Search results

1 – 10 of over 36000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 29 October 2020

Jamal K. Shakor, Atiya K. Mohammed and Yadgar H. Hama-karim

This study aims to find out the participation rate of women in the utilization of screening methods to determine the relationship of sociodemographic health…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to find out the participation rate of women in the utilization of screening methods to determine the relationship of sociodemographic health characteristics and breast cancer (BC) awareness with the utilization of screening methods. The authors’ study aims to examine the relationship between women's belief and the utilization of screening methods.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional study was conducted in three health centers from December 13, 2016 to June 12, 2017. A questionnaire was constructed for data collection about sociodemographic characteristics, screening awareness and medical and health background variables. Additionally, BC awareness measure and champion health belief model scales were used to measure women's perceptiveness about BC.

Findings

Despite the awareness among 78.9% of women regarding clinical breast examination (CBE) as a screening method, only 9.5% women utilized it for screening. Due to prescription by physicians for diagnosis of BC, 23.6% women had done mammography at least once in their life. Having jobs and a good education significantly influenced the utilization of CBE as a screening method. The logistic regression analysis found that old age, family history of BC, good knowledge about BC, perceived susceptibility, low rate of perceived barriers to mammography and CBE predicted participation in screening.

Originality/value

Enhancing knowledge about BC and screening, emphasizing the susceptibility to BC and the benefits of screening will help in better participation. Importance should be given to illiterate and unemployed women.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 33 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 10 August 2015

Geng Cui, Ling Peng and Laurent Pierre Florès

New product concept screening, i.e., selecting a few viable innovative concepts from numerous candidates, involves high stakes and is complicated and resource intensive…

Abstract

Purpose

New product concept screening, i.e., selecting a few viable innovative concepts from numerous candidates, involves high stakes and is complicated and resource intensive. Over the years, there has been heated debate about the relative merit of monadic (sequential) tests vs that of preference-based paired comparisons. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This study proposes the Generalizability Theory as a framework to assess and compare the performance of traditional monadic test with the Adaptive Concept Screening (ACS) in terms of their testing results and psychometric quality.

Findings

Using 50 yogurt concepts and two independent groups of respondents, the results indicate that ACS requires a significant smaller sample of respondents to achieve a necessary minimum G coefficient for decision making. Moreover, ACS offers a more discriminating and reliable solution for early stage concept screening as manifested by a higher G coefficient and greater percentage of variance due to the selected concepts given the same sampling design.

Practical implications

The results lend strong support to ACS as a more cost-effective method for screening new product concepts and the Generalizability Theory as a systematic framework for assessing concept testing methods.

Originality/value

This study adopts the Generalizability Theory framework to assess the validity of new product concept screening method.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 3 August 2012

Catherine Soke Fun Ho, Omar Masood, Asma Abdul Rehman and Mondher Bellalah

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the syariah compliant screening methods that are practiced by prominent Islamic finance users, in terms of qualitative and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the syariah compliant screening methods that are practiced by prominent Islamic finance users, in terms of qualitative and quantitative screening.

Design/methodology/approach

This research uses comparative analysis to recognize the similarities and differences of methods among 15 users.

Findings

Analysis reveals that there is a need to set the universal standards, not only for the investors but also to discourage the misunderstanding between investors and scholars. After analysis of qualitative and quantitative screening, recommendations for both methods have been made for the shariah compliant board and users.

Originality/value

The paper is useful for Islamic finance users, as well from the academic point of view and is new and unique in its nature.

Details

Qualitative Research in Financial Markets, vol. 4 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4179

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 May 1989

Patricia A. Greenfield, Ronald J. Karren and Lawrence S. Zacharias

Every employer, unless he or she has no pool of applicants orpotential applicants to choose from, engages in hiring choices. Whilethe hiring process may vary, both from…

Abstract

Every employer, unless he or she has no pool of applicants or potential applicants to choose from, engages in hiring choices. While the hiring process may vary, both from one employer to another and from one job to another, some form of screening occurs. In recent years, students of management have noted the proliferation of screening practices in the hiring process, especially in bringing new technologies such as medical and drug testing procedures. Testing and other screening practices, while wide‐ranging both with respect to their ends and means, have raised consistent patterns of concern among job‐seekers, public policy makers and managers themselves. In this monograph a variety of methods of screening and issues of public policy raised by screening procedures are discussed. An overview of United States law regulating the screening process is provided, together with future directions in the area of screening in the US.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 11 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 15 June 2015

Catherine S F Ho

This paper aims to review the Shari’ah investment screening methodologies of 34 prominent global Islamic finance users, including index providers, Shari’ah service…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review the Shari’ah investment screening methodologies of 34 prominent global Islamic finance users, including index providers, Shari’ah service providers, Islamic banks, a regulator, an association body and fund managers.

