defined level of resistance to entry by unauthorised people. This is not the case, and new developments are still being constructed and offered for sale or rent with inadequate security. While there is legislation on the statute book that could be used to address this situation, the relevant section of the Crime and Disorder Act 1998 has not been implemented. In contrast, policy‐makers have succeeded for instance in making energy efficiency in dwellings and security in motor cars factors that influence buying decisions and that have resulted in significant improvements for consumers.

Details

Safer Communities, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

Paul Michael Cozens, Greg Saville and David Hillier

The purpose of this paper is to critically review the core findings from recently published place‐based crime prevention research. The paper aims to critically evaluate…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to critically review the core findings from recently published place‐based crime prevention research. The paper aims to critically evaluate the available evidence on the contribution of crime prevention through environmental design as a crime prevention strategy.

Design/methodology/approach

Large‐scale evaluations of crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) are reviewed with a view to clarifying current knowledge on the evidence of crime prevention through environmental design.

Findings

The review concludes that there is a growing body of research that supports the assertion that crime prevention through environmental design is effective in reducing both crime and fear of crime in the community.

Research limitations/implications

Although the paper may not review all the evaluations of CPTED, it nonetheless provides a detailed compilation and overview of the most significant research in the area, including an extensive and modern bibliography on the subject. Research implications will be the subject of a forthcoming paper.

Practical implications

CPTED is an increasingly fashionable approach and is being implemented on a global scale. Additionally, individual components such as territoriality, surveillance, maintenance, access control, activity support and target‐hardening are being widely deployed. However, the evidence currently available is inconclusive and much criticised, which effectively prevents widespread intervention and investment by central government. The paper details the difficulties associated with demonstrating the effectiveness of CPTED.

Originality/value

The paper concludes that although empirical proof has not been definitively demonstrated, there is a large and growing body of research, which supports the assertion that crime prevention through environmental design is a pragmatic and effective crime prevention tool. This review provides an extensive bibliography of contemporary crime prevention through environmental design and a follow‐up paper will discuss the future research priorities for it.

Details

Property Management, vol. 23 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2003

Paul Cozens, Richard Neale, Jeremy Whitaker and David Hillier

Understanding fear of crime is a crucial dimension to the “designing out crime” debate, particularly in view of the “dark figure” of crime which remains largely unknown…

Abstract

Understanding fear of crime is a crucial dimension to the “designing out crime” debate, particularly in view of the “dark figure” of crime which remains largely unknown due to under‐reporting and under recording of incidents. On the railways, customer satisfaction surveys have consistently reported that although recorded incidents of crime and nuisance are relatively low, customers perceive their personal risks to be significantly higher, discouraging many from using rail transport. This study of a representative sample of railway stations on a network in South Wales, focuses on personal safety issues as explained using the theory of crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED). The research project innovatively utilises interactive virtual reality scenes as the environmental stimuli to elucidate rich sources of data in terms of where passengers’ fears were located in and around the station and how service providers can make stations safer. Some basic design changes are briefly evaluated and recommendations for those who design and manage built environment facilities are discussed.

Details

Facilities, vol. 21 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

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Article
Publication date: 23 March 2010

Joanna Waters and Richard Neale

This study explored the neighbourhood‐level personal safety concerns experienced by older people living in socioeconomically deprived communities in South Wales. While…

Abstract

This study explored the neighbourhood‐level personal safety concerns experienced by older people living in socioeconomically deprived communities in South Wales. While there is a wealth of criminological literature focusing on whether older people experience high levels of fear of crime, much of it conflicting in its conclusions, such studies tell us little about the social and physical cues for feelings of fear that are evoked in older people on a community level. To provide a richer understanding of these issues the study adopted a predominantly qualitative approach to identify community characteristics that shaped older people's views of personal safety. This was supplemented by quantitative data regarding their actual experiences of crime. The main finding was that personal safety concerns were overwhelmingly related to the social connotations of specific community locations, such as those associated with the presence and behaviour of perceived 'undesirable others', rather than specific locations themselves or their physical characteristics. This raises questions and challenges about the development of appropriate and effective crime and fear reduction strategies that enable older people to feel safer in their communities, and so facilitate their community engagement and social inclusion.

Details

Quality in Ageing and Older Adults, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-7794

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