Design/methodology/approach

A comparative analysis is performed to highlight the variances of the Shari’ah-compliant methods and principles practiced by these renowned institutions with the latest compiled data.

Findings

The two sets of business screens and financial screens are profiled separately to clearly examine the similarities and differences between the different methodologies. Some of these practitioners are more specific in their listing of Shari’ah-impermissible activities, while some are more general in allowing more businesses to be included as permissible. The majority of these users practice a two-tier method of screening: qualitative and quantitative. Under quantitative screen, the range of allowable threshold ratios on non-permissible criteria differs slightly between them.

Research limitations/implications

With the wide divergence in screening methodologies applied by practitioners, there is a general consensus in the acceptance of compliant assets from various countries and practice. Standardization is, therefore, seen as a need not only to make understanding of Shari’ah investments clear to investors but also to discourage misunderstandings between scholars and investors.

Practical implications

The suggestion, therefore, is to set globally acceptable universal Shari’ah standard methodologies which are applicable by the world Islamic financial market. These standards which are relevant and logical to global ethical investing would further stimulate investments in Islamic finance.

Social implications

With Shari’ah-compliant asset growing exponentially relative to the world’s financial assets, it is alleged that greater harmonization of the global screening methods would prevent misunderstanding and provide a clearer insight on Shari’ah investing, which could further accelerate growth of the Islamic finance sector worldwide.

Originality/value

To provide a more transparent regulatory environment and build local and regional regulatory framework through establishment of standards, there should be more consistency with minimum barriers that prevent the industry from achieving its full potential. The paper also contributes to existing literature by documenting and analyzing the qualitative and quantitative screening procedures as practiced by a comprehensive set of global Islamic finance users. It is, therefore, important to share this knowledge as an effort toward greater understanding and harmonization of the practices at the global level to accelerate growth in the industry.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 January 2005

K.J. Craig, Nielen Stander, D.A. Dooge and S. Varadappa

The purpose of this paper is to provide a methodology with which to perform variable screening and optimization in automotive crashworthiness design.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a methodology with which to perform variable screening and optimization in automotive crashworthiness design.

Design/methodology/approach

The screening method is based on response surface methodology in which linear response surfaces are used to create approximations to the design response. The response surfaces are used to estimate the sensitivities of the responses with respect to the design variables while the variance is used to estimate the confidence interval of the regression coefficients. The sampling is based on the D‐optimality criterion with over‐sampling to improve noise filtering and find the best estimate of the regression coefficients. The coefficients and their confidence intervals as determined using analysis of variance (ANOVA), are used to construct bar charts for the purpose of selecting the important variables.

Findings

A known analytical function is first used to illustrate the effectiveness of screening. Using the finite element method (FEM), a complex vehicle occupant impact problem and a full vehicle multidisciplinary problem featuring frontal impact and torsional modal analysis of the vehicle body are modeled and parameterized. Two optimizations are conducted for each FEM example, one with the full variable set and one with a screened subset. An iterative, successive linear approximation method is used to achieve convergence. It is shown that, although significantly different final designs may be obtained, an appropriately selected subset of variables is effective while significantly reducing computational cost.

Practical implications

The method illustrated provides a practical approach to the screening of variables in simulation‐based design optimization, especially in automotive crashworthiness applications with costly simulations. It is shown that the reduction of variables used in the optimization process significantly reduces the total cost of the optimization.

Originality/value

Although variable screening has been used in other disciplines, the use of response surfaces to determine the variable screening information is novel in the crashworthiness field.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 3 October 2008

Melanie Baier, Gernot Graefe and Ellen Roemer

Much research has been dedicated to the screening of new product ideas. Far less is known, however, about how to select the most promising new service ideas. Moreover, the…

Abstract

Purpose

Much research has been dedicated to the screening of new product ideas. Far less is known, however, about how to select the most promising new service ideas. Moreover, the specific characteristics of business services are rarely taken into account. This paper aims to investigate this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on an extensive literature review and on a case study in the business‐to‐business information technology industry, this paper therefore develops a screening method with which to assess and select new business service ideas.

Findings

The study surprisingly reveals that the customers' view is rarely included into the valuation of new service ideas in management practice, although customer involvement is largely claimed in the literature. The supposition is that customer involvement is seen as difficult and costly in practice.

Originality/value

The paper proposes an effective and manageable tool to assess new business service ideas that also allows for easy involvement of customers into the screening process.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 5 September 2016

Mario Montagna

The purpose of this paper is to show some techniques to perform line contingency screening efficiently.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to show some techniques to perform line contingency screening efficiently.

Design/methodology/approach

Computation efficiency and speed are mandatory requirements of contingency screening, especially when multiple outages need to be considered. The classical bounding principle, i.e. the idea that the effects of an outage are restricted to the area where the outage occurs, becomes increasingly difficult to apply to multiple contingencies. In the present work a comprehensive strategy, based on a systematic elimination of non-dangerous outages, is shown to be easily applicable to both single and double contingencies.

Findings

Tests show the efficiency of the proposed methods with reference to test systems and to an actual network with up to 800 buses.

Originality/value

The bounding approach is the basis of most efficient contingency screening methods based on the linear dc load flow model. In the present work the method is re-considered to improve computational efficiency. The symmetry of the dc Jacobian and the sparse inverse technique are suitably exploited in the evaluation of line outage distribution factors; this also allows a combination of single and double line contingency screening into a single procedure.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 35 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 15 June 2015

Joanne Crawford, Farah Ahmad, Dorcas E. Beaton and Arlene S. Bierman

The purpose of this paper is to gain an in-depth understanding of beliefs, attitudes, and reasons for decision making about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among South…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to gain an in-depth understanding of beliefs, attitudes, and reasons for decision making about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among South Asian (SA) immigrants.

Design/methodology/approach

Six focus groups conducted in English, Punjabi, and Urdu were held with 42 SA immigrants, 50-74 years old and at average risk for CRC, from November 2012 to May 2013. All focus group discussions were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Data analysis used an inductive and systematic approach employing constant comparison techniques.

Findings

Three dominant themes emerged. Beliefs and attitudes towards cancer and screening represented SA immigrant’s perceptions that early detection was beneficial; screening was not necessary in the absence of symptoms; cancer was scary; and the loss of previously established bowel practices upon immigration as potential risks for CRC. Knowledge and awareness focused on unscreened participants’ cancer stories; screened participants’ knowledge of CRC, risk factors, and screening; experiential learning from focus groups; and screened participants’ strategies to promote screening. Support and accessibility concentrated on physician support and responsibility to provide information, explanation, and recommend screening to facilitate access.

Originality/value

Findings provide novel insights on socio-cultural context, beliefs, and barriers to CRC screening among SA immigrants. Culturally appropriate community-based strategies included story-telling, the use of social networks, and greater physician engagement. Enhancing collaborative partnerships with physicians and public health may minimize structural barriers and reduce health disparities. Future research could explore effectiveness of outreach strategies including these collaborations.

Details

International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 8 May 2018

Umayal Kasi and Junaina Muhammad

This paper aims to compare and analyse the aspects of Shariah screening methodologies within the selected Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries as well as comparing the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to compare and analyse the aspects of Shariah screening methodologies within the selected Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries as well as comparing the methodologies with the USA, and to examine how Shariah screening methodologies affect financing and investing activities of a firm.

Design/methodology/approach

Shariah screening methodologies within the selected GCC countries and between the GCC countries and the USA are compared on the basis of the data collected from secondary sources.

Findings

Design, qualification and Shariah governance set the Shariah screening methodologies within the GCC countries apart. Feasibility, duration, economic viability and funds required differentiate these Shariah screening methodologies between the GCC countries and the USA. Shariah screening methodologies implied in the USA is more stringent than in the GCC countries.

Research limitations/implications

The suggestions in this study include using a longer research timeline, examining many more number of countries’ Shariah screening methodologies and exploring other types of Shariah screening methodologies.

Practical implications

The possibility of generalising the implementation of strict and uniform Shariah screening methodologies across all the country-specific Shariah indices amongst Muslim nations, globally, is likely to benefit all the Muslim countries, by strengthening the understanding, interaction and economic co-operation amongst these countries.

Social implications

People’s needs can be tended to if Maqasid Al-Shariah (objectives of Shariah) is achieved through flexibility, dynamism and creativity within the social policy.

Originality/value

Aspects of Shariah screening methodologies are compared and contrasted within the selected GCC countries as well as between the GCC countries and the United States and the role of Shariah screening methodologies is examined in order to determine the extent of what is Shariah-Compliant and what is Non-Shariah Compliant for a firm.

Details

Qualitative Research in Financial Markets, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4179

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 36000